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There are instances of students being dis- tained a great and well-merited celebrity missed for irregularity of conduct. by the distinguished talents of its profes

The total sums that have been given for sors, as well as the excellent course of its the erection of the seminary buildings, the studies. It has for several years had an endowing of professorships, the support of annual attendance of from 125 to 140 stuindigent students, the library, &c., cannot dents, and has educated, in all, above 1200. be precisely ascertained, but they proba- The missionary spirit has prevailed in it bly exceed 400,000 dollars. Mr. Bartlett, to à gratifying degree, almost from its the most munificent of the donors, is sup- first establishment, and a large number of posed to have given 100,000 dollars, be- its alumni have gone to carry the Gospel to sides a legacy of 50,000, dollars. He is heathen lands. There is a flourishing “Socisaid never to have told any one how much ety of Inquiry on Missions," with a valuable some of the buildings that were erected at collection of books relating to that subject. his instance cost him.

Mr. Abbot gave The Princeton course comprises for the about 120,000 dollars. Mr. Brown and Mr. first year, Hebrew, the Exegesis of the Norris also gave large sums. No general Original Language of the New Testament, solicitation has ever been made in behalf Sacred Geography, Sacred Chronology, of the institution, though it has received Jewish Antiquities, and the Connexion of from individuals many benefactions of from Sacred and Profane History; for the sec500 to 5000 dollars.

ond year, Biblical Criticism, Church HisConnected with the seminary is a print- tory, and Didactic Theology; for the third ing establishment, known as the Codman year, Polemic Theology, Church History, press, from its having a fount of Oriental Church Government, Pastoral Theology, types presented to it by the Rev. Dr. Cod- the Composition and Delivery of Sermons. man, of Dorchester.

Instruction is given both by lectures and Few institutions have ever been more text-books, and the entire course requires blessed than the Andover Theological Sem- the study of many authors. The students inary. It has been intimately associated must read essays of their own composition with the origin and progress of foreign at least once every four weeks, and are exmissions, and had much influence in origi- pected, also, to deliver short addresses benating the Bible, Colonization, Tract, and fore the professors and their fellow-stu

Temperance Societies, through the exer- dents at least once in the month. One tions of the lamented Mills* and his coad- evening in the week is devoted to the jutors, who were students at it. I have discussion of important theological quesspoken of it more in detail, not only be- tions. Every Sabbath forenoon a sermon cause of its being the oldest, the most is delivered in the chapel by one of the richly endowed, and the most frequented professors. In the afternoon, the students of our theological schools, but also be assemble for a “conference” on some subcause it has been, in some sense, a model ject in casuistical divinity, their professors for the rest.

presiding and closing the discussion with The General Assembly of the Presbyte- their remarks, and the services commenrian Church established a theological sem-cing and concluding with singing and prayinary at Princeton, in New Jersey, in 1812, er. Questions such as the following are being the second of the kind in the United discussed: What constitutes a call to the States. Although far from being richly ministry and the evidences of it? What endowed like that of Andover, and has is proper preparation for the Lord's Supoften been greatly embarrassed for want per? What is repentance? What is faith? of adequate pecuniary support, it has at- What is true preparation for death?

These, and a hundred such subjects, are * The Rev. Samuel J. Mills, a very zealous and seriously and faithfully discussed, and none able young man, who took a leading part in the form of the other exercises, probably, is so ination of several of the great benevolent societies of America, and died on the coast of Africa when look- structive or so important to the students. ing for a place where a colony of negroes might be It is there that the deep knowledge in spirfounded.

itual things of their venerated and excelThe Andover Faculty consists of the Rev. Drs. lent professors most fully manifests itself. Woods and Emerson, and the Rev. Messrs. Stuart, God has greatly blessed these heart-searchB. B. Edwards, and Park, professors.

Professor Stuart is well known for his Commenta- ing services to the students, and much is it ries on the Epistles to the Romans and Hebrews, as to be wished that such exercises, and such well

as for his Hebrew grammar and other writings. fidelity on the part of the professors who Dr. Woods has published some valuable small works conduct them, were to be found in every on baptism, inspiration of the Scriptures, &c. Dr. Emerson has not yet published much. 'Mr. B.

B. theological seminary and theological deEdwards has written much and ably for periodical partment of a university in the world. publications, and is the author, besides, of several It is matter for devout thanksgiving that valuable works relating to missions ; among these is the venerable professors* appointed to the a missionary gazetteer. He published the life of Dr. Princeton Seminary in its earliest years, Cornelius; and in 1839 took a joint part with Professor Park in giving to the world an interesting vol. * The Rev. Drs. Alexander and Miller, both of ume of translated selections from German authors. whom have earned an extensive reputation by their

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are still spared to labour for its good. I ment upward of thirty, under four profesBoth they and their younger colleagues sors, who give instructions in the other derank high among the American divines, partment also. and have great weight in the Church to A Lutheran theological seminary was which they belong.

established in 1826 at Gettysburg, in PennThe General Convention of the Protest- sylvania, very much through the exertions ant Episcopal Church opened a theological of the Rev: S. S. Schmucker, D.D., who is institution at New-York in 1817, which, its professor of theology. It has three though removed next year to New-Haven, professors, with from thirty to forty stuwas soon after re-established at New-York. dents in all, and has proved a rich blessing It originated in the efforts of the late John to the Lutheran Church. Dr. Schmucker Henry Hobart, long bishop of the diocess is well known in the churches of the Uạited of New York, and has five professors, who States by his various writings, and his are eminent and influential men, both in praiseworthy endeavours to bring about a their own church and in the community at union of feeling and action among the sevlarge. Its prosperity has been almost unin- eral branches of the Protestant denominaterrupted. The number of students is usu- tions. ally about seventy-five or eighty. In 1822, The Reformed Dutch Church has an able the diocesses of Virginia and Maryland es- theological faculty in its seminary at Newtablished another Episcopal seminary in Brunswick, in the State of New-Jersey, Fairfax county, Virginia, a few miles from The foundation dates from 1784, but it was the city of Alexandria, in the District of for a long time unoccupied. It now has Columbia. This seminary has four valuable three professors and about forty students. professors, and from forty to fifty students. Such are the utmost details that the limIt has been a great blessing to the Episco- its of this work will perinit. Let me simpal Church and to the country:

ply add, that, since the opening of the Rev. A Baptist theological seminary, estab- Dr. Mason's theological school, about the lished at Newton, a town about six miles beginning of the century, these institutions from Boston, in 1825, has been a source have amazingly increased. Most of them, of much good, and has sent forth a consid- like those at Andover and Princeton, are erable number of excellent preachers. It quite distinct from any college or univerhas three able professors, and usually from sity; some, under the title of Theological thirty to forty students. The Baptists Departments, are connected with literary also established a Literary and Theologi- institutions, but have their own professors, cal Institute at Hamilton, in the State of and, in reality, are very distinct. The folNew-York, in 1820. It has above 150 stu- lowing table, presenting a summary of the dents in all, and in the theological depart- whole, will probably be found interesting.


Name and locality of the institution.

State in which it is


when known.

D D founded,

when known.
Number of

Number of
A Wower Professors.




(1. Andover

Massachusetts. 1808 5 153 2. Bangor


1820 3 44 Congrega- 3. Gilmanton

New-Hampshire. 1835 3 26 tionalists. 4. Theological Department

Yale College

Connecticut. 1822 4 72 5. Theological Institute of Connecticut, at East Windsor Connecticut. 1833 3 29 (6. Theological Department of the Oberlin Institute Ohio.

54 1. Theological Seminary at Princeton

New-Jersey. 1812 4 110 Old School 2. Western Theological Seminary at Alleghany town,

Pennsylvania. 1828 29 Presbyteri

near Pittsburgh
3. Union Theological Seminary :


1821 20 4. Southern Theological Seminary at Columbia

South Carolina. 1832 3 18 5. Indiana Theological Seminary at New-Albany Indiana.

1829 2 10 (1. New-York Theological Seminary, in New-York city New-York. 1836 3 90 New School 2. Theological Seminary at Auburn

New-York. 1821 69 Presbyteri- 3. Theological Department of Western Reserve College Ohio.

14 4. Lane Seminary at Cincinnati


1832 331 (5. Southwestern Theological Seminary at Maryville : Tennessee.

2 Episcopali1. General Theological Seminary of the Protestant

1817 New-York.

74 Episcopal Church, New-York 2. Theological Seminary, Fairfax county










public lectures as well as by their writings. The *. I give the number of students for 1840, from the younger professors are the Rev. Dr. Hodge and the American Quarterly Register for that year. The list Rev. J. A. Alexander, the former well known in Eu- is understated, the number being that at a given rope for his excellent work on the Epistle to the Ro- epoch in the year, not that of all who attended during mans, and the latter author of many articles in the the course of it. For instance, were the number of Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review, an able students in the Princeton Seminary taken in the quarterly publication which has been conducted for winter of 1839-40, it might have been 120, yet by twenty years by the professors of the seminary, and adding the students who joined in the summer sesof the College of New Jersey, both situated in the sion, the number for the academic year might have village of Princeton.

been 130.

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1837 2

23 33




67 30 10 8

15 26 10 10' 20



11 19

Episcopali- , 3. Theological Seminary of the Diocess of Ohio, at {3:

} Ohio. Gambia

1828 3 1. Thomaston Theological Institute

2. Theological Institution at Newton .

Massachusetts. 1825 3
3. Hamilton Literary and Theological Institute, at

Baptists. 4. Virginia Baptist Seminary at Richmond


1832 3 5. Furman Theological Seminary at High Hills

South Carolina. 1838 2 6. Literary and Theological Seminary at Eaton


1834 2 7. Theological Department in Granville College


1832 2 .8. Alton Theological Seminary

Illinois. Ref. Dutch. Theological Seminary, New-Brunswick


3 36 (1. Hartwick Seminary


2 2. Theological Seminary at Gettysburg Lutherans.

Pennsylvania. 1826 3 3. Theological Seminary at Lexington

South Carolina. 1835 2 4. Theological Seminary at Columbus

Ohio. German Ref. Theological Seminary at Mercersberg

Pennsylvania. 1825 2 Assoc. Chur. Theological Department in Jefferson College


2 Assoc. Ref. 1. Theological Seminary at Newburgh

New-York. 1836 Church. 2. Theological Seminary at Alleghany-town

Pennsylvania. 1828 1 The Reformed Presbyterians (Covenant- siastical institutions, and 180 clerical stuers) have a theological school at Allegha- dents. At present there are 261. ny-town, and the Moravians have one at I shall conclude by stating that the enNazareth, in Pennsylvania : the former has tire number of theological schools and factwo professors and 14 or 15 students, the ulties belonging to the orthodox Protestant latter one professor and 5 or 6 students. Churches is thirty-eight,* with about 105

The reader will remark that the number professors, and nearly, if not quite, 1800 of students in the theological seminaries students at the present time. The greatcontained in the preceding table is that for er number of these institutions are in their the year 1810, which is the latest complete infancy. Where they are connected with statement I have seen. It must not be colleges, the theological professor generconsidered as a present census of these ally gives lectures in the literary departinstitutions. With the exception of the ment also, on moral philosophy, metaSeminary at Andover, and, perhaps, two or physics, logic, &c. Many of the profesthree others, the number of students at sors in the new and smaller seminaries present (the commencement of 1844) is are pastors of churches in the neighbourmuch greater than it was in 1840. In some hood, and all that are not preach much in seminaries it is almost twice as great as it vacant churches, or on extraordinary ocwas then. The whole number of students casions, such as before benevolent or litin these seminaries may fairly be put down erary societies and bodies, ecclesiastical as greater by one fourth part at esent assemblies, &c. Many of them, too, are than it was when the above-given list was expected to employ their leisure moments made.

in giving instruction through the press. The above enumeration comprises the Though the number of professors seems orthodox evangelical denominations of large when compared with that of the stuProtestants only. The Unitarians have a dents, I can assure the reader that few theological department at Harvard Univer- men have more to do, or, in point of fact, sity, which had two professors and twen- do more for the cause of Christ. There ty-seven students in 1840.

are to be found among them many of the The Roman Catholic theological semi- first ministers of the churches to which naries, according to the Catholic Almanac, they respectively belong. If not quite stood as follows in 1840 :

equal in point of science to some of the That at Philadelphia had

22 students. great professors in the Old World, they

are all, God be praised, believed to be conEmmetsburg

verted, and are devoted, faithful men. Charleston, South Carolina.....

Their grand object is to train up a pious as Parish of Assumption in Louisiana...

well as a learned ministry. I am not aware Burdstown and St. Rose, in Kentucky

that there is one of them that does not open every meeting of his class with earnest prayer, in which he is joined by his

pupils—a striking contrast to what one In all, twelve institutions and 114 students. But this list was probably incom- Connecticut

, theological lectures are given to a class

* At the Wesleyan University at Middletown, plete, as we learn from the same authority in divinity, and possibly this is done also in 'some of that in 1842 there were twenty-one eccle- the other Methodist colleges.



.... 20



St. Louis

9 12


sees, alas! at too many of the theological | other seaports, to supply foreign emigrants lectures in the universities of Europe. as they arrive on our shores.

It is a remarkable fact that what has been done by Bible societies seems not to

have interfered with the business of the CHAPTER XIX.

booksellers ; for these sell more copies of the Holy Scriptures than they did before the Bible societies existed. The more the Bi

ble is known, the more it is appreciated; in Much has been done in the United States many a family the entrance of a single copy to place the Sacred Scriptures in the begets a desire to possess several ; besides hands of all who can read them, and in which, the Bible Society distributions greatthis endeavour there is a delightful co-op- ly augment the demand for Biblical comeration of good men, of every name. Even mentaries and expositions, and thus augstatesmen, though they may not be deci- ment the trade of the booksellers, who pubdedly religious, or, by outward profession, lish and put into circulation immense edimembers of any church, lend their aid in tions of such works. There is a great dethis endeavour; and it is not uncommon mand for the Scriptures, also, both in weekto hear men of the first rank in the political day and Sabbath-schools, and great numcircles, some occupying high places in the bers of these are furnished by the book-trade. council of the nation, advocate at Bible Nor does the American Bible Society Society anniversaries the claims of the confine its efforts to the United States. It Word of God. The impression prevails has for many years associated itself with among our statesmen that the Bible is em- those societies which, by prosecuting the phatically the foundation of our hopes as same work in foreign lands, are labouring a people. Nothing but the Bible can make to hasten the coming of that day when men the willing subjects of law; they must" the knowledge of the Lord shall fill the first acquiesce with submission in the gov- earth." The receipts of the society for ernment of God, before they can yield a the last year amounted to 126,348 dollars, willing obedience to the requirements of of which 15,516 were appropriated to the human governments, however just these work abroad. may be. It is the rel ion of the Bible only The society has published the New Testhat can render the population of any coun- tament and some parts of the Old in" raised try honest, industrious, peaceable, quiet, characters,” for the use of the blind, and contented, happy.

is now engaged in printing the remainder It is twenty-six years since the Ameri- for that unfortunate class of the population. can Bible Society was instituted, and it In the year 1837, a Bible society was now has branches in all parts of the coun- formed among the members of the Baptry. It has sent out, in all, 3,269,678 cop-tist churches, entitled the “American and ies of the Bible, or of the New Testament, Foreign Bible Society.” It was formed from its depository.* Last year alone with special reference to the circulation 216,605 copies went forth to bless the na- of translations in the course of being made tion. In the years 1829 and 1830, great by that body of Christians. Some, at least, and systematic efforts were made to place of these translations the American Bible a Bible in every family that was without Society thought it could not, consistently one throughout the whole land. Much with its constitution, aid in publishing, bewas accomplished, yet so rapid is the in-cause the original words baptize and bapcrease of the population, that these efforts tism have been translated into words must be repeated from year to year; and equivalent to immerse and immersion. Howthe work can only be done by dividing the ever much it may be regretted that these country into small districts, and engaging words, about the meaning of which there active and zealous persons to visit every has been so much philological disputation, house from time to time, ascertain what are not permitted to remain untranslated, families are destitute of the Scriptures, so that all denominations might be put and supply them by selling or giving away upon the same footing, and be enabled to copies, according to circumstances. Great continue united in the work of Bible circuefforts are also made at New-York, and lation, the issue will, it is likely, prove that

in this, as in many similar cases, God is * As some Bible societies are not auxiliary to the about to make an apparent obstacle mightAmerican Bible Society.--such was until lately the ily subserve the advancement of his kingPhiladelphia Bible Society, and such is at present dom. The new society has taken up the the American and Foreign Bible Society--we must not suppose that the number of copies of the Scrip. work of foreign publication with great tures mentioned as having left the depository of the zeal, and doubtless it will serve to develAmerican Bible Society includes the whole which op the energies of the large and powerful have been circulated by societies in the United States; body of Christians who sustain it, to an Besides, the American Sunday-school Union, and the Methodist Book Concern, for a time published extent to which they never would have the Bible.

gone but for its formation. · The receipts

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last year, being the sixth of its existence, gelical Family Library, of fifteen volumes were 20,691 dollars; the expenditure 21,068 each, and of the Christian Library, of fordollars. Meanwhile, the resources of the ty-five volumes each. Many thousands of American Bible Society have increased in- separate volumès, also, of these sets were stead of having diminished.

sold, and 77,000 copies of the Christian Almanac for the United States. From 100,000 to 150,000 of some of the smaller tracts

were distributed ; and the total sent into CHAPTER XX.

circulation during eighteen years has been

1,300,896,847 pages, or about 80,806,460 of ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION AND CIR

tracts and volumes. The receipts for the CULATION OF RELIGIOUS TRACTS AND BOOKS.

year 1843 amounted to 42,433 dollars from No branch of religious enterprise has donations, and 49,904 from sales ; in all, been more vigorously prosecuted in the 96,240 dollars. Fifteen thousand dollars United States than that of preparing, pub- were sent to foreign countries in aid of the lishing, and circulating moral and religious tract cause abroad. writings in various forms. The wide dif- The Society is assisted by auxiliary asfusion of education, at least among the sociations in all parts of the United States, white part of the population, makes it ob- both in the collection of sunds, and in disvious that powerful advantage may be ta- seminating its publications. Some of these ken of the press in promoting the truth. local societies, such as those at New-York,

Associations of various kinds are enga- Boston, and Philadelphia, are large and efged in this good work. We have seen that ficient. the Sunday-school societies are doing The Society is zealously prosecuting much for supplying the youth of the coun- two grand measures, into which I shall try with moral and religious reading; we enter the more fully, inasmuch as they have now to speak of other societies which are of the utmost importance to the reliaim at benefiting adults, not, however, to gious well-being of the country, and also the exclusion of the young:

more or less practicable in other lands. First among these associations may be The first of these is the publication of volranked the American Tract Society, which, umes of approved excellence, such as Bunlike most others of a general and national yan's Pilgrim's Progress, and Doddridge's character, has its seat in the city of New-Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul,

York. It was instituted in 1825, and hence and their distribution throughout the counhas been eighteen years in existence. It try. It proposes to place not only one is founded on the broad principle of uniting volume at least, as was resolved some in its support Christians of all evangelical years ago, but even a whole copy of its denominations of Protestants, so far as Evangelical Family Library, of fifteen volthey may be disposed to co-operate in its umes, or its Christian Library, of fortyobjects; its Committee of Publication is five volumes, in as many households as composed of ministers of the Gospel of the are willing to buy them; and in seeking different orthodox communions; and its to accomplish this end, it employs able publications themselves convey those great men, ministers of the Gospel and laymen, truths and doctrines in which all of these as agents. These visit towns and cities, communions can agree.

preach in the churches, raise funds to supThe operations of no society in Ameri- ply the poor with books, organize commitca seem to have been prosecuted with tees who are to visit all the families in greater vigour or more wisdom. Its Re- their respective districts, and engage all port for 1843 states that, since its com- who are able to buy .one book or more, mencement, it has sent forth 1069 different and to supply such as are too poor to purpublications, of which 131 form volumes chase. Another set of agents consists of of various sizes by themselves, and the plain, but sensible, pious, and zealous colremainder are, with few exceptions, what porteurs, or hawkers, generally laymen, are called tracts, each consisting of four who are sent into the “Far West” to carpages and upward, but requiring more ry books and tracts to the frontier people, than one to make a volume. It has pub- engaged in felling the forests on their everlished some broad-sheets and hand bills for onward course towards the setting sun, às posting up in public places or otherwise. well as into the mountainous districts, and And besides these 1069 publications issued the thinly-settled belt of sandy country at home, it has aided in the publication of which stretches along the ocean in the 1850 in foreign lands. The copies of its Middle and Southern States. The numpublications printed last year amounted ber of these colporteurs is at present sixty. to 4,156,500, of which 174,500 were vol- Though in operation but a few years, umes. During the same period 4,155,806, this enterprise had in 1842 placed 1,800,000 including 157,478 volumes, actually issued volumes in the hands of families, comprifrom its depository. Among the volumes sing at least 4,000,000 of souls. Who can were several thousand sets of the Evan- calculate the amount of good which such

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