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I do not design here to assert the suffi- | people. I say voluntary offerings, for, ciency of the evangelical ministry in the whatever may be the mode of raising the United States to meet the wants of the salaries of our ministers, they are, in realpopulation; it will readily be admitted that ity, derived from the spontaneous contribuit is not sufficient. If the evangelical Pro- tions of the people. No man is compelled testant ministers were twice as numer- to pay a cent for the maintenance of relious as they are; if, in other words, there gious worship. Whatever he gives is deciwas on an average one such minister for dedly by his own will. Every one is free to every 500 souls, instead of one for 1135, it go to church or stay away; and if he goes, would not be too many, when we consider he may, in many of our churches, avoid givthe sparseness of the population in certain ing all his life; this is true especially of districts, which renders it impossible for those churches whose sittings are public, one minister to look after more than 500 that is, do not belong to particular individor 600 souls ; the number of denominations, uals. Whatever a man engages to pay which renders the number of ministers in towards the support of the institutions of many places greater than the amount of the Gospel he is expected to pay, and the population demands; and the fact that may be required, according to law, to pay. a goodly number will always be engaged Seldom indeed, however, is there a resort in our academies, colleges, and theological to legal enforcement of the payment of seminaries as professors, and in our reli- pew-rents and subscriptions. But let us gious and benevolent societies as secre- see what the voluntary principle does actaries and agents. But if the Voluntary complish. Principle has been so efficient as to double The total amount of money raised in the the number of evangelical Protestant min- United States for the support of the minisisters since the year 1775 (and the greater try in the evangelical denominations may portion of this success has accrued since be calculated as follows: 1815, and can in no sense be attributed to

I. Episcopal ministers, as stated in the influence of the ancient establish- chap. xvii., book vi.

1203 ments),* there is every reason to expect

Deduct for missionaries and
professors, say

48 that it will, in the course of a far shorter

1155 period, again cause the number of the

Total salaries of 1155 ministers, say evangelical Protestant ministers to double

at an average of $500 each

$577,500 upon the population. If we may judge II. Ministers of the Presbyterian family from the progress of the last three years, of churches, including Congregait will not be more than twenty-five or

tionalists, Lutherans, &c., as in the

summary above referred to 5756 thirty years until this desirable result will

Deduct foreign missiona. have been reached.

ries

171 VI. EFFICIENCY OF THE VOLUNTARY PRIN- Deduct professors in col. CIPLE IN THE UNITED STATES IN SUPPORTING leges .

141-312 THE MINISTRY OF THE GOSPEL.-In this re

5444 spect, the Voluntary Principle has not

Total salaries of 5444 ministers, say been destitute of considerable efficiency III. The Baptist ministers, according to

at an average salary of $400 2,177,600 in America. It is not pretended that in a

the same summary, amount to 4850 new country, where wealth may indeed Deduct for missionaries and be much more equally distributed than in professors, say

133 the old countries of Europe, but where its

4720

As a considerable number of the Bapaggregate is not to be compared with that

tist ministers receive small salaof England, Scotland, Holland, Germany,

ries, and some none at all, we can or France, the sum raised upon the vol- allow $250 only as the average of untary plan is likely to be as large as that their salaries. This gives

1,100,000 which is raised in Great Britain, and some IV. Ministers of the Methodist group, ex:

clusive of local preachers, amount, countries on the Continent, from tithes,

according to the summary, to 4870 united with the revenues of ancient reli- Deduct for missionaries and gious foundations. We have as yet few professors

118 such foundations,t and must, therefore,

4752 depend upon the voluntary offerings of the Supposing their salaries to be on an

average $300 each,* the result is 1,425,600 * With the exception of Connecticut and Massachusetts, the union of Church and State, which * In some parts of the country it is certain that once existed in many of the states, came to an end the Methodist ministers do not receive as great a during or shortly after the Revolution; and in Con- salary as that mentioned in the text; but, on the necticut it terminated in 1816. In Massachusetts it other hand, the salaries of their ministers in many lasted, as we have elsewhere stated, till 1833. parts of the country exceed it. In the Conferences

† By far the most important of all such founda- of the states of New England and of that of Newtions, with us, is that of Trinity Church (belonging York, they are probably, as a body, better supported to the Episcopal denomination) in the city of New-than those of any other denomination. In those York, which is said to be as much as fifteen or parts of the land their salaries, including perquisites twenty millions of dollars, and has furnished the of all sorts, exceed, on an average, 500 dollars. means of building many Episcopal churches in that The Episcopal ministers, being stationed chiefly in state.

our cities and large towns, receive, as a body, larger least. suaded that they average considerably more than the amount named in the text.

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This gives us a grand total of 5,280,700 It is impossible to calculate with exactdollars, as the amount paid for the person- ness to what extent this yearly increase of nel, as the French would call it, of our pub-church edifices meets the demands of a lic worship. It is possible that I have es- yearly increase of the population, now timated the average of the salaries of the amounting to nearly, if not quite, half a Baptist ministers a little too high. Some million of souls, of whom 400,000, if not may think that 200 dollars would be nearer 420,000, are of an age to go more or less the truth. I do not think so myself, from frequently to church, and for whom church what I know of the whole country. As to accommodation ought therefore to be prothe other denominations, I am quite sure vided. The whole population of the counthat I have not placed them too high, try that is supposed to be more or less especially if, as ought to be done, all the under the influence of the evangelical deperquisites which may attach to the minis- nominations, estimated at 15,500,000, being terial and pastoral office among them be divided into about 49,424 congregations, taken into the account. We have, then, the average number of souls in a congrethe sum of 5,280,700 dollars as contributed gation must be about 314; and as the numby the evangelical denominations alone to ber of church edifices already erected cansupport the ministry. And I am of opinion not be short of 29,000 in all, the new ones that if we were to add the amount con- must consist partly of those required for tributed by the omitted small Methodist existing eva ical congregations not prebranches, the Orthodox Quakers, and some viously supplied, partly of those required little German denominations, we might for accessions to the evangelical churches well give the sum of 5,500,000 dollars as from 300,000 of souls not previously attacha quite moderate estimate of the supported to such congregations, and for the gradgiven to the evangelical ministry of the ual increase of those congregations from United States.

births and immigration. If we suppose VII. Efficiency of the Voluntary PRIN- the evangelical proportion of the yearly inCIPLE IN THE UNITED STATES IN THE EREC- crease of the population of an age to go to "TION OF Church Edifices. — The church church (say 420,000) to be as 15,500,000 to edifices which are annually erected in the 3,000,000, or about 338,725 souls, and this United States, according to the best infor- proportion to be divided into congregations mation which I have been able to obtain, of 310 souls each, the result would be an anfrom much personal observation and in- nual increase of about 1093 congregations, quiry, may be stated at about 920, rating requiring the same number of churches. them as follows:

Such a result, however, is by no means Among the Episcopal Methodists, according to a good probable ; for many of these would no authority, “ from 250 to 300”-say

doubt join and be merged in existing conThe Baptists fully as many as the Methodists (their own reports some years show between 260 and 270), gregations, and many would be found liv

ing in remote places, rendering it impossiThe Presbyterians and Congregationalists together

ble for them to be gathered into congregabuild at least 200 (the Old School Presbyterians alone reported more than eighty last year) 200 tions requiring church edifices. The Lutheran Almanac mentions 76 new churches

Neither is it easy to calculate the cost erected in the year 1841. An imperfect report for 1840 mentions 47, say..

60 of these 920 or 950 church edifices, of The German Reformed may be fairly estimated at.... 30 which we have been speaking. A consid.. The Protestant Methodists at. The Episcopalians at

erable number, perhaps forty or fifty, are The Cumberland Presbyterians at ............... 30 annually built in our large cities, at an exThe Scotch Presbyterians, of all kinds, at......

20 pense of from 10,000 to 60,000 dollars, and Total of new churches annually erected among the

a few of them cost even more. Many are above mentioned denominations

920 large buildings which will hold 700, 800, It may be that the last mentioned but 1000, 1200, 1500, and a few even more ; one, and possibly that also, may be too while a great many in the country are high ; but the new churches of the Cum- small, and cost only a few hundred dollars. berland Presbyterians, Protestant Metho- | But if we include under this head all the dists, and the Episcopalians, if not all the expenses of our churches for light, fuel, rest, are, it is probable, understated. I am sexton's wages, choirs, etc., etc.-ina word, of opinion that, if we should include the what may be called the matériel, if I may churches annually erected by the omitted so term it, of our public worship, I am small evangelical denominations, a per- quite sure that it will reach two millions fectly accurate summary of the meeting- and a half of dollars. I speak now of the houses or church edifices of every descrip- evangelical churches alone. tion built by all the orthodox Protestant If we were to include the churches or communion in the United States, every meeting-houses built by the Roman Cathoyear, would at the present time not fail lics, Unitarians, Christ-ians, Universalists, short of 950.

and other non-evangelical sects, we should

increase the number from 950 to 1100 at salaries than those of any other Church. I am

VIII. THE TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC WOR

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SHIP IN THE UNITED STATES.- It may be the voluntary principle does in reference to worth while to bring together the various religion. For instance, provision is made estimates which we have made respecting in some denominations, by incorporated the sums raised by the evangelical church- associations or otherwise, for the maines for the sustentation of religion at home, tenance of the widows and children of and its extension abroad, and add to them ministers, and of superannuated preachers. the amounts raised by the non-evangelical The sums thus raised are to be considered denominations :

a part of the sustentation which is given 1. If we include all that certain omitted to the institutions of the Gospel among us, local associations do, in addition to the and they all owe their origin directly or sums raised by the various religious socie- indirectly to the voluntary principle. ties mentioned in book iv., whose object It is not pretended that the voluntary is to promote religion at home, we shall principle raises as much money in Amerihave a total amount of about $1,000,000 ca for the support of religion as do the 2. The amount contributed by

legal provisions of some countries, where the various religious so

Christianity has created those opulent and cieties last year, according

time-honoured establishments which overto the summary given in

shadow them. In many cases, alas ! these chap. xii. of book viii., is 510,424 establishments were founded in the ages 3. The amount annually rais

of superstition, and owe their origin to the ed for the support of the

influence of a cunning and overreaching evangelical ministry, as

priesthood, exerted over an ignorant and we have seen, may be es

debased people. But it is maintained that timated at

5,500,000 it cannot be said with truth that Christian4. The amount annually rais

ity, left to its own resources in America, is ed for building and keep

likely to go down, or that it does not lead ing in repair the church

to efforts for its propagation which correedifices, and for other

spond in a good measure with the wants expenses connected with

of the country. Whatever men may think the maintenance of public

on the subject of the best means of supworship, may be given at 2,500,000 porting the Gospel, it cannot be denied that

Making a total of $9,510,424 the voluntary principle in America has From this statement, it appears that the demonstrated that it is not inefficient : a sums raised by the evangelical churches for fact which was well established in the first the promotion of religion, in one way and

three centuries of the progress of Christianother, at home and abroad, amount to

anity in the world.

IX. ALLEGED Church DESTITUTION IN more than nine millions and a half of dollars.

If we add to this the sums given annual- THE UNITED States.-- From the year 1837 ly by Christians to build and endow acad- to that of 1840 inclusive, for an annual inemies, colleges, and theological semina- crease of the population to the extent of ries, with a view to promote religion, and

about 450,000 souls, that of the evangelical also the amount raised among the non- much, if at all, short of 700 per annum.

ministry of all denominations was not evangelical denominations for the same The number of church edifices erected in objects, we shall increase this sum to at least eleven millions of dollars, as the amount 1841 was fully 880. The nett annual inraised annually at present in the United crease of evangelical ministers of all deStates, on the voluntary principle,* for the nominations is about 750 ; while that of sustentation and promotion of religion at have stated elsewhere, is not less than

church edifices, of all descriptions, as we home and abroad.t

Nor have I included in the statements 950. As the annual increase of the popuwhich I have made on this subject all that increase of evangelical ministers bears

lation is at present about 500,000, the * I say on the voluntary principle, for the sums the ratio of 1 to 660 of the whole, or of raised from permanent endowments (which are 1 to about 560 of those who are of an themselves the fruit of the voluntary principle, and age to go to church ; and the increase not of governmental gift or taxation) are not suffi- of church edifices is about as 1 to 525 ciently great to deserve to be excepted.

t If we were to add to the above-mentioned sum souls. But it must have been seen from of eleven millions of dollars to promote Religion in the tables in the summary of evangelical America, the amount which education costs in all churches, ministers, communicants, and its gradations, we must at least double it. The sin, population, that partly from the very scatgle state of Massachusetts bestows little short of a million of dollars annually upon the education of tered condition of the inhabitants covering her youths in all classes of her literary institutions, so vast a territory, partly from the presthough her population falls short of 800,000 souls. ence of several denominations at one spot, So that the sum of at least twenty-two millions of often leading to a plurality of churches and dollars is annually raised in the United States for ministers where one might suffice, this inthe promotion of Religion and Education—a sum about equal, at this time, to the whole revenue of crease of ministers and churches is not so the National Government !

adequate to the wants of the country as might at first sight appear; still, it is so, two colleges and five theological schools, inconsistent with what many of our read- in which there is a goodly number of pious ers may have heard of the “moral wastes” young men who are training up for the in the United States as to require some work of preaching Christ, under the inexplanation.

structions of right men. First, then, let it be remembered that, at It has been more difficult still for us to the Revolution, the number of ministers of provide for the spiritual wants of the every name was only one for 2440 souls,'or, French who have come to our shores, or at most, one for 2000; and that the war of have fallen to us by the purchase of Louindependence itself, and many other cir- isiana. But the increase of evangelical cumstances, concurred to prevent much religion in France will, I doubt not, give from being done to overtake this great us the labourers we need to look after and accumulating arrear in the religious their interests. As to the Spaniards, Poles, institutions of the country. This destitu- Norwegians, Italians, etc., who come to us, tion continued to increase rather than di- their number is not great; but the difficulty minish, it is believed, from 1775 till 1815; of preaching the Gospel to them has been so that, notwithstanding the more recent almost insurmountable, owing to their not extension of the churches, and of institu- knowing the English tongue. tions for training of ininisters for assisting In the fourth place, the representations feeble congregations, no wonder that a made on this subject by some of our so. great deal has yet to be done in recov. cieties are often calculated, though undeering what may be called former moral signedly, to mislead a stranger. That wastes.

there is much real destitution to warrant Second. Churches and ministers not be strong appeals is no doubt true; but one ing provided beforehand for new settle is apt to forget that there is much that is ments, and a certain amount of population hypothetical in what is said of the danger within a given district being required be that threatens, if this destitution be not fore means can well be taken for forming supplied. This danger is imminent; still a church and obtaining a minister, some it is, as yet, but a contingency. If the retime must elapse during which “moral quired efforts be not made, error and irrewastes” may be found in newly-settled ligion will overspread the country; if the districts. The same remark applies to Protestants be not on the alert, Romanism the mountainous district embracing the will conquer it for itself. But it is to preAlleghany range and its skirts. From vent such results that these appeals are the interior of Pennsylvania, down through made. Virginia, the eastern parts of Kentucky, Lastly, it is not to be denied that the and North Carolina, there is a considera- agents and missionaries of our Domestic ble destitution of the regular ministrations Missionary Societies and Boards have unof the Gospel. The sandy, thinly-settled intentionally and unwittingly promoted erzone of country,covered with pines, stretch-roneous impressions respecting the reliing along the seacoast, from New Jersey gious destitution of the country. When to Louisiana, and embracing the whole these societies were formed, some fifteen peninsula of Florida, may be placed in the or twenty years ago, the first missionaries same category. From such regions the and agents sent into the West found many cry of the man of Macedonia, “Come districts, and even whole counties, deploraover and help us,” is continually sounded bly destitute ; and in their published rein the ears of the churches in more fa- ports and letters they gave most affecting voured districts ; nor is it. heard in vain. accounts of the want of shepherds to colMuch has been done for them by the lect the sheep scattered over these moral Home Missionary Societies, and Mission wildernesses. Sometimes they thought ary Boards of the different churches, and that, like Elijah of old, they were left much, no doubt, will yet be done.

alone ;” not being aware, or if aware, not In the third place, there has been a large rightly estimating the fact, that men of immigration from Germany, Alsace, and other denominations were labouring in the Switzerland, for whose spiritual wants it same regions, as itinerating, if not as sethas not been easy to provide. The letters tled ministers. Such misrepresentations from these people to their friends in the led the Methodist and Baptist churches to Old World have in some cases given rise publish statements, proving that the alto the opinion that the moral destitution leged destitution had been greatly exagof the whole country is almost boundless. gerated. Hence, of late years, it has For a long time after the Revolution, the been usual to give the names of places augmentation of German ministers from requiring ministers and churches, of the an indigenous source was very slow, denomination to which the writer belongs, while but few of a proper stamp came acknowledging, at the same time, the serfrom Europe. Blessed be God, the pros- vices of ministers of other denominations, pect for our German immigrants is becom- where they are to be found. Exaggerated ing more cheering. There are no less than statements may often be traced, also, to sthe warm feelings of extempore speakers Smith was born in 1800, of pious parents, at public meetings, leading them to com- and seems to have become decided in his mit themselves to expressions that have religious character at the age of twelve, not been duly weighed, and to these find during a revival. He learned the trade of ing their way, often with additional exag- a saddler, and commenced business him. gerations, into newspapers.

Within the self at the age of twenty-two, on a small last fortnight, I have read in one of the capital lent him by his father. He was best religious newspapers in the United remarkably prosperous in business from States, the notes of a minister from the the first, so that he was soon able to repay East, as he passed through Pennsylvania this debt. But he did not allow his busito the “far West.” The writer did not ness to engross his time and thoughts. He see a single church in any but a few of frequently visited the poor with the view the numerous towns and villages through of inquiring into and relieving their neceswhich he passed from Philadelphia to sities, was a constant Sabbath-school teachPittsburgh! Yet I, who have been along er, and for a long time was superintendent the same route no fewer than twelve of a Sabbath-school for Africans. In short, times, and who know every town and vil- he was the foremost to encourage and suplage upon it, having travelled it, not only port every good undertaking.

But we as he did, in stages, but by railroad, in pri- must let the memoir* speak for itself. vate carriages, on horseback, and even on “In the early part of 1829 he had great foot, hesitate not to say that there is no doubts whether it was not his duty to retown, or even village of any considerable linquish his business, in part at least, that size, that has not at least one church be- he might have more time to do good. At longing to some communion or other. that time he called to converse on this *These, however, are not the prominent subject with the writer. He said that he churches, steeple-houses, as our Quaker found his business engrossed too much of friends might call them, to be seen in the his time and attention; he wished to be in Eastern States. Many are plain, humble a situation more favourable for the cultibuildings, standing in some retired street, vation of personal religion and doing good and if visible at all to the writer as he to others; and, as he had acquired properwhirled along, were hardly to be distin- ty enough for himself and family, he felt a guished from a warehouse or respectable desire to retire, that he might enjoy more barn. And if such misstatements are hon- quiet and leisure. In reply, it was said to estly made at times by our own country- him, “The Lord has plainly indicated how men, how much more apt must foreigners you are to glorify him in the world. He be to form equally hasty and erroneous has greatly prospered you in your busiconclusions ?

ness; the channels of wealth are open, and X. INDIVIDUAL INSTANCES OF LIBERALITY their streams are flowing in upon you, IN SUPPORTING AND EXTENDING THE INSTITU- and it would be wrong for you to obstruct TIONS OF THE GOSPEL.-It is one of the or diminish them. Let them rather flow happy fruits of the voluntary principle that wider and deeper. Only resolve that you it cultivates a spirit of benevolence and will pursue your business from a sense of self-reliance among Christians. It teach- duty, and use all that God may give you es men the true value and utility of wealth, for his glory and the good of your fellowin showing them that there are objects infi- men, and your business, like reading the nitely more worthy of living for than mere Bible, or worship on the Sabbath, will be self-gratification. Pious men of no coun- to you a means of grace; instead of hintry have an adequate conception of the dering, it will help you in the divine life, amount of good which they can do until and greatly increase your means of usethey have made the experiment. We sub- fulness. The effect of the conversation join a few instances of individual liberali- was not known at the time, but from an ty, not because the authors of them were entry made in a journal which he began to rich* men, but because of the systematic keep about that period, it appears that the as well as delightful spirit which they dis- purpose was then formed to continue his played. In the course of this work many business, and to conduct it on the princiothers have been mentioned, which are ple recommended. well worthy of imitation.

• From that time it was observable by One of the most remarkable instances all who knew him that he made rapid of liberality in the middle walks of life is progress in religion. One subject seemed recorded in the memoirs of the late Nor- to engross his mind, that of doing good ; mand Smith, of Hartford, Connecticut. Mr. and much good did God enable him to do.

Besides many large donations in aid of va* Had I been disposed to speak of what some (I rious objects previous to his death, he beam sorry to say too few) of our rich men have done, queathed at his decease nearly 30,000 dolI might mention one man-a merchant-who has in the course of 30 years given to religious and benevo- * Written by his pastor, the Rev. Dr. Hawes, of lent objects eight hundred thousand dollars, and of the First Congregational Church, Hartford, Connecone who gives from forty to sixty thousand annually. I ticut.

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