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all the other states put together. North yet unjustifiable means were often emCarolina and Georgia also laid claim toployed to induce the latter to cede their territories of vast extent. The claims of claims to the former, such as excessive Connecticut and Massachusetts directly importunity, the bribery of the chiefs, and conflicted with those of Virginia. Hence sometimes even threats. Thus, although, it required a great deal of wisdom and pa- with the exception of lands obtained by tience to settle all these claims, without right of conquest in war, I do not believe endangering the peace and safety of the that any whatever was obtained without confederacy. All, at length, were adjusted something being given in exchange for it, except that of Georgia, and it, too, was ar- yet I fear that the golden rule of “doing ranged at a later date. Virginia magnan- to others as we would that they should do imously relinquished all her claims in the unto us,” was sadly neglected in many of West; a spontaneous act, which immedi- those transactions. In Pennsylvania and ately led to the establishinent of the State New-England, unquestionably greater fairof Kentucky, followed in due time by nes was shown than in most, if not all the the foundation of those of Ohio, Indiana, other colonies; yet even there, full.justice, Illinois, and Michigan, in what was long according to the above rule, was not always called the Northwestern Territory. The practised. Indeed, in many cases it was relinquishment by North Carolina of her difficult to say what exact justice implied. claims west of the Alleghany Mountains To savages roaming over vast tracts of led to the creation of the State of Tennes- land which they did not cultivate, and

But Connecticut refused to abandon which, even for the purposes of the chase, her claim to the northeastern part of Ohio, were often more extensive than necessary, often called to this day New Connecticut, to part with hundreds, or even thousands without receiving from the General Gov- of square miles, could not be thought a ernment a handsome equivalent in money, matter of much importance, and thus conwhich has been safely invested, and forms science was quieted. But although our the basis of a large capital, set apart for forefathers may not have done full justice the support of the common schools of the to the poor Indians, it is by no means cer

Georgia also ceded her claims in tain that others in the same circumstances the West to the General Government, on would have done better. the condition that it should obtain for her The impatience of the colonists to obfrom the Indians a title to their territory tain possession of lands which their charlying to the east of the Chattahoochee ters, or arrangements consequent thereon, River, now the western boundary of that led them to regard as their own, has at state. Out of the cession thus made by times thrown the General Government into Georgia have been formed the States of much embarrassment and difficulty. Thus, Alabama and Mississippi.

in the conflict between it and the State of The United States have had to struggle Georgia, a few short years ago, Congress with still more serious difficulties, origina- had agreed to buy the claims of the Inditing in the old royal charters. Little re- ans still remaining within that state, and to gard was paid to the prior claims of the provide for their removal beyond its limIndians in the extensive grants made by its, in return for the relinquishment of its those charters, directly or indirectly, to claims in the West. But this removal of the colonists. The pope had set the ex- the Indians, it had been expressly stipulaample of giving away the Aborigines with ted, was to be effected peaceably, and with the lands they occupied, or, rather, of giv- their own consent. Time rolled on, the ing away the land from under them; and population of Georgia increased, the setalthough in all the colonies founded by tlements of the white men had begun to our English ancestors in America there touch those of the red men, and the latter was a kind of feeling that the Indians had were urged to sell their lands and to retire some claims on the ground of prior occu- farther to the west. But to this they pation, yet these, it was thought, ought to would not consent. Thereupon the Gengive place to the rights conferred by the eral Government was called on to fulfil its royal charters. The colonişts were sub- engagement. It exerted itself to the utject to the same blinding influence of most to persuade the Indians to sell their selfishness that affects other men, and to lands; but neither would it employ force this we are to ascribe the importunity with itself, nor allow Georgia to do so, though which they urged the removal of the Indi- much was done by the colonists, and someans from the land conveyed by the royal thing, too, by the state indirectly, to worry charters, and which they had long been the Indians into terms. The chiefs, howwont to consider and to call their own. ever, long held back. But at length the In no case, indeed, did the new-comers lands were sold at a great price, and their seize upon the lands of the aboriginal oc- occupants received others west of the cupants without some kind of purchase; Mississippi, and have removed to these.

There, I doubt not, they will do better Amounting to 2,040,228 dollars.

than in their former abode.


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To rid itself of such embarrassments cations afterward introduced during the created by the old charters, the General subjugation of the Saxons by the NorthGovernment, at the instance of great and men or Danes, lasting through 261 years, * good men, adopted, some years ago, the plan and which, though both partial in its exof collecting all the tribes still to be found tent, and interrupted in its continuance, within the confines of any of the states, left not a few monuments of its existence, upon an extensive district to the west of and gave a name to one of the orders of Arkansas and Missouri, claimed by no the English nobility.t state, and, therefore, considered as part of But, above all, he must study the influence the public domain. There it has already of the Norman Conquest, which was comcollected the Cherokees, the Choctas, the pleted within twenty years from the battle Chickasas, the Creeks, and several smaller of Hastings, fought A.D. 1066. Without tribes. Soon the territories of all the states extirpating all the Saxon institutions, that will be cleared of them, except in so far as event reduced the Anglo-Saxons of Eng. they may choose to remain and become land to the condition of serfs; gave their citizens. Nor can I avoid cherishing the lands to sixty thousand warriors, compohope that the great Indian community now sing the conqueror's army; established an forming, as I have said, west of Missouri absolute monarchy, surrounded by a powand Arkansas, will one day become a state erful landed aristocracy; and thus introitself, and have its proper representatives duced an order of things wholly new to in the great council of the nation. I may the country, and foreign to its habits. conclude these remarks by observing, that He must attentively mark the influence the late painful dispute between the Uni- exercised by the Anglo-Saxon and Norted States and Great Britain, now so hap- man races upon each other, during the pepily terminated, relative to the boundaries riod that has since elapsed, of nearly eight between the State of Maine on the one hundred years; and he will there find a hand, and Lower Canada and New-Bruns- clew to many transactions which appear wick on the other, originated in the geo- wholly unintelligible in the common histographical obscurity of certain limits, de-ries of England. The reciprocal hatred of scribed in one of these old charters. the two races will explain the quarrel of

Becket, the first archbishop of the Saxon

race after the Conquest, and Henry II., CHAPTER IX.

the fifth of the Norman kings; that nationHOW A CORRECT KNOWLEDGE OF THE AMER- al animosity leading Becket to resist the

ICAN PEOPLE, THE NATURE OF THEIR Gov- demands of the king, as calculated to exERNMENT, AND OF THEIR NATIONAL CHARAC- tend the tyranny of a hated race of conTER, MAY BEST BE ATTAINED.

querors, and the king to humble the con

quered by crushing their haughty representHe who would obtain a thorough knowl- ative. That this, and not the diminution edge of the people of the United States, their of the power of the pope, as is commonly national character, the nature of their gov- believed, was Henry's object, may be seen ernment, and the spirit of their laws, must from the fact of his being no less earnest go back to the earliest ages of the history in calling for assistance from Rome, than of England, and study the character of the Becket was in invoking her protection. various races that from early times have

He will perceive this mutual animosity settled there. He must carefully mark manifesting itself in innumerable instances the influences they exerted on each other, and in apparently contradictory conduct. and upon

the civil and political institutions At one time the Anglo-Saxons sided with of that country. He must study the Sax- the nobility against the monarch, as in the on Conquest, followed by the introduction wars between the barons and King John, of Saxon institutions, and Saxon laws and and also Henry III., not because they loved usages; the trial of an accused person by the barons, who were of the same detesthis peers; the subdivision of the country ed Norman race, but because they dreadinto small districts, called townships ored the consequences to themselves of an, hundreds ; the political influence of that other conquest, by a king who had invited arrangement; and the establishment of over the Poitevins, the Aquitains, and the seven or eight petty kingdoms, in which Provençals, to help him against his own the authority of the king was shared by the subjects in England. At other times they people, without whose consent no laws of sided with the king against the barons, importance could be made, and who often when they saw that the triumph of the latmet for legislation in the open fields, or ter was likely to augment their burdens. beneath the shade of some wide-spreading And although, as M. Thierry remarks, I forest, as their Scandinavian kinsmen met,

* From A.D. 787 to A.D. 1048. at a much later period, round the Mora + That of Earl, from the Danish and Norwegian stone. * He must next study the modifi. Jarl, who was at once the civil and military govern

or of a province. * On the plains of Upsala in Sweden. The mora † “ Conquête de l'Angleterre," vol. iv., p. 366-368, stone signifies the stone on the moor.

Brussels edition.

the bitter hostility which had lasted for four ments on the part of the people. Thus centuries seemed to become extinct in the the cause of liberty gained ground both fifteenth, when the wars between the Hous- among the nobility and the commonalty. es of York and Lancaster ranged the two With the progress of the Reformation, races promiscuously on each side, yet tra- the strife between the two races became ces of their distinct existence are to be exasperated; the nobility and gentry defound at this day, in the language, in the siring little more than the abatement or customs, and in the institutions of England. rejection of the papal usurpation; the SaxAlthough the monarch no longer employs on race, led by men whose hearts were the ancient formula, as it occurs in royal more deeply interested in the subject, deordinances and proclamations for four hun- siring to see the Church rid of error and dred years after the Conquest, such as superstition of every form. From the dis"Henry V., Henry VII. of that name since cussion of the rights of conscience, the the conquest,"* yet to this day a Norman latter went on to examine the nature and phraseology is sometimes employed by the foundations of civil government, and being monarch, as, for instance, le roy le veult ; le met with violent opposition, they proceedroy s'advisera; le roy mercie ses loyaux su- ed to lengths they never dreamed of when jets.t. To this day the nobility of Èngland, they first set out. In the fearful struggle though recruited from time to time from the that followed, both the National Church rich, the talented, and the ambitious com- and the monarchy were for a time com-moners of Saxon blood, remains essential- pletely overthrown. ly Norman in spirit and in character. The It was just as this grand opposition of same may be said of the gentry, or propri- sentiment was drawing on to a direct col-etors of landed estates; whereas the great lision, and when men's minds were enbulk of the remaining population is of An- grossed with the important questions that glo-Saxon origin. I In Wales, and in Ire- it pressed upon them, that the two cololand, the races of the conquerors and the nies destined to exercise a predominant conquered appear still more distinct, and influence in America left the British shore. in the latter mutual antipathy is far from The first of the two in point of date sought having ceased. In Scotland, there is com- the coasts of Southern, the second sailed paratively little Norman blood, the Nor- to those of Northern Virginia, as the whole mans never having conquered that coun- Atlantic slope was then called. The one try.

settled on James River, in the present To the resistance of the Anglo-Saxon state of Virginia, and became, in a sense, race in England to the domination of the the ruling colony of the South; the other Norman aristocracy that kingdom was ul-established itself in New-England, there timately indebted for the free institutions to become the mother of the six Northern it now enjoys. The oppressions of the States. Both, however, have long since nobility and of the crown were checked made their influence to be felt far beyond by the cities and boroughs, in which the the coasts of the Atlantic, and are continAnglo-Saxon commons became more and uing to extend it towards the Pacific, in: more concentrated, with the advance of parallel and cleary-defined lines; and both civilization and population. The nobles retain to this day the characteristic feathemselves, on occasions when they, too, tures that marked their founders when they had to contend for their rights and privi- left their native land. leges against the sovereign, gave a help- If not purely Norman in blood, the Southing hand to the people; and in later times ern colony was entirely Norman in spirit; especially, after the people had established whereas the Northern was Anglo-Saxon the power of their Commons, or third es- in character and in the institutions which tate, on an immovable foundation, aided it took to the New World. Both loved the sovereign against alleged encroach- freedom and free institutions, but they dif

fered as to the extent to which the people * Henry VIII. was the last monarch who used this should enjoy them. The one had sprung formula in his proclamations, and styled himself Hen- from the ranks of those in England who ry, Eighth of the name since the Conquest. 'The king wills;" * the king will take coun- and the privileges of the nobility; the oth

pleaded for the prerogatives of the crown sel ;" “ the king thanks his loyal subjects."

Even in our day, the language of the Chronicle er, from the great party that was contendof Robert of Gloucester holds true in no inconsiderable ing for popular rights. The one originadegree in regard to the population of England: ted with the friends of the Church as left

by Queen Elizabeth ; the other, with those Among us woneth yet, and shalleth evermore, Of Normans beth these high men that beth in this land,

who desired to see it purified from what

they deemed the corruptions of antiquity; $ In fact, there is not a little Normar blood in and shorn of the exorbitant pretensions of Scotland; but what of it is to be found in the aris- its hierarchy. The one, composed of a tocracy came by intermarriages, or by Normans who recommended themselves by their talents and cour

company of gentlemen, attended by a few age to the favour of the Scottish monarchs, not by mechanics or labourers, contemplated an conquest.

extensive traffic with the natives; the oth

“The folk of Normandie

And the low men of Saxons."



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er, composed, with a few exceptions, of them; and the people of the United States substantial farmers of moderate means and enjoy little more liberty at present than industrious artisans, contemplated the cul- what the fathers of the Revolution maintivation of the ground, and the establish- tained that they ought to have enjoyed ment of a state of society in which they under the British Constitution and crown. might serve God according to his Word. The one had no popular government for some years after its foundation; the other was self-organized and self-governed be

CHAPTER X. fore it disembarked upon the shores that were to be the scene of its future prosperity. Finally, the religion of the one, though doubtless sincere, and, so far as it went, beneficial in its influence, was a religion Thus, too, if we would have a thorough that clung to forms, and to an imposing knowledge of the spirit and character of ritual; the religion of the other was at the the Religion of the United States, we must farthest possible remove from the Church study the history of religion in England of Rome, both in form and spirit, and pro- first, and then in those other countries fessed to be guided by the Scriptures alone. whose religious institutions must have con

Such was American colonization in its siderably influenced those of America, in grand origin. But widely different has consequence of the numerous emigrants been the subsequent histories of those from them that have settled there. InEnglish colonies from that of England her- deed, it is very certain that the religious self. The former carried out to their le- institutions of America have been hardly gitimate extent the great principles of civ- less affected than the political, by colonists il and religious liberty, which they had from Holland, France, and other parts of learned in England, in the school of op- the Continent of Europe, as well as from pression and of long and fierce discussion. Scotland and Ireland. The latter, after rushing on for a time in Men of speculative habits may indulge the same career, carried those principles many plausible a priori reasonings on the to such a length as to subvert the govern- kind of religion likely to find favour with a ment, and plunge the country into all the people of Democratic feelings and instituhorrors of revolution and misrule, ending, tions, but their conclusions will probably at last, in the despotism of a military chief. be found very much at variance with facts. The former went on gradually improving M. de Tocqueville presents a striking inthe forms of popular government which stance of this in the first few chapters of they had originally adopted, in the face of his second work on Democracy in Ameriall the efforts of the crown of England to ca.* A purely abstract argument, or, rathdestroy them. The latter provoked, by er, a mere fanciful conjecture, might, in the wildest excesses, a revulsion, from this case, interest by its ingenuity, and which, even after the lapse of two cen- even be believed as true, in the absence turies, she is still suffering. The former, of facts. But when he proceeds to estabalthough never were there subjects more lish an hypothesis by an appeal to facts, it loyal to a crown, or a people more sin- is hard to say whether he is oftener right cerely attached to their fatherland, were

or wrong. Take one or two paragraphs. compelled, as they believed, by the unkind “In the United States,” says he, “the maand almost unnatural course pursued by jority undertakes to furnish individuals that fatherland, to sever the bonds that bound them to it, and to establish an inde- * Both of M. de Tocqueville's works, entitled “Dependent government of their own. The mocracy in America,” unquestionably possess great latter has had to fight the battles of liberty merit; the earlier publication, however, is much suover and over again, and has not even yet that he puts his theory uniformly before his facts, in

perior to the later. But the author's great fault is, obtained for the people all the rights which stead of deducing, according to the principles of the are considered, in America, their proper Baconian philosophy, his theory from his facts. The inheritance from the hand of their Cre-consequence of this fatal mistake is, that, having ad

vanced a theory, and shown by argument its plausiator.

bility, he immediately goes to work to support it by I speak not here of the form of govern-facts, and, in doing so, often distorts them sadly. ment. The founders of the American col- For the object for which he wrote, that of arresting onies, and their descendants for several the progress of Democracy in Europe, by reading generations, were monarchists, as they lectures from American Democracy as from a textwould doubtless have been to this day, But, however able they may be, it is absurd to say

book, his works certainly correspond to his purpose. had they not been compelled, while strug- that his volumes give a just view of American insti. gling against injustice and oppression, to tutions on all points. On many subjects he has said dissolve their political connexion with the some excellent things; and, indeed, no other foreign

er has come so near to comprehending the spirit of mother-country. In all essential points,

our institutions. But no man ever will, no man ever colonial freedom differed not from that can, understand them perfectly, unless he has imbiwhich an independent existence has given bed their spirit, as it were, with his mother's milk.

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with a multitude of ready-made opinions, Such has never been the character of Protand thus to relieve them of the necessity estantism, rightly so called, in any age. of forming their own.

There are many Nor is this distinguished author nearer theories in philosophy, morals, and poli- the truth when, giving way to the same tics, which every one there adopts with speculative tendency, he asserts that “the out examination, upon the faith of public human mind in Democratic countries must opinion; and, upon a closer inspection, it tend to pantheism."* But enough : all will be found that religion itself reigns that I have wished to show in referring to there much less as a doctrine of revelation de Tocqueville's work, in many respects than as a commonly-admitted opinion." an admirable one, is, that the religious

Now, Democratic as America may be, it phenomena of the United States are not to would be impossible to find a country in be explained by reasonings a priori, howwhich the last assertion in the above para- ever plausible and ingenious. graph is less true, for nowhere do people No: we must go back to the times when, demand reasons for everything more fre- and the influences under which, the reliquently or more universally; nowhere are gious character of the first colonists from the preachers of the Gospel more called England was formed, and then trace their upon to set forth, in all their variety and effects upon the institutions that were esforce, the arguments by which the Divine tablished by those colonists in the New revelation of Christianity is established. World.

Again, he says, “In the United States It is interesting to investigate the histothe Christian sects are infinitely various, ry of Christianity in England from the and incessantly undergoing modifications : earliest ages; its propagation by missionbut Christianity itself is an established and aries from Asia Minor; its reception by irresistible fact, which no one undertakes the Celtic races; the resistance made by either to attack or to defend."

the British Christians, in common with Again : “ The Americans, having ad- those of Ireland and France, to the claims mitted without examination the main dog- of Rome; the conquest of England by the mas of the Christian religion, are obliged, Saxons, and the advantage taken of that in like manner, to receive a great num- event, by Rome, to subdue the native ber of truths flowing from and having rela- Christians, whom it accused of heresy ; tion to it.”+

the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to Now hardly any assertions concerning Christianity, and their subsequent dissatishis country could surprise a well-inform- faction with the Romish hierarchy; the ed American more than those contained in Norman Conquest, and the efforts of the these paragraphs, nor could M. de Tocque- popes to take advantage of that also, in ville have made them, had he not been seeking to establish a complete ascendency carried away by certain theories with re- over the British and Irish Christians; the spect to the influence of Democratic insti- witnesses to the Truth raised up by God tutions upon religion.

from the ancient Anglo-Saxon churches ; M. de Tocqueville does not forget that the influence of Wicliffe and other opporeligion gave birth to Anglo-American so- nents of Rome ; and, finally, the dawn of ciety, but he does forget for the moment the Reformation. That event, there can what sort of religion it was; that it was not be no doubt, was connected, in the provia religion that repels investigation, or that dence of God, with the long-continued and would have men receive anything as Truth, faithful resistance of the ancient churches where such momentous concerns are in- of England to Error. Some remains of volved, upon mere trust in public opinion. Truth had doubtless lain concealed, like

unextinguished embers beneath the ashes, * “Aux Etats-Unis, la majorité se charge de four- but the clearing away of the accumulated nir aux individus une foule d'opinions toutes faites, rubbish of ages, and the contact of God's et les soulage ainsi de l'obligation de s'en former qui Word, sufficed to revive and make it spread leur soient propres. Il y a un grand nombre de thé. ories en matière de philosophie, de morale, ou de po. anew throughout the nation. litique que chacun y adopte ainsi sans examen, sur But the grand means employed by God la foi du public; et si l'on regarde de très-près on in preparing a people who should lay the verra que la religion elle même y règne bien moins foundation of a Christian empire in the comme doctrine révélée que comme opinion commune." - Démocratie en Amérique, Seconde Partie, New World was the Reformation. To tome i., chapitre ii.

their religion the New-England colonists + "Aux Etats-Unis, les sectes chrétiennes vari- owed all their best qualities. Even their ent à l'infini et se modifient sans cesse ; mais le political freedom they owed to the contest Christianisme lui-même est un fait établi et irrésistible qu'on n'entreprend point d'attaquer ni de défen- they had waged in England for religious dre.'

liberty, and in which, long and painful as “Les Américains, ayant admis sans examen les it was, nothing but their Faith could have principaux dogmes de la religion chrétienne, sont sustained them. Religion led them to abanobligés de recevoir de la même manière un grand nombre de vérités qui en découlent et qui y tiennent.” -Démocratie en Amérique, Seconde Partie, tome i., * "Démocratie en Amérique,” Seconde Partie, chapitre i.

tome i., chapitre vii.

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