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tion. Of 199 high schools replying, 117 (59 per cent) state that more or less of cooperation has been developed between chemistry instruction and different divisions of home economics, while 82 schools (41 per cent) report no such cooperation. This cooperation has taken the form-e. g., in the technical high school, Cleveland, the high school at Houghton, Mich., and many other schools-of a household chemistry or food chemistry course for girls instead of a standard chemistry course alike for both boys and girls. Similarly, of 193 high schools replying, 100 (51.7 per cent) report that the art department cooperates more or less in a direct way with home-economics teaching, while 93 schools (48 per cent) report negatively.

(C) Home cooperation in high-school teaching.—Of 232 replying, 55 high schools (23.7 per cent) report that some form of cooperation between home and school has been effected in the teaching of home economics, as in the completion of sewing projects at home and the repeating of cooking exercises at home. In the absence of equipment a start has sometimes been made in household-arts teaching by presenting problems at school to be entirely worked out at home and later reported upon with results at school. Such a method, however, makes it impossible to handle the actual process educationally by having expert criticism and discussion at the moment of action. The proposal to give credit for home practice in a technique taught at school belongs here and has value in developing interest for pupil and the home adults alike, but it may introduce objectionable features if it emphasizes for young children deadening routine rather than the progressive solving of new problems.1 Here, too, belongs the Crete plan of teaching household arts through the organized voluntary services of home women, who teach groups in their own kitchens. The fact that 76 per cent of the schools reporting have not utilized in teaching household arts the homes from which their children come, indicates that much progress is possible here.


In 244 high schools furnishing data the salaries varied from $315 to $2,600; the median salary is between $800 and $849, and 50 per cent of the salaries are between $700 to $749 and $1,000 to $1,049.

The distribution of salaries by States and amounts is given in Table 16.

1 See Part I of this report, Bulletin, 1914, No. 36, p. 33.

2 The salaries are entered by groups of fifties-i. e., all between $500 and $549 are entered as $500; the first and last columns are exceptions. minimum and maximum salary, the maximum was entered.

Where a school reported a

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TABLE 16.-Salaries of high-school teachers of home economics, by amounts and by States.

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TABLE 16.-Salaries of high-school teachers of home economics, by amounts and by States-Continued.















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In addition to the regular program of elementary and high school courses, it is evident that instruction in household arts must be provided for the much larger group of girls, young women, and home women who are out of school if the purpose of an education for better homemaking is to be adequately achieved. School instruction in household arts primarily reaches the next generation of homes; it may not affect the home women of to-day. Some of the agencies for aiding home women are described in other sections of this report—the extension education of colleges and universities in the home-economics field, agencies for the betterment of rural homes— but the agency of greatest promise in this field is continuation instruction of an organized sort which the public schools are beginning to provide for women outside the regular school enrollment.

Thus the association for the study and prevention of infant mortality in its campaign is urging the great importance of continuation schools of homemaking; that is, schools to pick up again and continue the training of girls when they have become young women, and are either meeting the responsibility of establishing the new home or, a little later, are facing the problems of child care. The 1911 resolutions of the infant mortality association request each State to appoint a commission on continuation schools of homemaking, and urge that such schools be conducted, if possible, in model houses or flats; that practice in the care of infants, children, and the sick be provided whenever possible; and that special efforts be made to create day continuation schools as well as, or in preference to, evening schools, and also to secure cooperation of employers in part-time schools.1

Massachusetts as a State is probably most awake to this problem in its provision for practical arts classes in homemaking open both to wage-earning and home women. State aid is given for this as for other industrial education. Boston has daytime continuation classes meeting in a housekeeping flat; at several school centers there are afternoon lectures and conferences for mothers and homemakers. Courses in cooking and sewing are also offered in various elementary school buildings, and evening household arts classes in dressmaking, cooking, millinery, and embroidery are offered in 17 centers for both actual and prospective homemakers.

In these Boston evening classes the instruction is organized on a unit-course plan-i. e., registration is taken for a single subject, instruction in which will take a definite number of hours sufficient to give practical skill in the limited field, and teachers are sought who are practically skillful in the special subject chosen. This point is evidently one worth observing in the organization of such


1 See transactions of the association, 1911-12-13.


instruction. Practical persons, housewives, and wage-earning women, for example, are more ready to enter a class for a definitely limited practical purpose, such as learning to make bread, cook vegetables, trim hats, make shirtwaists, etc., than they would be to study "domestic science" or some other "subject." It is the superiority of the vocational appeal in the vocational field. Pressure can thus be put upon the students for efficiency in work and a workmanlike product.

The director of continuation schools in Boston makes the following statement regarding the daytime continuation classes in household arts:

The school committee has rented an apartment located conveniently for the employees of several candy factories (52 Tileston Street) and has equipped the apartment in such a manner as could be provided by a young couple of small income. A very competent homemaker of practical experience has been placed in charge of this apartment, and she receives from the candy factories groups of approximately 10 girls who are permitted to attend during working hours without loss of pay. Sessions are of two hours each, conducted twice a week. The teacher in charge is now handling five such groups. During the time in which classes are not in session the teacher in charge visits the factories and homes of her pupils. Instruction is intended to cover all of the ordinary duties of a simple, but well-managed home. These classes have been in operation for about two years and have been received with hearty support by both employers and the community.

The director of the classes reports that her method is to proceed in a conversational way and maintain an atmosphere like that of a home where a mother is teaching her daughters and a group of friends.

The "Home School," Providence, R. I.,1 is primarily a continuation school for working girls, which attempts to give them training in housecraft under home conditions. The school is conducted in a five-room flat and is part of the public-school system. One of the suggestions arising from its experience is that women living at home might find a supplementary source of income in home industries, such as baking, jelly making, home market gardens, needlework, art work, etc. The Providence home school sells its own products of bread and cake, finding a ready demand for them, and it is believed that the training here given young women wage earners will enable them to undertake similar productive work later in their own homes. Such a method of economic earning by the married woman is certainly preferable to her going out into outside employment to the detriment of the home, if the danger of sweated employment can be avoided.

The home woman can best be reached, probably, by daytime lectures and continuation classes. A promising experiment is that inaugurated in January, 1914, by the Rochester (N. Y.) Board of

1 The Home School. A. W. Trowbridge. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 1913.

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