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and sewing. Third year-Cookery, food and dietetics, dressmaking and millinery, drawing (house decoration and mechanical drawing), sanitation, emergencies, pedagogy, teaching of cooking and sewing.
One of the strong features of the department is its provision for practice teaching.
It combines classes in sewing and cookery, coming from elementary and secondary schools. A part of the practice school is carried on in the main school building. Upon almost all school days three classes in cookery may be seen at work, each class under the direction of a senior, assisted by a member of the middle junior class. On other days the seniors instruct classes in sewingjuniors from the regular course and pupils from the schools of the practice department. All of this work is done under careful supervision. In addition to this teaching, each senior carries on independent classes in sewing and cookery in Framingham and in many of the neighboring cities and towns. These classes are made up from elementary and secondary schools. Under this plan the members of the senior class have a full year's experience in teaching one or more classes; and the members of the middle junior class have a year of observation and assisting which prepares them in a measure for their teaching in the senior year.
Farmington (Me.) Normal School.-Under the Maine law providing aid for household-arts education the teaching of some household arts is required in every normal school, and the department which had been established at the Farmington Normal School in 1911-12 was extended to a third year in 1913 for the training of supervisors of household-arts teaching. The two-year course adds to the regular normal-school curriculum one year of cooking, with marketing, household accounts, management, and housewifery; and one year of elementary sewing, garment making, and dressmaking. The third year as outlined provides a full-time curriculum of advanced cookery and sewing, food production and manufacture, dietetics, laundry work, millinery, theory and practice of domestic science, practice teaching, and academic work.
The experience of the Farmington Normal School in the matter of equipment will be suggestive. There was no room for household-arts laboratories in the normal building, so a near-by cottage was secured. While the cooking and sewing classes have been crowded, there has been a remarkable interest shown by the students. The house does not provide dining room and bedrooms for housewifery practice, so the use of private rooms has been secured for the purpose. The director of the work writes:
Though we have been and are laboring under disadvantages, we are looking for something better. The girls are very much attached to our cottage, for they say it seems so "homey." Our work is growing so rapidly that we plan to ask the next legislature for money for a new building. Besides laboratories for sewing and cooking, I wish to have a suite of rooms to use as living quarters for the teachers of the household-arts department. These we shall use for practical demonstrations of the running of the home. We give instruction in sewing and cooking from the fourth grade through the ninth in the model
schools, and are using some of the outside schools for practice classes.
Macomb (Ill.) Normal School. The possibilities of household arts in the curricula of a normal school are well illustrated in the requirements for various diplomas at the Western Illinois State Normal School at Macomb. The school offers: (I) A normal diploma with varied requirements which include three credits in "the school arts"; of these one may be chosen in household arts, which appears as an elective in the second and third term of the junior year of this standard normal course. (II) A country school training certificate for teachers of rural schools, requiring 18 credits, of which household arts to the amount of 1 credit is required in the first term of a two-year course. (III) An academic diploma for which 32 credits are required, of which 10 are prescribed and 21 elective; in the elective credits household courses may be chosen for from two-thirds to 2 credits.
The individual courses offered at Macomb are as follows: In the normal department a course in "domestic science and art in the grades"; in the country-school course, six weeks' instruction in cooking and six weeks in sewing; in the academic department, separate courses in cooking and in sewing; and in the postgraduate courses (which are offered in household arts, library economy, manual training, and physical education, only), there are provided the following in household arts: Application of heat to food materials (two courses), textiles, and the house, and in addition eight courses open to household-arts students, but listed, respectively, as drawing, design, chemistry, agriculture, home nursing, and education.
California State Normal School of Manual Arts and Home Economics.-The State of California has recently taken over as a State school the Anna Blake City Normal School of Manual Arts and Home Economics at Santa Barbara, which is the single instance of a State normal school exclusively devoted to industrial and domestic teaching. Instruction is offered in both domestic science and domestic art. The entrance requirement is two or more years' training in a college, normal or special school, or successful teaching experience. The diploma of the school entitles the holder to the special certificate, both to teach and supervise.
Section 4. THE NORMAL SCHOOL AND THE RURAL PROBLEM.
The rural school department in the normal school.-The normal schools of the country are beginning to recognize that the ruralschool problem is concerned largely with the teaching of agriculture and home economics. A special department to deal with the rural-school problem, giving due attention to the rural home, has been established in several normal schools-first in the Illinois State
Normal at Macomb a few years ago and since copied in the organization of other schools. Miss Mabel Carney, who was connected with the pioneer work at Macomb as the training teacher in the district practice school and later director of the country school department at the Illinois State University, in writing of this matter,
There should be in the first place a special department of the normal school devoted to country-school interests. The course offered for this department had best be two years in length, the standard for entrance being as high as possible. Contiguous with this course should be offered another, also of two years' duration, for graduates of the tenth grade. As the standard of the department rises, it should be possible to discard the more elementary course and supplant it by the advanced one, as has been done at Kalamazoo, Mich. Eventually there should be introduced also a special advanced course of regular normal-school rank for the preparation of teachers for high-salaried country schools, consolidated schools, normal departments in high-schools, and other special phases of rural education.1
Rural extension work, Harrisonburg (Va.) State Normal School.The Harrisonburg (Va.) State Normal School, established in 1909, is conducting notable extension work, especially in household arts and manual arts in rural schools, by sending its senior students for practice work into these schools under the direction of Miss Rhea C. Scott, special supervisor of the normal-school faculty in charge of rural education.
Miss S. Frances Sale, of the department of household arts in the normal school, furnishes the following details:
The members of the senior class, who are working for diplomas in the household arts and industrial arts courses, go to the rural schools once a week for practice teaching. Seven of the largest schools in the county and two small schools have invited us to teach sewing, cooking, and manual arts for them, an over 600 children in the county are doing this work. The young women, after making lesson plans, drive out with the rural supervisor and usually spend the day; or if the school is near, they get back in half a day. Two, three, or even four young women go to the same school on the same day. It depends on the number of classes wanting the industrial work. Some of the classes contain 20 children. The practice teachers are excused from the work they miss while they are in the country, but are held responsible for its preparation. The greatest problem we have is the arrangement of the schedule so that the girls will lose as little time as possible from their normal classes. The teachers teach two, three, or even four classes a day, organize "bread clubs" among the girls, help in patrons' leagues, in getting up entertainments for raising money for the improvement of the school equipment, etc. They visit in the homes where an opportunity offers itself, study the community, and are encouraged to take as active a part in the improvement of the school surroundings as possible. A number of the schools have bought their own equipment. They gave entertainments in order to make the money. Some schools had "kitchen showers." The normal school bought one small equipment when the work was begun three
1 Carney, Mabel. Country Life and the Country School. Chicago, Row, Peterson & Co. 1912, pp. 408.
This equipment is used in one school. The materials are all furnished by the children in both cooking and sewing. We have had no difficulty in getting the things we want. In sewing, the completed article is the property of the child making it. We try to select such things as will be of interest and use to the child. For cooking, a list is given to the regular teacher, and she gives it to the children the day before the class comes. They take turns furnishing the materials.
In manual arts we encourage the use of native materials when it is possible-honeysuckle, willow, and white-oak splits for baskets and mats; drygoods boxes for problems in woodwork; natural dyes for coloring rags for rugs and staining wood. The normal school owns a chest of tools costing $8.31, which is taken from school to school. It has been in use three years, and is still in good condition.
Near the normal school is a one-room rural school in a very poor community. This has been made into a community school. The people in the neighborhood have worked hard to help in every way to raise the money to add a room for industrial work. This room will be used for classes in sewing, cooking, woodwork, basket making, weaving, etc. In the afternoons and evenings the women will go for lessons in subjects related to the home. A night school, meeting two nights every week, has been in progress since early fall. The regular teacher, an enthusiastic little woman, teaches the night classes.
The people of the county are very much interested in the different phases of the industrial work and are begging for it.1
Section 5. APPLIED SCIENCE, RELATED TO HOUSEHOLD, IN NORMAL SCHOOL.
The possibilities of applying science instruction to practical problems, many of which are of home concern, in schools where no household science as such is taught, is illustrated by the chemistry instruction given in the Westfield (Mass.) Normal School by Lewis B. Allyn. The students are taught—
to appreciate properly their own bodies and to guard themselves against the quack nostrums and questionable remedies of daily life. Foods, beverages, drugs, and medicines are analyzed and helpful as well as harmful properties determined. A knowledge of the dangerous effects of acetanilid preparations has well-nigh driven out the use of grippe and headache powders among the students of this school; while the fact that the local board of health depends in some measure upon analyses made by students in this course gives importance to the tasks undertaken, fosters care in the working habits of students, and inspires them with the sense of responsibility which every good citizen should have. The analysis of water and milk; the determination of the amount of alcohol in patent medicines, "soft drinks," and other beverages; the search
1 For further information as to the work of the Harrisonburg Normal School, see the following: Normal Bulletin, January, 1912, "Suggestions for rural schools"; Supplement to Normal Bulletin, November, 1912, "Suggestions for rural schools-household and manual arts"; Normal Bulletin, January, 1913, "Leisure for farm women"; Rockingham County school bulletin, Harrisonburg, January, 1913, “Things that all country children should know and do, by the children of the schools"; Lessons in cooking and sewing for Virginia school girls," issued by the State department of education, 1912, prepared and edited by S. Frances Sale, of the Harrisonburg Normal School.
* See List of Recommended Foods, published by the Westfield (Mass.) Board of Health; 10 cents.
for coal-tar products, etc.-these are other applications of the efforts made to provide for the physical well-being of students through a knowledge of chemical laws; while the removal of stains, the preparation of essences, perfumes, etc., and correlation with the department of manual arts, whereby materials to be used in that department are dyed or otherwise prepared, are illustrations of the "practical" turn given this science, whereby a considerable saving of money to the student is made possible. It is believed that the knowledge thus gained through the missionary work of students who become teachers will reach thousands of pupils to their permanent advantage. In a word, the aim of this course is to create, if necessary, and to foster a real interest in the great science of chemistry; to give a broader outlook on life, and to create a belief that every teacher is a real factor in the busy, living world; and to furnish the thoughtful, painstaking student with information by which she can keep both body and mind in an alert, healthy condition.1
Section 6. TRAINING OF TEACHERS IN HOME ECONOMICS IN INSTITUTIONS OTHER THAN NORMAL SCHOOLS.
The city training school for teachers.-The city training school for teachers, the special function of which is to prepare grade teachers for the local schools, must in time give space for home-economics instruction in its curriculum. The problems of the city are in large part living problems, which center in the home-adequate nutrition, a clean and well-kept house, and intelligent child care-these the city grade teacher must help solve. The household-arts subjects are sure to enter the training-school curriculum. Some of the best opinion to-day favors the teaching of all household and other arts subjects in the first six grades by the regular class teacher, and sewing has usually been so taught. The Paterson (N. J.) Normal Training School requires a 10-hour sewing course, and the Elizabeth (N. J.) Normal and Training School an 80-hour course. Courses in food, management, and economy should find a place, too, in city training schools as valuable general equipment for the grade teacher. The Chicago Normal College, the teachers' training school of the city of Chicago, offers a two-year training course for special teachers in its department of household arts, which graduated 16 teachers in 1913 and 24 in 1914. Persons who enter must have had two years of food work and textile work in high school. College graduates are admitted for a one-year course, and 10 such students are in attendance this year. In addition, 50 special students are taking courses. A staff of two teachers in the college and six in the practice school are employed. So far the household-arts courses have not been opened to persons preparing for grade teaching. The college is just completing an arts building, one floor of which is devoted to household arts with the following laboratories: Laundry, two cooking laboratories, dining room, chemical laboratory, millinery room, dye
1 Announcement. State Normal School, Westfield, 1912-13, p. 25. See, also, Allyn, Elementary Applied Chemistry," Ginn.