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continues to be, by the people themselves, ern States. But it is an evil which diminor, rather, by the friends of education, state ishes with the increase of population, and, after state is beginning to be induced by besides, much attention has of late been the efforts of these to make a legal provis- paid to the training of teachers. A very ion, to a certain extent at least, for the in- laudable effort is now making in Newstruction of all who may choose to avail England, and also in New-York, and some themselves of it, for in this they do not see other states, to attach a library of suitable that they violate any rights of conscience. books to each school. The plan is excel
The right of giving instruction is, in the lent, and promises much good. United States, universal. Even where Primary instruction in the United States there is an all-pervading system of public owes almost everything to Religion, as schools, any number of families may join the most efficient of all the principles that together, and employ any teacher for their prompts to its promotion. Not that the children whom they may prefer. Nor has Protestants of that country interest themthat teacher to procure any license or selves in the primary schools for the pur* brevet of instruction” before entering on pose of proselytizing children to their the duties of his office. His employers views, but rather that at these schools the are the sole judges of his capacity, and youth of the nation may be qualified for should he prove incapable or inefficient, receiving religious instruction effectually the remedy is in their own hands. The elsewhere, and for the due discharge of teachers employed by the state pass an their future duties as citizens. And, howexamination before a proper committee. ever much they may wish to see religious In all the states where there is a legal pro- instruction given at the common schools, vision for primary schools, there is a year- they will not for a moment give in to the ly report from each to a committee of the opinion that all is lost where this cannot township, from which, again, there is a re- be accomplished. Primary instruction, port to a county committee, and that, in its even when not accompanied with any return, sends a report to the Secretary or ligious instruction, is better than none; School Commissioner of the state.
and in such cases, they that love the GosIn most cases, a pious and judicious pel have other resources-in the pulpit, teacher, if he will only confine himself to the family altar, the Bible-class, and the the great doctrines and precepts of the Sabbath-school. Gospel, in which all who hold the fundamental truths of the Bible are agreed, can easily give as much religious instruction as he chooses. Where the teacher him
CHAPTER XII. self is not decidedly religious, much religious instructien cannot be expected ; nor should any but religious teachers attempt Bu'r if Primary Schools in the United to give anything more than general moral States owe much to religion, Grammarinstruction, and make the scholars read schools and Academies, which may be callportions of the Scriptures, and of other ed secondary institutions, owe still more. good books.
In 1647, only twenty-seven years after The Bible is very generally used as a the settlement of the Puritans in Newreading book in our primary schools, though England, we find the colony of Massachuin some places, as at St. Louis, the Roman setts Bay making a legal provision, not Catholics have succeeded in excluding it, only for primary, but for secondary schools and they have been striving to do the same also. “It being one chief project of Sain the city of New-York. In so far as re- tan,” says the statute, “ to keep men from lates to public schools, I see no other the knowledge of the Scriptures by discourse but that of leaving the question to suading from the use of tongues ; and to the people themselves; the majority deci- the end that learning may not be buried ding, and leaving the minority the alterna- in the graves of our forefathers in Church tive of supporting a school of their own. and commonwealth, the Lord assisting our This will generally be done by Protestants endeavours; therefore be it enacted, that rather than give up the Bible.
every township, after the Lord hath inIn most parts of the United States, it has creased them to the number of fifty housebeen found extremely difficult to procure holders, shall appoint one to teach all chilgood teachers, few men being willing to dren to write and read; and where any devote their lives to that occupation in a town shall increase to the number of 100 country so full of openings in more lucra- families, they shall set up a grammartive and inviting professions and employ- school, the masters thereof being able to ments. Hence very incompetent teach- instruct youth so far as they may be fitted ers-not a few from Ireland and other for the university.” Such was the origin parts of the British dominions--are all of the grammar-schools of New England, that can be found. This is particularly and now they are so numerous that not the case in the Middle, Southern, and West-I only has almost every county one, but
GRAMMAR-SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES.
many of the more populous and wealthy of his will, in case of an equal sum being possess several.
raised by the citizens of the place for the Not only so; all the other states have erection of a suitable building, the purchase incorporated academies and grammar- of apparatus, library, &c., then his legacy of schools in very considerable numbers. 10,000 dollars might be invested as a permaSome, by a single act, have made an ap- nent fund, the interest of which was to be propriation for the establishment of one applied to paying for the education of such such institution in every county within young men as he should designate. This their jurisdiction. Thus, in Pennsylvania, was done even beyond the extent required many years ago, 2000 dollars were granted by the testator. A large and commodious for the erection of a building for a gram- edifice was erected, containing rooms for mar-school, at the seat of justice for each the recitation of lessons, lectures, library, county, and a board of trustees, with pow. philosophical apparatus, &c. The school er to fill up vacancies as they might occur was opened on the 15th of May, 1833, and in their numbers, was appointed for each. the number of scholars for the first term These buildings are now occupied by mas- was 146; many of whom were pious youths, ters who teach the higher branches of an devoting themselves to study with a view English education, and, in most cases, also to the ministry. The institution still flourthe Latin and Greek languages, besides ishes under the instructions of excellent such instruction in the mathematics, and men ; and being situated in a secluded and other studies, as may qualify the pupils moral village in the midst of the Green for entering college. Like provisions have Mountains, where living is cheap, it is atbeen made by other states, and even the tended by choice youths, some thirty or newest of them in the West are continual- forty of whom are educated gratuitously. ly encouraging learning by passing such Such, again, is “ Philips' Academy," at acts. In no case, however, does a state Andover, in Massachusetts, about twenty endow such an institution. A grant is miles north of Boston. Founded in 1778, made at the outset for the edifice that may by the joint liberality of two brothers, the be required ; in most cases, this is all that Hon. Samuel Philips, of Andover, and the is done by the state, after which the insti- Hon. John Philips, of Exeter, New-Hamptution has to depend upon the fees paid by shire, it, two years afterward, received a the scholars for the support of the master charter of incorporation from the state. or masters employed. In some instances, The fund supplied by these two brothers as in the State of New York, the grammar- was afterward augmented by the bequest school has a yearly subsidy from the state ; of a third, the Hon. William Philips, of in which case, there is usually some con- Boston. dition attached to the grant, such as the This Academy, which is one of the best giving of gratis instruction to a certain endowed in the United States, has been number of poor lads, or of youths intend truly a blessing to the cause of Religion ing to become teachers of primary schools. and Learning. By the terms prescribed But in most, even of the cases in which by its pious founders, it is open to all youth they have been aided by the state, these of good character, but they have placed it institutions have not only been privately under the control of Protestants, and the commenced and carried to a certain point religious instruction given must be orthopreviously to such assistance, but owe dox in the true sense of the word. Inmuch more afterward to the spontaneous struction is required to be given in the support of their friends. Indeed, in all English, Latin, and Greek languages; in parts of the country, grammar-schools, and writing, arithmetic, and music; in the art some of these the very best, may be found of speaking ; also in practical geometry, which owe their existence purely to indi- logic; and any other of the liberal arts, vidual or associated efforts. Such is the sciences, or languages, as opportunity and “Burr Seminary,” in the town of Man- ability may from time to time admit, and chester, in the State of Vermont, which the trustees shall direct. As the educaoriginated in a legacy of 10,000 dollars, left tion of suitable young men for the minisby a gentleman of the name of Joseph try was a leading consideration with the Burr,* for the education of poor and pious founders, so has the institution been, in this young men for the ministry. By the terms respect, abundantly blessed. Many such
* Mr. Burr had been for many years a resident at youths have here pursued their preparatoManchester, in Vermont. By patient industry and ry studies; and in 1808, availing themupright dealings, he acquired a fortune estimated at selves of a provision contained in the plan 150,000 dollars at the time of his death. A large marked out by the founders, the trustees part of this sum he bequeathed to the American Bi. ble Society, American Board of Commissioners for ingrafted on the institution, or, rather, esForeign Missions, American Home Missionary Soci- tablished in the same village, and under the ety, and American Education Society, besides en- same direction, a Theological Seminary, dowing a professorship in one college, and contribu- which has become one of the most distinting largely to the same object in another. And in addition to all this, by the above bequest of 10,000 guished of the kind in the United States, and dollars he founded the Seminary that bears his name. I will call for more ample notice hereafter.
A large proportion of the grammar
CHAPTER XIII. schools and academies in the United
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. States, whether incorporated or not, are under the direction and instruction of min- In the census of the United States for isters of the Gospel of different evangeli- 1840, the number of universities and colcal denominations. These ministers, in leges is put down at 173, and that of stusome cases, devote their whole time to the dents at 16,233. This, however, includes work of academical instruction ; in other not only the Theological, Medical, and Law cases, they have also the charge of a schools, but several other institutions imchurch or congregation, and as they have properly called colleges. A more accuto perform the double duties of pastor and rate list makes the colleges amount to head of a grammar-school, they have usu- 103, and the students to 9607. But even ally an assistant teacher in the latter. The this estimate includes several institutions, teachers in these academies are often pi- which, though incorporated as colleges, are ous young, men, of small pecuniary re- scarcely so far organized as to be entitled sources, who, after completing their stud- to the name. In some cases, too, the stuies at college, betake themselves to this dents in the preparatory departments are employment for a few years, in order to reckoned along with the under-graduates, find the means of supporting themselves properly so called, that is, the students in while attending a theological school. But the four regular classes of seniors, juniors, whether ministers of the Gospel, or grad sophomores, and freshmen, into which the uates fresh from college, such teachers students of our colleges are divided. generally communicate instruction of a de- It would be absurd to compare the col. cidedly religious character. The Scrip- leges of America with the great universitures are daily read; the school is usually ties of Europe. The course of studies is opened and closed with prayer; and in widely different. For while sufficiently many cases, a Bible-class, comprising all comprehensive in almost all the colleges the pupils, meets on the Sabbath after that deserve that name, it is not to be comnoon, or morning, for the study of the Sa- pared, in general, as respects depth and excred Volume. Thus, by the favour of God tent of investigation in particular branchresting on these institutions, and making es, with that of the older universities of them effectual to the converting of many Europe. But, upon the whole, the educaof the youths that attend them, they prove tion to be had at one of our colleges betblessings to the Church of Christ, as well ter capacitates a man for the work that is as to the State.
likely to await him in America than would I may add, that within the last ten or that which the universities of Europe could twenty years, a great many excellent in- give him, if one may be allowed to judge stitutions for the education of young ladies from experience. have sprung up in different parts of the In almost all instances, the colleges in United States, through associated or indi- the United States have been founded by vidual efforts. The course of instruction religious men. The common course in esat these is excellent and extensive, embra- tablishing them is as follows: A company cing all branches of valuable knowledge is organized, a subscription list opened, proper for the sex. Upon many of these, and certain men of influence in the neighalso, God has caused his blessing to de- bourhood consent to act as trustees. A scend, and has brought not a few of the charter is then asked from the Legislature young persons attending them to the of the state within which the projected inknowledge of Himself. They are gener-stitution is to be placed, and a grant in ally conducted by ladies; but the teachers aid of the funds at the same time solicited. in some cases are gentlemen, clergymen The charter is obtained, and with it a especially, assisted by pious ladies. In no few thousand dollars, perhaps, by way of other country, probably, has the higher ed assistance. What else is required for the ucation of females made greater progress purchase of a site, erecting buildings, prothan in the United States during the last viding a library, apparatus, &c., &c., must
The Christian community be made up by those interested in the projthere begins to feel that mothers have, in ect. Thus have vast sums been raised, a great measure, the formation of the na- particularly during the last twenty years, tional character in their hands.
for founding colleges in all parts of the According to the census of 1840, the country, especially in the West. A great Grammar-schools and Academies for both portion of these sums have been subscribed sexes in the United States amounted to by persons in the neighbourhood, and more 3242, attended by 164,159 pupils.
directly interested in the success of the undertakings subscribed for; but in many cases, money to a large amount has been obtained from the churches along the Atlantic coast.
Sixty-two of the 103 colleges in the
United States have been opened within the ruined the institutions on which they have last twenty-five years. Many of these are, laid their unhallowed hands. A college or of course, in their infancy, and not very university is no place for party politics, well organized. Without reckoning grants and so well is this understood, that the made by the states, it would be difficult Legislatures of the several states hesitate to find one that has not cost its founders not to grant a college charter to a body of above 10,000 dollars, and many have cost respectable citizens, and to appoint at once them twice that sum. Several* have cost the persons recommended as trustees or even 50,000 dollars, if not more, while, at the directors, with power to fill up the vacansame time, several of the older colleges, cies that may occur ; after which, these such as Yale, New Jersey, Rutgers, Will-office-bearers, having sworn to do nothing iams, Hamilton, &c., have raised large in that capacity contrary to the laws and sums by voluntary effort among their re- Constitution of the country, are empow. spective friends, for the purpose of aug- ered to manage and govern the proposed menting the advantages they offer to the college according to their own best judgstudents that attend them. Upon the whole, ment, and the regulations they may lay I consider that it were not too much to down to that effect. While acting within say, that from 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 dollars the limits prescribed by the charter and have been raised by voluntary subscrip- their oath, that charter must remain inviotions and donations for the erection and en- late. So it has been determined by the dowment of colleges, since the year 1816. Supreme Court of the United States.
I have said that the state gives some I have said that almost every college exaid to many such enterprises. But, except- isting in the country may be traced to reing the Universities of Virginia, Alabama, ligious motives, and how true this is, will Michigan, and those of Ohio and Miami, appear from the fact, that of the 103 colboth in the State of Ohio, and Jefferson leges now in operation, twelve are under College in Mississippi, and Jefferson Col- the influence of the Protestant Episcopal dege in Louisiana, I am not aware of any Church, eleven under that of the Methoin the country that can be said to have been dists, twelve under that of the Baptists, wholly endowed by the government of any forty-two under that of the Presbyterians state. The Universities of North Caroli- and Congregationalists; one is Lutheran, na and Georgia, and Columbia College in one German Reformed, two Dutch ReSouth Carolina, may possibly be so far aid-formed, two Cumberland Presbyterian ; ed by the states in which they are respect- eleven are Roman Catholic, one Univerively situated, as to have something like salist, one Unitarian, and the religious an endowment, but the aid so rendered, I character of seven of them I do not know. apprehend, is far from sufficient. So, also, In this calculation I place each institution Congress has aided from time to time under the church to which its president Columbian College,” situated near Wash belongs. This rule is the best that I know, ington City, and within the District of Co- and although it does not hold in every case, lumbia,t but the aid so received has never the exceptions are few; and, without any been at all adequate to the purposes for exception, it indicates the general faith by which it was required.
which the institution is influenced. There are not above six or seven col- Thus we see that of these 103 universileges or universities in the United States ties and colleges, eighty-three are under deover which the civil or political govern- cided evangelical and orthodox influence. ments can exercise any direct control. It Their presidents, and, I may add, many of is well that it is so. A State Legislature, or their professors, are known to be religious Congress itself, would be found very unfit men, and sound in the faith ; all of the forto direct the affairs of a college or univer- mer, with three or four exceptions, are sity. Wherever, in fact, they have re- ministers of the Gospel, and many of them served such power to themselves in the men of great eminence in the Church. charters they have granted, they have The seven colleges whose religious charsooner or later nearly, if not altogether, acter I do not know, are probably under * For instance, Pennsylvania College, at Gettys- have reason to believe, are Protestant.
evangelical influence; all of the seven, I burg, Pennsylvania ; Centre College, at Danville, Kentucky; Illinois College, at Jacksonville, Illinois ; I need not say how much cause for gratiWestern Reserve College, Ohio ; to say nothing of tude to God we have, that so many young some of the Roman Catholic colleges, which have men of the first families, and possessing not cost much less, from first to last, than 50,000 fine talents, should be educated in colleges dollars ; Amherst College, in Massachusetts, has cost that are under the influence of evangelical more than that sum, probably; while the Universiity of New-York has cost three or four times that principles. In many of them the Bible is amount.
studied by the students every Sabbath, un# This college comes properly within the sphere der the guidance of their teachers. In all of the legislation of Congress, and is the only one they receive a great deal of religious inthat does so. All the others come under the jurisdiction of the several states within whose territories struction, and are daily assembled for they-stand.
prayers. God has often visited some pf
UNION AND OTHER SUNDAY SCHOOL SOCI-
them with the outpourings of his Spirit. pence, or a peck of corn, while larger gifts Not that this religious instruction is intend were made by the magistrates and wealthed to proselytize from one Protestant and ier citizens. It was for a long time the. evangelical church to another. In that re- only college in New-England, and in its spect, a Presbyterian father might with all halls the great men of the country were safety commit his son to an Episcopalian, educated. For a century and a half it was Methodist, or Lutheran college. Here I a precious fountain of living waters for the speak from facts that I myself have known. Church of God. But, alas! for the last Several of the most distinguished dignita- half century, or nearly so, it has been in ries of the Episcopal Church were educa- | the hands of men who hold“ another gosted at Princeton College, New Jersey, a pel” than that held by its pious founders. Presbyterian institution, and founded by The second college founded in the UniPresbyterians. Some of them received ted States was that of William and Mary, their first religious convictions there, and at Williamsburg, in Virginia, in 1693. The yet, I believe, they can testify that no office- third was Yale College above mentioned, bearer of that college ever attempted to founded in 1700. The fourth was Princebring them over to the Presbyterian ton College, New Jersey, founded in 1746. Church. Any advice of that kind, on the The University of Pennsylvania dates from contrary, would have been that they should 1755 ; Columbia College, in New York, join the church in which they were born, from 1754 ; Brown University, from 1764; that is, the Episcopal.*
Rutgers and Dartmouth Colleges, from As none of the universities but that of | 1770. These were all that were founded Harvard, situated in the town of Cam- previously to the Revolution. bridge, not far from Boston, have all the four faculties of literature, law, medicine, and theology, with that exception they
CHAPTER XIV. ought rather to be called colleges. The theology at Harvard is Unitarian. Several of the other universities have faculties of medicine attached to them. On the other
One of the most efficient, as well as the hand, Yale College, at New-Haven, in Connecticut, ought rather to be called a uni: simplest instruments of doing good, is the versity, for it has all the four faculties, and of which is too well known to require any
Sunday-school; an institution, the history is attended by far more students than go detail in this work. Mr. Robert Raikes, to Harvard. I may add, that Harvard University was close of the last century, established the
of Gloucester, in England, towards the the first literary institution established in first that was ever conducted upon anythe United States. It was founded in 1638, thing like the plan now generally pursued, eight years after Massachusetts Bay, and and the excellence of which has been proeighteen after Plymouth was first colo- ved by long experience. nized ; so that there were not many more than 5000 settlers at the time in all New schools into the United States was made
The first attempt to introduce SundayEngland. Hardly had the forests been cleared away for the streets of
their settle by the Methodists in 1790, but from some
cause or other it failed. A society was ments, when they began to project a col
soon after formed at Philadelphia, with lege or university. And yet these were the late Bishop White at its head, and a. the Puritans now so much vilified and slan- few schools were established for the bendered! Great were the efforts made by efit of the poor, taught by persons who rethose exiles to attain their object. The ceived a certain compensation for their General Court granted for the erection of trouble. Early in the present century, a proper edifice a sum equal to a year's schools began to be established in varirate of the whole colony. John Harvard, ous places under voluntary and gratuitous who had come to the New World only to teachers, and gradually becoming better die, bequeathed to the college half his es- known and appreciated, the number was tate, and all his library. Plymouth and Con- found very considerable in 1816. Associnecticut often sent their little offerings, as ations for promoting them more extensivedid the eastern towns within the bounda- ly began then to be formed in Philadelphia, ries of the present State of Maine. The New York, and other cities, and the publirent of a ferry was made over to it. All cation of spelling and hymn books, scripthe families in the Puritan settlements each tural catechisms, &c., for the children was gave once a donation of at least twelve
commenced. Some persons also did much * The Rev. Dr. M'Ilvaine, the distinguished Bish- to advance this good work by their indiop of Ohio, and the no less excellent, though per-vidual efforts.f haps less known assistant Bishop of Virginia, the Rev. Dr. Johns, were both educated and converted at + A voluminous and interesting history of this Princeton College. The late Bishop Hobart, of New- university, by its present president, Josiah Quincy, York, was educated in that institution, and was for LL.D., has lately been published. some time a tutor there.
† Among whom may be mentioned the late Divie