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be any way troubled, molested, or discoun-, New-York, as well as with emigrants tenanced for his or her religion, or in the from England. The Earl of Shaftesbury, free exercise thereof.” Meanwhile, Prot- when committed to the Tower in 1681,estant sects increased so much, that the begged for leave to exile himself to Carpolitical power of the state passed, at oljna. length, entirely out of the hands of its Nor were they Churchmen only who founders, and before the war of the Rey- emigrated thither from England. Many olution, many churches had been planted Dissenters, disgusted with the unfavourain it by Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and ble state of things in that country, went Baptists.
out also, carrying with them intelligence, North Carolina was first colonized by industry, and sobriety. Joseph Blake, in stragglers from Virginia settling on the particular, brother of the gallant adıniral rivers that flow into Albemarle Sound, of that name, having inherited his brothand among these were a good many Qua- er's fortune, devoted it to transporting his kers, driven out of Virginia by the intoler- persecuted brethren to America, and conance of its laws. This was about the mid-ducted thither a company of them from dle of the seventeenth century. Puritans Somersetshire. Thus the booty taken from New-England, and emigrants from from New Spain helped to people South Barbadoes, followed in succession; but Carolina.* A colony from Ireland, also, the Dissenters from Virginia predomina- went over, and were soon merged among ted. Religion for a long while seems to the other colonists. have received but little attention. Will- Such was the character of what might iam Edmunson and George Fox visited be called the substratum of the populatheir Quaker friends among the pine grovestion in South Carolina. The colonists. of Albemarle in 1672, and found a “tender were of various origin, but many of them people.” A Quarterly Meeting was es- had carried thither the love of true relitablished, and thenceforward that religious gion, and the number of such soon inbody may be said to have organized a spir- creased. itual government in the colony. But it Georgia, of all the original thirteen colwas long before any other made much onies, ranks latest in point of date. The progress. No Episcopal minister was good Oglethorpe, one of the finest specisettled in it until 1703, and no church built inens of a Christian gentleman of the Cavuntil 1705.
alier school, one who loved his king and The Proprietaries, it is true, who obtain- his Church, led over a mixed people to ed North as well as South Carolina from settle on the banks of the Savannah. Poor Charles II., professed to be actuated by a debtors, taken from the prisons of England, “laudable and pious zeal for the propaga- formed a strange medley with godly Motion of the Gospel ;” but they did nothing ravians from Herrnhut in Germany, and to vindicate their claim to such praise. In brave Highlanders from Scotland. Το their “ Constitutions” they maintained, that Georgia, also, were directed the youthful religion and the profession of it were in- steps of those two wonderful men, John dispensable to the well-being of the state and Charles Wesley, and the still more eland privileges of citizenship; vain words, oquent Whitefield, who made the pine foras long as no measures were taken to pro- ests that stretch from the Savannah to the mote what they thus lauded. But we shall Altamaha resound with the tones of their yet see that, little as true religion owed in fervid piety. In Georgia, too, was built North Carolina to the first settlers, or to the “Orphan House,” for the erection of the Proprietaries, that state eventually ob- which so much eloquence was poured tained a large population of a truly reli- forth, both in England and in the Atlantic gious character, partly from the emigra- cities of her American colonies, by the tion of Christians from France and Scot- last-named herald of the Gospel, but which land, partly from the increase of Puritans was not destined to fulfil the expectations from New-England.
of its good and great founder. South Carolina began to be colonized in Thus we find that religion was not the 1670 by settlers shipped to the province by predominating motive that led to the colthe Proprietaries, and from that time for- onization of the Southern States, as was ward it received a considerable accession the case with New-England; and yet it of emigrants almost every year. Its cli- cannot be said to have been altogether mate was represented as being the finest wanting. It is remarkable, that in every in the world : under its almost tropical charter granted to the Southern colonies, sun flowers were said to blossom every "the propagation of the Gospel" is menmonth of the year: orange groves were tioned as one of the reasons for the plant10 supplant those of cedar, silk-worms ing of them being undertaken. And we were to be fed on mulberry-trees intro- shall see that that essential element of a duced from the south of France, and the people's prosperity ultimately received a choicest wines were to be produced.
* Bancroft's “ History of the United States," vol. Ships arrived with Dutch settlers from ii., p. 172, 173.
RELIGIOUS CHARACTER OF THE EARLY COLO
NISTS. FOUNDERS OF NEW-YORK.
vast accession of strength from the emi- first a mere station for traders, gradually grants whom God was preparing to send bore the appearance of a regular plantation; from the Old World to those parts of the and New Amsterdam, on Manhattan IslNew.
and, began to look like some thriving town, with its little fleet of Dutch ships almost continually lying at its wharves. Settle
ments were also made at the west end of CHAPTER VI.
Long Island, on Staten Island, along the North River up to Albany, and even beyond that, as well as at Bergen, at various
points on the Hackensack, and on the RarWe now proceed to give some account itan, in what was afterward New Jersey. of the intermediate states between New- Harmony at this time subsisted between England and those in the South, compri- the Dutch and their Puritan neighbours, notsing New-York, New-Jersey, Delaware, withstanding the dispute about their respecand Pennsylvania. We begin with New- tive boundaries. In 1627, we find the GovYork, which, as we have seen, was first ernorof New Netherlands, or New Belgium, colonized by the Dutch.
as the country was sometimes called, pay“ The spirit of the age,” says an eloquent ing a visit of courtesy and friendship to the author,* to whom we have often referred, Plymouth colony, by which he was receiv
was present when the foundations of New- ed with “the noise of trumpets.” A treaty York were laid. Every great European of friendship and commerce was proposed. event affected the fortunes of America. Did“ Our children after us,” said the Pilgrims, a state prosper, it sought an increase of “shall never forget the good and courtewealth by plantations in the West: Was ous entreaty which we found in your couna sect persecuted, it escaped to the New try, and shall desire your prosperity forWorld. The Reformation, followed by col-ever.” lisions between English Dissenters and the The colony, as it extended, gradually Anglican hierarchy, colonized New-Eng- penetrated into the interior of East Jersey, land. The Reformation, emancipating the and along the shores of the Delaware. United Provinces, led to European settle- Still, receiving neither protection nor enments on the Hudson. The Netherlands couragement from the fatherland, and abandivide with England the glory of having doned to the tender mercies of a low-mindplanted the first colonies in the United ed commercial corporation, its progress States: they also divide the glory of hav- was not what might have been expected. ing set the example of public freedom. If It had not always wise governors. The England gave our fathers the idea of a pop- infamous Kieft, neglecting to conciliate the ular representation, Holland originated for Indians, allowed the settlers on Staten Islthem the principle of federal union.” and to be destroyed by the savages of New
It was the Dutch, we remarked, who first Jersey; and having, in a most wanton atdiscovered the Rivers Hudson and Connec- tack upon a tribe of the friendly Algonticut, and probably the Delaware also. In quins, massacred many of them in cold 1614, five years after Henry Hudson had blood, the colony lay for two whole years sailed up the first of those streams, and to (1643-1645) exposed to attack at all points, which he gave his name, they erected a and was threatened with absolute ruin. few huts upon Manhattan Island, where From the banks of the Raritan to the bornow stands the city of New-York.
ders of the Connecticut, not a “bowery” The first attempts to establish trading (farm) was safe. “Mine eyes,” says an stations, for they hardly could be called eyewitness,“ saw the flames of their settlements, were made by the merchants towns, and the flights and hurries of men, of Amsterdam. But when the Dutch West women, and children, the present removal India Company was formed, in 1621, it ob- of all that could to Holland !” In this war tained a monopoly of the trade with all the celebrated Anne Hutchinson, one of the parts of the Atlantic coast claimed by Hol- most extraordinary women of her age, land in North America. Colonization on was murdered by the Indians, together with the Hudson River does not appear to have all her family, with but one exception. been the main object of that Company. Next to this disastrous war, the colony The territory of New Netherlands was not was most retarded by the want of a popueven named in the charter, nor did the lar form of government, and by the deterStates-General guaranty its possession mination of the West India Company not and protection. Trade with the natives in to concede one. skins and furs was, in fact, the primary and The first founders of New Netherlands almost exclusive object.
were men of a bold and enterprising turn, But in a few years, as the families of the whose chief motive in leaving Holland was, Company's factors increased, what was at no doubt, the acquisition of wealth. But
* Mr. Bancroft’s “ History of the United States,” educated in the National Dutch Church, vol. ii., p. 256.
they brought with them a strong attach
ment to its doctrines, worship, and govern- , Among others who thus came by way of ment; and however deeply interested in Holland to America was Robert Livingtheir secular pursuits, they unquestionably ston, ancestor of the numerous and distintook early measures to have the Gospel guished family of that name to be found in preached purely among them, and to have various parts of America, but particularly the religious institutions of their fatherland in the State of New-York, and son of that planted and maintained in their adopted pious and celebrated minister, the Rev. country. A church was organized at New John Livingston, of Scotland, who, after Amsterdam, now New-York, not later, being eminently blessed in his labours in probably, than 1619; and there was one at his native country, was, in 1663, driven by Albany as early, if not earlier. The first persecution into Holland, where he spent minister of the Gospel settled at New. the remainder of his life as minister of the York was the Rev. Everardus Bogardus. Scotch Church at Rotterdam.
The Dutch language was exclusively Several causes retarded the progress of used in the Dutch churches until 1764, be- religion among the Dutch colonists in ing exactly a century after the colony had America. One was the unsettled state of fallen into the hands of the English. As the country, caused by actual or dreaded soon as that event took place, the new gov- hostilities with the Indians; another lay in ernor made great efforts to introduce the the churches being long unnecessarily delanguage of his own country, by opening pendant for their pastors on the classis, or schools in which it was taught. This, to- presbytery, of Amsterdam; a body which, gether with the introduction of the English | however well disposed, was at too remote Episcopal Church, and the encouragement a distance to exercise a proper judgment it received from Governor Fletcher, in 1693, in selecting such ministers as the circummade the new language come rapidly into stances of the country and the people re
The younger colonists began to urge quired; a third is to be found in the lateness that, for a part of the day at least, English of the introduction of the English tongue should be used in the churches; or that into the public services of the churches ; it new churches should be built for those who ought to have occurred at least fifty years commonly spoke that tongue. At length, sooner. after much opposition from some who Notwithstanding these hinderances, the dreaded lest, together with the language of blessed Gospel was widely and successtheir fathers, their good old doctrines, lit- fully preached and maintained in the colourgy, catechisms, and all should disappear, ny, both when under the government of the Rev. Dr. Laidlie, a distinguished Scotch Holland and afterward. Its beneficial inminister who had been settled in an Eng- fluence was seen in the strict and wholelish Presbyterian church at Flushing, in some morals that characterized the comHolland, connected with the Reformed munity, and in the progress of education Dutch Church, was invited to New York, among all classes, especially after the in order to commence Divine service there adoption of a more popular form of governin English. Having accepted this call, he ment. Many faithful pastors were either was, in 1764, transferred to that city, and sent over from Holland, or raised up at in his new charge his labours were long later periods in the colony, and sent over and greatly blessed. From that time the to Holland for instruction in theology. Dutch language gradually disappeared, so Among the former I may mention the that hardly a vestige of it now remains. Rev. T. J. Frelinghuysen, who came from
The population of New Netherlands, Holland in 1720, and settled on the Raritan. when it fell into the hands of the English, As an able, evangelical, and eminently snçis supposed to have been about ten thou- cessful preacher, he proved a great blesssand, or half as many as that of New-ing to the Reformed Dutch Church in England at the same date. There has been America. He left five sons, all ministers, a slight emigration to it from Holland ever and two daughters, who were married to since, too small, however, to be regarded ministers. In confirmation of this stateas of any importance. But all the emi- ment, we may add the testimony of the grants from Dutch ports to America were
Confer with you about erecting four not Hollanders. The Reformation had
New sects of religion at Amsterdam." made the Dutch an independent nation, and
And Andrew Marvell, in his “Character of Holthe long and bitter experience they had had land," writes : of oppression led them to offer an asylum “ Sure, when religion did itself embark, to the persecuted Protestants of England,
And from the East would westward steer its bark,
It struck; and splitting on this unknown ground, Scotland, France, Italy, and Germany.* Each one thence pillaged the first piece he found.
Hence Amsterdam, Turk, Christian, Pagan, Jew, * This has often been made an occasion of re
Staple of sects, and mint of schism, grew;
That bank of conscience, where not one so strange proach and ridicule by men of more wit than grace
Opinion, but finds credit and exchange. Beaumont and Fletcher, in their “Maid of the Inn,” The Universal Church is only there." introduce one of their characters as saying,
* Christian Magazine, quoted in Dr. Gunn's Me. “ I am a schoolmaster, sir, and would fain
moirs of Dr. Livingston, p. 87. E
In vain for Catholics ourselves we bear ;
NISTS.-FOUNDERS OF NEW JERSEY.
Rev. Gilbert Tennent, who, in a letter to dislike to innovation of every kind, yet, Mr. Prince, of Boston, says, “The labours taken as a whole, they have been uniformly of Mr. Frelinghuysen, a Dutch minister, a religious and virtuous people, and constiwere much blessed to the people of New- tute a most valuable part of the American Brunswick and places adjacent, especially nation. Some of them have found a place about the time of his coming among them. among our most illustrious statesmen. When I came, which was about seven Emigrants from the country of Grotius and years after, I had the pleasure of seeing John De Witt have furnished one President much of the fruits of his ministry: divers and three Vice-presidents to the Republic of his hearers, with whom I had opportu- which they have done so much to establish nity of conversing, appeared to be con- and maintain. They have preserved to verted persons, by their soundness in prin- this day the Church planted by their foreciple, Christian experience, and pious prac- fathers in America; but although a very tice; and these persons declared that his respectable part of them still adhere to it, ministrations were the means thereof."* a greater number have joined the Episcopal Among the latter was the late J. H. Liv- Church, and many belong to other denomingston, D.D., who died in 1825, after being inations. for a long time one of the most distinguished ministers in the United States. On his return from Holland, he was for many years a pastor in New York, and
CHAPTER VII. thereafter divinity professor in the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Dutch RELIGIOUS CHARACTER OF THE EARLY COLOChurch at New-Brunswick, in the State of New Jersey. He was one of those who, HOLLANDERS from New Amsterdam were though born to fill a large space in the his- the first European inhabitants of New-Jertory of the Church, yet spend their lives in sey, and, during the continuance of the the calm and unostentatious discharge of Dutch dominion in America, it formed part the duties of their calling. The impress of of New Netherlands. The first settlement his labours and character will long be felt was at Bergen, but the plantations extended in the Church of which he was so distin- afterward to the Hackensack, the Passaic, guished an ornament.
and the Raritan. It is probable that a few The descendants of the Dutch are nu-families had settled even on the Delaware, merous, and widely dispersed in America. opposite Newcastle, before the cession of They constitute a large proportion of the the country to the English in 1664. inhabitants of the southern part of the State But the Dutch were not the only colonists of New-York and eastern part of New- of New Jersey. A company of the same Jersey, besides forming a very consider- race of English Puritans that had colonized able body in the north and west of the New England left the eastern end of Long former of these states. But they are to Island in 1664, and established themselves be found also in larger or smaller numbers at Elizabethtown. They must have been in all parts of the confederacy. Though few in number, for four houses only were often made the butts of ridicule for their found there the following year, on the arsimplicity,f slowness of movement, and rival of Philip Carteret, as governor of the
province. Woodbridge, Middletown, and * Prince's Christian History.. I may add, that Shrewsbury were founded about the same the Mr. Frelinghuysen spoken of in the text was the time by settlers from Long Island and ancestor of three brothers of the same name, who Connecticut. Newark was founded in 1667 have adorned the profession of the law
in the present generation, one of whom, the Hon. Theodore Fre- or 1668, by a colony of about thirty familinghuysen, was for several years a distinguished lies, chiefly from Brandon in Connecticut. member of the Senate of the United States, and is Colonists from New Haven bought land now Chancellor of the University of New-York. + Their Yankee neighbours, as the New-England families were sent to occupy it, but their
on both sides of the Delaware, and fifty people are called, tell a thousand stories showing the simplicity of the Dutch. One of the best which trading establishments were broken up, and I have heard is that respecting a wealthy Dutch the colony dispersed, in consequence of farmer, in the State of New York, who had erected the Dutch claiming the country. There a church in his neighbourhood at his own expense, are extant memorials, however, in the recand was advised (probably by some very sensible Yankee) to attach a lightning-rod to it. But he re-ords of Cumberland and Cape May counceived the suggestion with displeasure, as if God ties, that colonies from New-England eswould set fire to his own house! Another is as fol- tablished themselves in these, not very long lows: Shortly after the arrival of the Rev. Dr. Laid-after the province changed its masters. lie, and the commencement of his labours, he was thus accosted by some excellent old people, at the close The middle parts were gradually occupied of a prayer-meeting one evening, in which he had by Dutch and New-England settlers in their most fervently addressed the throne of grace: “Ah, progress westward, and also by a considerDomine! (the title which the Dutch, in their affec-able number of Scotch and Irish emigrants tion, give to their pastors) we offered up many an earnest prayer in Dutch for your coming among us;
-all Protestants, and most of them Presand truly the Lord has heard us in English, and sent .byterians. you to us.”
It will be remembered that, by the gift of gree as to change the general character his brother, Charles II., the Duke of York of the inhabitants. The population, upon becaine “Proprietary” of all that part of the whole, remained decidedly Puritan, America ceded by the Dutch to the English though combining the elements of a Scotch, in 1664. That same year the duke sold Dutch, and New England Presbyterianism. New-Jersey to Sir George Carteret and It was much otherwise with West NewLord Berkeley, in honour of the former of Jersey. With the exception of a few whom it took the name that it bears to this churches planted here and there by other day. They immediately appointed a gov- denominations, and standing like islands ernor, and gave the colonists a popular form in this sea of the religion of George Fox, of government. The Legislature, however, Salem, Gloucester, and Burlington counsoon became the organ of popular disaf- ties were peopled almost entirely with fection ; few were willing to purchase a Quakers, and their religion flourishes there title to the soil from the Indians, and to to this day. pay quit-rents to the proprietaries besides. After about twelve years of embarrassAfter some years of severe struggles be- ment, commencing with the Revolution tween the colonists and their governors, of 1688 in England, the Proprietaries of Lord Berkeley became tired of the strife, both East and West New-Jersey surrenand in 1674 sold the moiety of New Jer- dered “their pretended right of governsey to Quakers for £1000, John Fenwick ment” to the British crown, and in 1702, acting as agent in the transaction for Ed- both provinces, united into one, were plaward Byllinge and his assigns. Fenwick ced for a time under the Governor of Newleft England the following year, accompa- York, retaining, however, their own Legisnied by a great many families of that per- lature. The population, notwithstanding secuted sect, and formed the settlement of the difficulties and irritation caused by poSalem, on the Delaware. Lands in West litical disputes intimately affecting their Jersey were now offered for sale by the interests, steadily increased. Taken as a Quaker company, and hundreds of colonists whole, few parts of America have been soon settled upon them. In 1676 they ob- colonized by a people more decidedly retained from Carteret the right, so far as he ligious in principle, or more intelligent was concerned, to institute a government and virtuous; and such, in the main, are of their own in West Jersey, and proceeded, their descendants at the present day. Nothe year following, to lay the groundwork where in the United States have the churchin the“ Concessions," as their fundamental es been supplied with a more faithful or deed was called. Its main feature was, an abler ministry. New-Jersey was the that "it put the power in the people." scene of the excellent David Brainerd's Forthwith great numbers of English Qua- labours among the Indians, during the latkers flocked to West Jersey, with the view ter years of his short but useful life. There, of permanently settling there. A title to too, laboured the celebrated William Tenthe lands was purchased from the Indians, nent, and those other faithful servants of at a council held under the shade of the God in whose society Whitefield found so forest, at the spot where the town of Bur- much enjoyment, and whose ministrations lington now stands; there the tawny chil were so much blessed. There, and pardren of the wood conveyed to the men of ticularly in the eastern section of the provpeace the domain which they desired. ince, many have been witnesses of those “ You are our brothers," said the sachems, outpourings of the Holy Spirit, which we “and we will live like brothers with you. shall have occasion in another place to We will make a broad path for you and us speak of. And, lastly, in New-Jersey was to walk in. If an Englishman falls asleep planted the fourth, in point of date, of the in this path, the Indian shall pass him by American colleges, commonly called Nasand say, He is an Englishman; he is sau Hall, but more properly the College asleep; let him alone. The path shall be of New Jersey. That college has had for plain ; there shall not be in it a stump to its presidents some of the greatest divines hurt the feet.”* And they kept their word. that have ever lived in America, Dickin
In November, 1681, Jennings, who act- son, Burr, the elder Edwards, Finley, Withed as governor for the Proprietaries, con- erspoon, Smith, Green, &c., and it is still vened the first Quaker Legislature ever as flourishing as ever, although a sister inknown to have met. The year following, stitution has arisen at New-Brunswick, to by obtaining the choice of their own chief co-operate in diffusing blessings throughruler, the colonists completed the meas- out the state. I may add, that no state in ure of their self-government. In the year the American Union has more decidedly following that, again, William Penn and proved the importance of having a good eleven others bought East New Jersey original population, nor has any state done from Carteret's heirs, and from that time more, in proportion to its population and a Quaker emigration set into that division resources, to sustain the honour and proof the province, but never to such a de- mote the best interests of the American * Smith's “ History of New-Jersey."