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master of Peterhouse. In 1574, he was chosen the lady Margaret's professor at Cambridge, which he enjoyed for some years very quietly; but, on account of some opinions which he held, a party was at length formed against him in the university. At this time absolute predestination in the Calvinistical sense was held as the doctrine of the church of England. The chief advocates for it at Cambridge were Dr. Whitacre, regius professor of divinity, Dr. Humphry Tindal, and most of the senior members of the university. Dr. Baro had a more moderate notion of that doctrine : and this occasioned a contest between him and Mr. Laurence Chadderton, who attempted to confute him publicly in one of his sermons. However, after some papers had passed between them, the affair was dropped.

The next dispute he was engaged in, was of much longer continuance. Dr. Whitacre and Dr. Tindal were deputed by the heads of the university to archbishop Whitgift to complain that Pelagianism was gaining ground in the university; and, in order to stop the progress of it, they desired confirmation of some propositions they had brought along with them. These accordingly were established and approved by the archbishop, the bishop of London, the bishop elect of Bangor, and some other divines; and were afterwards known by the title of the Lambeth articles. They were immediately communicated to Dr. Baro; who, disregarding them, preached a sermon before the university, in which however he did not so much deny, as moderate those propositions: nevertheless his adversaries judging of it otherwise, the vice-chancellor consulted the same day with Dr. Clayton and Mr. Chadderton, what should be done. The next day he wrote a letter to the archbishop of Canterbury; who returned for answer, that they should call Baro before them, and require a copy of his sermon, or at least cause him to set down the principal heads thereof. Baro, finding what offence was taken at his sermon, wrote to the archbishop ; yet, according to his grace's directions, was cited before Dr. Goad, the vicechancellor in the consistory; when several articles were exhibited against him. At his last appearance the conclusion against him was, “ That whereas Baro had promised the vice-chancellor, upon his demand, a copy of his sermon, but his lawyers did advise him not to deliver the same; the vice-chancellor did now, by virtue of his authority, peremptorily commard him to deliver hiin the

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whole and entire sermon, as to the substance of it, in writing: which Baro promised he would do the next day, and did it accordingly. And lastly, he did peremptorily and by virtue of his authority command Baro, that he should wholly abstain from those controversies and articles, and leave them altogether untouched, as well in his lectures, sermons, and determinations, as in his disputations and other his exercises. The vice-chancellor, who had proceeded thus far without the knowledge of the lord Burleigh their chancellor, thought fit to acquaint him with their proceedings, and to desire his advice. The discountenance lord Burleigh gave to this affair, stopped all farther proreedings against Baro'; who continued in the university, but with much opposition and trouble : and though he had many friends and adherents in the university, he met with such uneasiness, that, for the sake of peace, he chose to retire to London, and fixed his abode in Crutched Friars; where he died about 1600, and was buried in the church of St. Olave, Hart-street. He left the following works: 1. “ In Jonam Prophetam Prælectiones xxxix.” 2. “Conciones tres ad Clerum Cantabrigiensem habitæ in templo B. Mariæ.” 3. “ Theses publicæ in Scholis peroratæ et disputatæ.” [These Theses, being only two, were translated into English by John Ludham, under these titles ; First,“ God's purpose and decree taketh not away the liberty of man's corrupt will." The second, “ Our conjunction with Christ is altogether spiritual,” London 1590, 8vo.] 4. “ Precationes quibus usus est author in suis prælectionibus inchoandis & finiendis." All these were published at London 1579, fol. by the care of Osmund Lake, B. D. fellow of King's college, Cambr. who corrected them before they went to the press. 5.“ De Fide ejusque ortu et natura plana et dilucida explicatio,” &c. Lond. 1580, 8vo. 6.“ De præstantia & dignitate divinæ Legis, lib. 2," 1586, 8vo. 7. “ Tractatus in quo docet expetitionem oblati a mente boni et fiduciam ad fidei justificantis naturam pertinere.” 8. Summa trium sententiarum de Prædestinatione, &c. Hardr. 1613, 8vo. printed with the notes of Joh. Piscator, disquisition of Franc. Junius, and prelection of Will. Whitacre. 9.

Special treatise of God's providence, and of comforts against all kind of crosses and calamities to be fetched from the same; with an exposition on Psalm cvii." 10.

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Four Sermons; the first on Psalm cxxxiij. 1, 2, 3; the second, on Psalm xv. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. 1560, 8vo."

BARO, or BARON (BONAVENTURE), whose true name was Fitz-Gerald, was descended from a branch of the FitzGeralds of Burnchurch in the county of Kilkenny, a family settled in Ireland soon after the English acquisitions in that country, which has produced several men of figure in the church. But he has been more remarkable in the learned world for his maternal genealogy, being the son of a sister of Luke Wadding, that eminent Franciscan friar, who, in the seventeenth century, demonstrated his great abilities and industry, by many voluminous treatises of genius and labour. His uncle Wadding took great care of his education in his youth, which he saw rewarded by an uncommon diligence; and when he was of a proper age procured his admission into the Franciscan order, and sent for him to Rome; where he lived under his own eye in the college of St. Isidore, a society of that order founded by himself in 1625, for the education of Irish students in the study of the liberal arts, divinity, and controversy, to serve as. a seminary, out of which the mission into England, Scote. land, and Ireland, might be supplied. Baron, after some time, grew into high reputation, and became especially remarkable for the purity of his Latin style, which procured him great reputation. He was for a considerable time lec'turer on divinity in the above-mentioned college, and in all resided at Rome about sixty years, where he died, very old, and deprived of sight, March 18, 1696, and was buried at St. Isidore's. His works are, 1. “ Orationes Panegyricæ Sacro-Prophanæ decem,” Romæ, 1643, 12mo. 2. “ Metra Miscellanea, sive Carminum diversorum libri duo; Epigrammatum unus; alter Silvulæ; quibus adduntur Elogia illustrium virorum," Romæ, 1645, 24to. 3. “Prolusiones Philosophicæ," Rome, 165), 12mo.

4. “ Harpocrates quinque Ludius ; seu Diatriba silentii,” Rome, -1651, 12mo. 5. “ Obsidio et Expugnatio Arcis Duncannon in Hibernia, sub Thomà Prestono.” 6. “ Boëtius Absolutus; sive de Consolatione Theologiæ, lib. iv.” Roma, 1653, 12mo. 7. “Controversiæ et Stratagemata," Lugduni, 1656, 8vo. 8 8. Scotus Defensus," Coloniæ, 1662, folio. 9. “ Cursus Philosophicus,” Coloniæ, 1664, folio.


1. Biog. Brit.-Wood's Fasti, vol. I.---Strype's Annals, vol. II. 388. III. 47, 48.--Strype's Whitgift, 448, 458, 461-477.

10. “ Epistolæ Familiares Paræneticæ,” &c. These are among his 11.“ Opuscula varia Herbipoli,” 1666, folio. 12. “ Theologia," Paris, 1676, 6 vols. 13. “ Johannes Duns Scotus, ordinis minorum, Doctor subtilis de Angelis contra adversantes defensus, nunc quoque Novitate amplificatus,” Florentiæ, 1678. 14. 66 Anndes Ordinis S. S. Trinitatis Redemptionis Captivorum, Fundatoribus. S. S. Johanne de Matha, et Felice de Valois,” in .. yols. folio. The first volume was printed at Rome in 1686, and begins with the year 1198, in which pope Innocent the Third gave habit to the founders, and is carried down to the year 1297, just one hundred years. In this volume we have an account of the foundations of their convents, their privileges, and benefactions, the eminent fathers of their order, their miracles and actions; as also, the number of slaves delivered by them from bondage."

BAROCCI (FRANCIS), a patrician or senator of Venice, distinguished for his knowledge in mathematics, flourished about the middle of the sixteenth century. Some of his translations, as well as original works, were published in his life-time, as 1. “ Heronis liber de machinis bellicis, necnon liber de Geodæsia, ex Græco Latine,” Venice, 1572, 4to. 2. “Procli in primum elementorum Euclidis libri quatuor,” translated into Latin, Padua, 1560, fol. He was only twenty-two years of age, when he published this work. 3. A commentary on Plato, " de numero geometrico," Boulogne, 1556; and 4. A system of Cosmography, Venice, 1585, 8yo. We have an account likewise of one of his writings, entitled “Cryptographia,” (or according to the Dict. Hist. “ Rytmomachia,”) describing an ancient game attributed to Pythagoras. This was translated by Augustus duke of Brunswick and Lunenburgh, under the name of Gustavus Selenus. On Barocci's death, his manuscripts were sold by his heirs, and came to the Bodleian library, as part of Langbaine's collection. ?

BAROCCIO (FREDERIC), an eminent Italian artist, was born at Urbino, in 1528, and was the disciple of Battista Venetiano, by whom he was carefully instructed in the principles of painting, but he derived his knowledge of perspective from his uncle Bartolomeo Genga. Under those preceptors he practised assiduously, till he was in his twentieth year; and then visited Rome, where, under the

de Biog. Brit.

2 Moreri. Dict. Hist.-Fabric, Bibl. Græc,


patronage of cardinal della Rovere, he pursued his studies incessantly, and proved one of the most graceful painters of his time. At his return to his native city Urbino, be painted several pictures which procured him great applause ; but that of a St. Margaret raised his reputation to the highest pitch, and induced pope Pius IV. to invite him to Rome, where he employed him in the decorations of his palace of Belvedere, in conjunction with Federigo Zucchero. He excelled equally in history and portrait, but his genius inclined him more particularly to the painting of religious subjects; and his works sufficiently evince, that the utmost of his ambition was to imitate Correggio in his colouring, and Raphael in his manner of designing, But Correggio has somewhat so natural, so grand, so unatfectedly graceful, that Baroccio was far inferior to him, although perhaps more correct in the outlines. Sir Joshua Reynolds, who thought him, upon the whole, onę of Correggio's most successful imitators, says, that sometimes in endeavouring at cleanness or brilliancy of tint, he overshot the mark, and falls under the criticism that was made ou an ancient painter, that his figures looked as if they fed upon

It is, however, singular to see colours of such variety coalesce so sweetly under his pencil, that perhaps no music reaches the ear with purer harmony, than his pic, tures the eye; an effect produced, in a great measure, by his attention to chiaroscuro, which he may be said to have introduced to the schools of Lower Italy, and which to ubtain be rarely painted any historical figure without having either modelled it in wax, or placed some of his disciples in such attitudes as he wished to represent. It is said that when young, he was attempted to be poisoned at a dinner given by some of his rival artists, and that although he escaped with his life, he continued long in an infirm state. He must, however, have completely recovered from this attack, as his life was prolonged to the advanced age of eighty-four. He died at Urbino in 1612. Baroccio was also an engraver from some of his own compositions, and his plates, although slight, and not well managed, with respect to the mechanical part of the workmanship, are nevertheless most admirable, on account of the expression, and excellent drawing, which is discovered in them. His heads are very beautiful and characteristic; and the other extremities of his figures finely marked. Amidst all the difficulties he appears to have met with, in biting his plates with

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