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room, textiles, garment making, dressmaking, demonstration apartment, and classrooms. The provision for household arts in the Chicago Normal College may serve as an example to other cities. The Washington (D. C.) Normal School No. 2 (colored) is another example of progressive work in household arts. A two-year course is offered, six periods a week for 50 weeks, followed by 18 weeks of practice work. A science laboratory and a four-room apartment comprise the special equipment. Last year 117 students took instruction, and 14 special teachers of household arts were graduated (8 the year before). Graduates of the school have been in demand elsewhere. Household arts is prescribed for all intending grade teachers.
County training school for teachers.-Wisconsin has a system of secondary county training schools which prepare rural teachers. Home economics is offered in varying amount in different schoolssewing alone in 3 schools from which reports were received, with 50 to 100 hours of instruction; 2 schools reported both cooking and sewing, 1 about 37 hours of each, the other, the Green Lake County Training School, at Berlin, giving 200 hours to elementary cooking and elementary sewing, respectively, and 50 hours to advanced cooking and advanced sewing, respectively, a total of 500 hours in household arts. This amount, which is about one-sixth less than the mean hours of instruction in household arts given in State normal schools, seems a reasonable standard for these secondary normal schools.
High-school normal training courses.-Training classes in high schools afford an additional method of preparing teachers for public-school work. The school-teacher went originally from her own schooling directly into the teaching position, and the normal schools, teachers' colleges, and similar institutions are modern devices to increase the efficiency in teaching. The normal training class in high schools is the first step toward organized professional preparation. Numerically, however, it is still one of the most important recruiting grounds for the teaching staff of the schools, especially for grade teachers in smaller places and for rural teachers. In equipping teachers to give instruction in home economics it is therefore important that the training classes in high schools should include the household arts in their curriculum. Iowa and certain other States have made this provision. In Iowa 80 per cent of the rural teachers come from high schools, and half of these have had less than a four-year high-school course. Their average term of service is only three or four years, so that in that State alone 3,000 rural teachers are recruited every year from the high-school training classes. This State sees the importance of including agriculture and home economics in the course of training for these teachers, to the end that "agriculture and domestic economy will, in a degree at least, be taught in all rural schools." A half year of home
economics is required in the third year of the high-school course. Five periods a week are given, including two 45-minute recitation periods, two 90-minute laboratory periods, and one 45-minute sewing lesson. The subjects of sewing, personal hygiene, home and school sanitation, as well as food, are included in the course of study. The syllabus is an excellent one, remarkably comprehensive, notwithstanding the short period allotted for instruction. Detailed outlines of lessons are given, with suggestions as to equipment, the teacher's preparation for class work, housekeeping duties in the school, methods of teaching, etc.1
Boys taking the training course are permitted to substitute additional agriculture for the domestic science. One might question this provision, in view of the fact that it is desirable for domestic science to be taught in all rural schools, and the man teacher as well as the woman will find it possible to introduce simple instruction at least.
Summer schools.-Summer schools for the training of teachers, providing opportunities for household arts as well as in other subjects, have been held for the State of Pennsylvania, at Mount Gretna, and by the State of New Jersey, at Cape May. Among the newer opportunities for summer study relating to the home should be mentioned the summer sessions of the secondary schools of agriculture and domestic economy, as illustrated by the summer camp school at the Milwaukee County School of Agriculture and Domestic Economy, at Wauwatosa, Wis. (For college summer schools see p. 83, of Part III of this report, Bulletin, 1914, No. 38.)
Instruction in teachers' institutes.-Instruction in teachers' institutes or temporary schools of instruction for teachers, lasting from one day to a week or longer, is one strategic method of securing the introduction of a new subject like household arts into schools.
New Hampshire, which has as yet adopted no special legislation regarding vocational or industrial education, has used this among other methods of encouraging the teaching of household arts and other applied sciences and arts. The New Hampshire "Institute Circular, No. 1, Series 1912-13, Suggestions to Domestic-Arts Teachers-Canning, Preserving, Pickling, etc.," and "Institute Circular 5, Series 1913-14, Cooking as Means and End in Education," are noteworthy, the latter for an excellent discussion of educational values in cooking instruction, which lays emphasis on the diningroom table and the whole meal as a unit problem in teaching, and on the economic aspects of food.
Tennessee published, in 1913, "A Brief Course in Domestic Science for State Institutes," arranged under the direction of Prof. Catherine A. Mulligan, of the University of Tennessee, outlining 20 lessons in
1 State of Iowa, Department of Public Instruction, Normal Training Course for FourYear High Schools. 1913, pp. 60-176.
cookery, with recipes and references to Government bulletins and other easily available sources, together with other lessons in sewing, laundering, sanitation, etc., including the rural-school lunch. This course, extending through three weeks, was taught in 1913 by five graduates of the university to several hundred teachers at each summer institute. The lessons are intended to be repeated in village and rural schools.
The institute manuals of other States are emphasizing the same kind of instruction, and the provision of the New Mexico law of 1912 authorizing "a course of study in industrial education" to be outlined in the institute manual, and an examination in one or more branches of industrial education to be required of all teachers attending county institutes and summer normal schools, is undoubtedly a wise standard.
Other institutions for training teachers.-Reference should also be had to the chapter following for description of private technical institutes which give preparation for teaching (p. 139) and to parts of the chapter on colleges which deal with the training of teachers of home economics in colleges (p. 83 in Part III of this report, Bulletin, 1914, No. 38.)
Section 7. STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS TEACHING HOME ECONOMICS.
Home-economics courses are now offered in practically all of the 170 or thereabouts public State normal schools. At any rate, such instruction was in 1914-15 reported by the following 154 State normal schools. Of this number, 92 furnished in 1912-13 a detailed statement as to their curricula in household arts, and these statements are the basis of the deductions as to normal-school instruction offered (pp. 131-138).
There is a tendency for the State normal schools to develop their curricula which are usually two years in length into four-year collegiate and professional curricula, and thus for "normal schools" to become "normal colleges" or colleges for teachers. The following institutions have thus been organized upon a level above the typical normal school; State Teachers' College of Colorado, Greeley, Colo.; Iowa State Teachers' College, Cedar Falls, Iowa; New York State Normal College, Albany, N. Y.; and the normal colleges of Ohio located, respectively, at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, and at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. These institutions should be included in a complete tabulation of the State normal institutions for training teachers.
Daphne State Normal School, Daphne.
State Normal School, Florence.
Jacksonville State Normal School, Jacksonville.
State Normal School, Livingston.
State Normal School, Moundsville.
State Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, Normal.
Troy State Normal School, Troy.
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Tuskegee.
Tempe Normal School of Arizona, Tempe. Arkansas:
Arkansas State Normal School, Conway. Branch Normal College, Pine Bluff. California:
California State Normal School, Chico.
Fresno State Normal School, Fresno.
Los Angeles State Normal School, Los Angeles.
San Diego State Normal School, San Diego.
San Jose State Normal School, San Jose.
State Normal School of Manual Training and Home Economics, Santa Barbara.
San Francisco State Normal School, San Francisco. Colorado:
State Teachers College of Colorado, Greeley. Colorado State Normal School, Gunnison. Connecticut:
State Normal Training School, Willimantic. District of Columbia:
Washington Normal School No. 2, Washington.
State Normal School, Athens.
Georgia Normal and Industrial College, Milledgeville.
State Normal School, Albion.
State Normal School, Lewiston.
Southern Illinois State Normal University, Carbondale.
Normal Training School, Indianapolis.
Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls.
Kansas State Normal College, Emporia.
Kansas State Manual Training School, Pittsburg.
Western Kentucky State Normal School, Bowling Green. Eastern Kentucky State Normal School, Richmond. Louisiana:
Louisiana State Normal School, Natchitoches.