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Education. An afternoon course (4 o'clock) in "health lessons for women "was established in response to a taxpayers' petition
Requesting that classes in the branches of physiology, hygiene, dietetics, disease symptoms, preventive medicine, nursing, and first aid be established at such hours as women could most conveniently attend, i. e., from 4 until 5 o'clock in the afternoon; and that there be morning and evening classes for such as can not attend in the afternoon, so that every woman in this city shall have the opportunity of gaining this most necessary knowledge.
Twenty-four lessons were given, the first 12 by a woman physician, the second by a nurse. The subjects are as follows: By the physician-1. Physiology; 2. Care of the child, birth to 2 years; 3. Care of the child, 2 years to 12 years; 4. Physiology, hygiene, and psychology of adolescence; 5. First aids; 6. Emergencies; 7. Emergencies; 8. Causes of disease; 9. Prevention and recognition of disease; 10. Rational principles for the cure of disease; 11. Household and civic hygiene; 12. Motherhood. By the nurse-1. General nursing; 2. Care of child, baby to 2 years of age; 3. Care of child, 2 years to 12 years of age; 4. Making beds; 5. Bandaging demonstration; 6. Care of sick room; 7. Care of room; 8. Dietetics-milk, use of foods; 9. Dietetics—fruits and vegetables; 10. Dietetics-foods and preparations; 11. Nursing the invalid child; 12. Obstetrical care.
Experiments with daytime classes for home women, to provide practical work and laboratory instruction in unit subjects of the household, were carried out by the public schools of several cities last year, notably with great success at Montclair, N. J., where about 200 women received instruction, and where this year the plan has been continued and extended to include a class for housemaids, which they attended at daytime hours and on their employers' time. Another example is the Sewickley, Pa., schools, which last year organized three cooking classes under the auspices of the local women's club, one for white maids and one for colored and white maids (serving girls), and one for housewives. A fee of $2.50 for the maids' classes and $4.50 for the housekeepers' class was charged. In many schools, particularly public high schools, either the regular classes in homemaking subjects have been opened to young women and housekeepers of the community, or more frequently special classes have been organized to give practical instruction in home-making subjects to women not members of the school.
New York City maintains an evening public-lecture service in connection with the public schools, in which in a single year 696 lecturers have spoken on 1,746 different topics before 5,573 audiences with a total attendance of 1,000,190 persons. Some of the lectures have reference to the home. In 1911-12 a course of eight lectures on " Pure foods and their preparation" was given by Prof. John C. Olsen and a score of individual lectures upon foods, marketing, milk supply, and other hygienic questions of home concern.
V. STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION FOR THE HOME.
Practically all of the State normal schools now include in their curricula courses related to the home. Probably half of these normal schools are requiring some instruction in household arts as an element in the general curriculum for grade teachers, while a number of State normal schools now give courses for training supervisory teachers of household arts, the standards for which are properly in advance of courses for regular grade teachers. This advanced instruction in household science in preparation for supervisory teaching is sometimes limited to one normal school in a State, with less advanced departments of home economics in the other normal schools. One State (California) has a special normal school devoted to manual training and home economics exclusively. Many normal schools give homemaking courses in addition to teachers' courses, and thus broaden their courses from merely teacher-training to include curricula in household management and other technical fields. Fully accepted, this theory would develop the "normal schools" into vocational colleges, something foreshadowed possibly in the Wisconsin plan (p. 118). The normal school is aiding in the movement for rehabilitating country life, with a spirit like that of the State colleges, in some cases with a special department devoted to rural problems, in which the rural home has prominent consideration (p. 121). In several normal schools, extension work through neighboring rural schools is organized, as at the Harrisonburg (Va.) Normal School, and in such cases home betterment is one objective (p. 122). Enterprising science teachers in normal schools, as in colleges where there are no departments of household science, are exploring the possibilities of instruction related to home problems. The State normal school at Westfield, Mass., offers an illustration of this. In short, American normal schools are already making a great contribution to the movement for better homemaking, by furnishing all their graduates with some of the special knowledge on which the art of right living is based, and increasingly by training both special teachers of home economics, and also graduates of special vocational courses who are ready to apply trained skill in homemaking and in some of the industrial applications of household science. This last point suggests
a wider future for the public normal school than the field it now occupies. May it not be used as an instrument of the State in the vocational-education movement which is upon us, its curriculum broadened to include the vocations of industry, agriculture, commerce, and the household, as well as the teaching of these vocations, and the State thus find ready to its hand efficient vocational, colleges wherever there is now a State normal school?
Here we are concerned, however, with the work of the public normal schools, as they now exist, in relation to the provision of an education for the home.
Those interested in the entire problem of training teachers of home. economics should consult, in addition to this division on normal schools, the next division, on technical institutes, and parts of the division on colleges, which deal with college courses for teachers. (For matters of equipment in normal school, see p. 50 in Part I of this report, Bulletin, 1914, No. 36.)
Section 1. FOUR-YEAR COURSE IN HOME ECONOMICS; A VOCATIONAL COURSE: STATE NORMAL COLLEGE, ALBANY, N. Y.
This institution, which has for its chief function the training of secondary school teachers, offers to high-school graduates a four-year special course for teachers of domestic science and domestic art leading to the degree of bachelor of science in household economics. While the Normal College offers work more advanced than that of normal schools generally, it is believed that its courses in household economics will be suggestive of possibilities to other normal schools. There are required in household economics subjects 7, 9, 10, and 4 points, respectively, in the successive four years, a total of 30 points in 63 points required for four years, so that approximately one-half of the curriculum is devoted to household-science subjects. The household-science course in the Normal College totals 1,884 hours of instruction, which is far above the mean total of 600 hours of household-arts teaching in normal schools generally (p. 135). There is proper emphasis on natural science; but economics and social science are, unfortunately, lacking except for the industrial-history course. The details follow:
First year.-English, 2 points; chemistry, 4; industrial history, 1; elementary sewing, 2; plain sewing, 2; household decoration, 1; textiles, 1; laundering, 1; electives, 2; total, 16.
Second year.-English, 2 points; psychology, 3; chemistry of foods and nutrition, 3; elementary cookery, 1; intermediate cookery, 1; millinery, 1; costume design, 1; household physics, 1; electives, 2; total, 16.
Third year.-Applied design, 1 point; advanced applied design, 1; dressmaking, 3; household management, 11; dietetics, 14; advanced millinery, 1; method of teaching domestic art, 1; history and principles of education, 4; electives, 2; total, 16.
Fourth year.-Advanced cookery, 2 points; home sanitation and bacteriology, 1; method of teaching domestic science, 1; psychology, 14; general methods of teaching, 2; principles of industrial education, 1; method of teaching, 1; observation and practice teaching, 2; electives, 4; total, 15.
A four-year vocational course for women.-To those who do not wish to fit themselves as teachers of home economics a "special fouryear course for women," leading to the B. S. degree, is provided in the Albany Normal College. This permits, after the first year, the election of advanced work "in millinery, textiles, and dressmaking for those in domestic art, and in cooking, chemistry, and sanitation for those in domestic science," and may be described doubtless as a homemakers' course; according to the standard urged elsewhere for such courses, liberal studies might well occupy half time in such a
Section 2. A STATE PLAN FOR HOME ECONOMICS IN NORMAL SCHOOLS-WISCONSIN.
The eight normal schools of Wisconsin have a well-considered plan whereby some household-arts work is offered in each normal school, while a special department of domestic science and domestic art, affording comprehensive training, is maintained at one school-the Stevens Point Normal School. Moreover, by recent arrangement the State normal schools have been correlated with the State university, so that a student may take the first two years of a college course in one of the State normal schools and then pass to the university for the last two years, either for a general or professional course. This arrangement makes it possible for young women to secure a four-year training in home economics, the first two years in the State normal school and the last two in the home-economics department of the State university. In effect, it establishes a system of tax-supported State junior colleges located at various points throughout the State in affiliation with the university.
A special department of domestic science and domestic art at the Stevens Point Normal School was opened in 1903 and has had a constantly increasing enrollment, numbering 68 in 1912-13, with courses intended to train teachers for the grades and high schools, and also to furnish a training in homemaking for young women who do not intend to teach. For teachers a three-year domestic science and domestic art course is provided with specialization in either line, and also a two-year course in domestic science and domestic art without specialization. Vocational courses not in preparation for teaching are offered for one year and for two years, the former including enough science to give a basis for the immediately practical, and the latter including more advanced work in both domestic science and domestic art. All of the foregoing courses require high-school grad
uation for admission. There is also offered a five-year domestic science and domestic art course which requires graduation from the eighth grade for admission. Individual courses are offered by the domestic science and domestic art department at the Stevens Point Normal in the following subjects: Chemistry, four courses; physics, general biology, bacteriology, physiology, cookery, advanced cookery, dietetics, home nursing and emergencies, laundering, sanitation, household management, drawing, interior decoration, sewing, costume designing, millinery, advanced millinery, home and social economics. Educational courses in observation psychology, theory of education, history of education, school management, organization and practice teaching, are also included. The department is equipped with laboratories, kitchen, sewing rooms, laundry, dining room, bedroom, and emergency room.
Additional to this it is planned to construct a moderately priced cottage, containing living room, two bedrooms, dining room, kitchen, cellar, all neatly and adequately furnished in good taste, in which the young women of the senior class may live in turn, in groups of four for short periods of from three to five weeks each, taking charge of the house, running it themselves, and being held responsible for results.
The dormitory will also be used for some practice work. Stevens Point Normal School offers also a rural school course in domestic science and domestic art, including two periods a week of cooking and the same amount of sewing.
The general plan of the Wisconsin normal schools of providing some instruction in household arts in every normal school and a complete department for the training of special teachers in a single. school is to be commended. One might suggest as a minimum of instruction in household arts for all normal students in every normal school the instruction in cookery and sewing of the rural school course at Stevens Point. It represents the minimum amount of teaching in household arts which every grade teacher should be ready to impart.
Section 3. CURRICULA IN OTHER NORMAL SCHOOLS.
Framingham, Mass.-At the Framingham (Mass.) State Normal School is the Mary Hemenway Department of Household Arts, so called in memory of Mrs. Mary Hemenway, who established the Boston Normal School of Cookery in Boston in 1887, which was transferred by the trustees of her estate to the Framingham Normal School in 1893. The department offers a three-year course, as follows: First year-Cookery (principles and methods), chemistry (general and qualitative analysis), physics, biology, sewing, drawing, French, and English. Second year-Cookery (advanced and invalid), chemistry (qualitative and organic), physiology, sewing, drawing, French, English, psychology, laundry, teaching of cooking