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view of the wage earner and the middle-class person and carried out to a practical issue.
Section 6. RECOGNITION OF HOUSEHOLD SCIENCE FOR COLLEGE
The need of securing college recognition in admission credit for courses taken in high school has influenced the high school in two ways. It operates to retard the introduction of new subjects, no matter how meritorious, into the high-school curriculum; it protects subjects already in even if they lack merit; it is, in short, an influence against progress as regards changes in the high-school curriculum. On the other hand, with regard to subjects already in the curriculum, the pressure from the colleges has been toward better standards of work. Home economics is now passing from the first of these positic to the second, as colleges have come to accept quite generally for entrance credit a limited amount of technical work in high school; this amount is placed, in a recent committee report (see below), at about one-fourth of the high-school curriculum. This solution can not be final, for the new vocational courses in high school will require at least one-half time for technical work, and public opinion will ultimately require the open ladder from these vocational courses into college quite as much as from the classical high-school courses.
High-school teachers in home economics must be on guard against the maldevelopment of what should be vocational work in homemaking into academic pseudo-scientific instruction in order to curry favor for college entrance recognition. Let vocational work stand on its own feet and recognition will come duly. As well seek to organize academic, cultural, "scientific" courses in medicine or law as in household management and its subsidiary techniques; the final point of view in schools which teach the practitioner is always practice, skill, the vocation, the profession.
Three statements follow: Status of home economics as to college admission, four college admission units of North Central Association, and a suggested standard high-school course.
Status of home economics for college admission.'-In 1912 of 203 colleges giving the A. B. degree no one of them prescribed that household science must be offered for admission; but 79 of these colleges will accept household science if offered for admission, and 10 other colleges will consider its acceptance. In other words, 89 of 203 colleges recognize this subject as now taught in high schools as of sufficient educational worth to give it recognition alongside the older academic studies, as authorizing entrance upon a collegiate course of study leading to the A. B. degree. Of the 114 colleges not recognizing household science for entrance, 45 accept only men students, so that only 69 of 158 academic
1 College Entrance Requirements. C. D. Kingsley. U. S. Bureau of Education. Bulletin, 1913, No. 7. See also College Entrance Requirements; report of teaching section Ammittee. Lake Placid Conference on Home Economics, 1908, p. 69.
institutions maintain a negative attitude; i. e., 56 per cent recognize household science of admission. Similarly, of 85 engineering schools, 44 accept household science for admission; and of 31 colleges of agriculture, all but 3 accept household science for admission; i. e., 51 per cent of engineering schools and 90 per cent of agricultural colleges recognize household science for admission.
The amount of weight given to household science in the usual requirements of 15 units of high-school study is also significant. Of the 79 A. B. colleges accepting household economics for admission, 31 recognize not more than 1 unit, 18 accept 1 or 2 units, and 9 accept 3, and 21 accept 3 or 4 units or more. Only 65 of the 203 A. B. colleges do not recognize some one or more specified vocational subjects for entrance, and certain of these 65 colleges will consider such subjects.
Of 39 engineering schools, or schools of technology, 17 accept 1 unit or less, 11 accept 2 units, 2 accept 3 units, and 9 accept 4 or more units. Of the 28 agricultural colleges accepting home economics for admission, 10 accept 1 unit or less, 5 accept 2 units, 3 accept 3 units, and 10 accept 4 or more units.
Four college admission units of North Central Association.-The North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools adopted in 1910 definitions of four units of work in household arts for college admission as follows:1
Plain sewing (1 unit).
Every exercise in sewing should illustrate an important principle or process, or a simple combination of such principles and processes. Hand sewing and sewing-machine work must be equally insisted upon.
(a) The various stitches and their special uses.
(b) Hand sewing, fundamental processes.
(c) The use and care of sewing machines and their attachments.
(d) The nature and special uses of cotton, linen, and woolen goods.
(e) The use of patterns; cutting out.
(f) Taking measurements; making of simple garments.
Sewing and millinery (1 unit):
(a) Making of shirt waists, wash dresses, and similar garments.
(b) Millinery: Study of materials for hats; making, altering, and covering hat frames. The planning, making, and trimming of seasonable hats of appropriate materials.
Throughout the course economy and good taste in dress. Cooking (2 units):
1. Food classified and tested for food principles. A study of the effect of heat upon foods alone and in combination; with and without water and other liquids; experiments with leavening agents, and their uses shown in actual cooking. Bread making. The theory and practice of canning and preserving fruits, vegetables, and meats. Planning, cooking, and serving meals. Waiting on table.
2. The cost of food; market prices; the cost of meals. Household accounts. The family dietary: The planning, weighing, and cooking of apportioned meals. Diets for infants, invalids, and convalescents.
Sanitation: Selection of site, house planning; heating, lighting, and ventilating; water supply; disposal of waste; furnishing and decorating; cleaning processes, including laundry work.
Suggested standard high-school course. The committee on articulation of high school and college, of the National Education Asso
1 Proceedings of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, 1910, Chicago, pp. 144.
ciation, defines a high-school course as composed of 15 units, each constituting approximately a quarter of a year's work; it should include at least 3 units of English, 1 of social science (including history), and 1 unit of natural science; it should include two majors of 3 units each and one minor of 2 units, and one of the majors should be English; the requirement in mathematics and in foreign languages should not exceed 2 units of mathematics and 2 units of one language other than English; of the total of 15 units, not less than 11 should consist of English, foreign language, mathematics, social science (including history), natural science, or other work conducted by recitations and home study. The other 4 units should be left as a margin to be used for additional academic work or for mechanic arts, household science, commercial work, or any other kind of work that the best interests of the student appear to require. This means practically that the 15 units shall be divided as follows: English, 3; foreign language, 2; mathematics, 2; social science, 1; natural science, 1; and 2 additional academic units which must be so chosen as to increase the units in some one field to at least 3; and 4 units left as a margin for individual choice. A supplementary report from the committee permitted the substitution, in place of either 2 units of mathematics or 2 units of foreign language, of a second unit of social science and a second unit of natural science.
This committee mentions the following among other considerations determining such a curriculum:
The high-school curriculum must not be overloaded by requiring the pupil interested in the new subjects to take all the old; a social civic education must be provided; tentative, vocational preparation must be given; individual efficiency must be increased; and, finally, mechanic arts, agriculture, or household science should be recognized as rational elements in the education of all boys and girls, and especially of those who have not as yet chosen their vocation. means of exclusively bookish curricula false ideas of culture are developed. A chasm is created between the producers of material wealth and the distributors and consumers thereof. Our traditional ideals of preparation for higher institutions are particularly incongruous with the actual needs and future responsibilities of girls. It would seem that such high-school work as is carefully designed to develop capacity for and interest in the proper management and conduct of a home should be regarded as of importance at least equal to that of any other work. We do not understand how society can properly continue to sanction for girls high-school curricula that disregard this fundamental need, even though such curricula are planned in response to the demand made by some of the colleges for women.1
It may be suggested that while the course recommended by this committee makes very adequate allowance for industrial work as supplementary studies in a general high-school curriculum, it does not provide sufficient room for studies that would be primarily vocational. A home-making agricultural or commercial course in a high school which allows only one-fourth time for "vocational" studies
1 College Entrance Requirements. C. D. Kingsley. U. S. Bureau of Education, Bulletin, 1913, No. 7, pp. 97-98.
seems to the writer an anomaly. It is the development of vocational high-school courses that are about one-half vocational, and the recognition of such courses for college admission, that would seem to be the next important steps in this field.
Section 7. HIGH SCHOOLS GIVING COURSES IN HOME ECONOMICS, BY STATES.
There were in 1913 some 1,345 high schools in the United States which reported registration in courses in home economics. There was in these courses a total registration of 66,914 students, of whom nomics courses in 57 different high schools. In 1914, 2,440 high schools were reported as teaching home economics (see Part IV of this report).
The high schools which teach home economics were distributed among the various States as indicated below:
TABLE 11.—High schools reporting registration in home-economics courses in 1913 and in 1914, by States.
Section 8. TIME ALLOTMENTS IN HIGH-SCHOOL CURRICULA IN HOUSE-
(A.) Time allotments by subjects or topics.-Statements were given by 288 high schools as to the instruction given in some 19 different subjects and topics in household science. Of these subjects, 5 relate to foods, cookery, and nutrition; 5 to sewing, dressmaking, textiles, and costume design; and 9 to the house, its furnishings, household management, housewifery, laundry, sanitation, and nursing. These three groups of courses may be designated foods, clothing, and shelter and management. There is presented in Table 12 a series of facts about each of the 19 subjects or topics, viz: (1) The number of high schools reporting that the course or topic is taught; (2) the minimum number of hours and the maximum hours given to the topic in any school; (3) the median hours so given, i. e., when the hours are arranged in the order of size, the hours given by the school midway between the schools giving the smallest and the largest number of hours; (4) the two limiting numbers which, when the hours of instruction are arranged thus, will include between themselves the middle half of the schools, i. e., one-half of the numbers just above and just below the median value; (5) the modes or certain numbers of hours for which instruction is more commonly given than for other numbers.
Referring now to Table 12, it is evident from column 1 that cookery courses are at present taught in more high schools than are sewing courses. There are 428 elementary or advanced cookery courses reported, as compared with 356 sewing and dressmaking courses; and 592 courses in foods, including cookery, food chemistry, and dietetics, as compared with 435 in all "clothing" subjects, including sewing, dressmaking, millinery, textiles, and costume design. It seems certain, therefore, that cookery with its related theoretical instruction is a third more frequent in high-school curricula than sewing and its related theoretical courses in textiles and costume design. In the elementary school, sewing courses are more numerous than cookery. The changed relation in the high school is in part doubtless a direct result of this situation in the elementary school; in part, cookery will be favored in the high school because of what seem its greater resources in subject matter. The third group of courses, "shelter and management," includes the following subjects taught in the number of schools indicated: Household management, 31; sanitation, 26; accounts, 20; decoration and furnishings, 23; housewifery, 23; home nursing, 24; care of children, 6; and laundry, 27. Instruction in these topics, amounting to 206 courses in all, have developed more recently in home education and could scarcely yet expect to secure more recognition than it has, viz, one-half that given sewing and one-third that granted cookery instruction. Some of the impor