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Maine:

Eastern State Normal School, Castine.

Normal School, Farmington.

Western State Normal School, Gorham. Madawaska Training School, Fort Kent. Washington State Normal School, Machias. Aroostook State Normal School, Presque Isle. Massachusetts:

State Normal School, Framingham. Hyannis Normal School, Hyannis. State Normal School, North Adams. State Normal School, Salem. Michigan:

Western State Normal School, Kalamazoo. Northern State Normal School, Marquette. Central State Normal School, Mount Pleasant. Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti: Minnesota :

State Normal School, Duluth.

State Normal School, Mankato.

Moorhead State Normal School, Moorhead.
State Normal School, St. Cloud.

Winona State Normal School, Winona.
Mississippi:

Mississippi Normal College, Hattiesburg.

Missouri:

State Normal School, Cape Girardeau
Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City.
State Normal School, Kirksville.
Northwest Normal School, Maryville.
Missouri State Normal School, Springfield.

Missouri State Normal School, Warrensburg.

Montana :

Montana State Normal School, Dillon.

Nebraska :

State Normal School, Chadron. State Normal School, Kearney. State Normal School, Peru. State Normal School, Wayne. New Hampshire:

State Normal School, Keene.

Plymouth Normal School, Plymouth.

New Jersey:

New Jersey State Normal School, Trenton. New Mexico:

New Mexico Normal University, Las Vegas. New Mexico Normal School, Silver City. New York:

New York State College for Teachers, Albany.
State Normal and Training School, Brockport.
State Normal School, Buffalo.

State Normal School, Cortland.
State Normal School, Geneseo.

60439°-15

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New York-Continued.

State Normal School, New Paltz.
Oneonta Normal School, Oneonta.
State Normal School, Plattsburgh.

State Normal and Training School, Potsdam.
North Carolina :

Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School, Cullowhee.
State Colored Normal School, Elizabeth City.

State Colored Normal School, Fayetteville.
State Normal and Industrial College, Greensboro.
East Carolina Teachers' Training School, Greenville.
North Dakota :

State Normal-Industrial School, Ellendale.

State Normal School, Mayville.

State Normal School, Valley City.

Ohio:

State Normal College, Athens.

State Normal School, Bowling Green.

State Normal School, Kent.

State Normal College, Oxford.
Oklahoma:

East Central State Normal School, Ada.
Northwestern State Normal School, Alva.
Southeastern State Normal School, Durant.
Central State Normal School, Edmond.
Northeastern State Normal School, Tahlequah.

Oregon:

State Normal School, Monmouth. Pennsylvania:

State Normal School, Bloomsburg.

Southwestern State Normal School, California.
State Normal School, Clarion.

State Normal School, East Stroudsburg.
Northwestern State Normal School, Edinboro.
State Normal School, Indiana.

Keystone State Normal School, Kutztown.

Central State Normal School, Lock Haven.

State Normal School, Mansfield.

State Normal School, Millersville.

Cumberland Valley State Normal School, Shippensburg.
Slippery Rock State Normal School, Slippery Rock.

State Normal School, West Chester.

Rhode Island:

Rhode Island State Normal School, Providence.

South Carolina :

Colored Normal Agricultural and Mechanical College of South Carolina,

Orangeburg.

Winthrop Normal and Industrial College, Rock Hill.

South Dakota :

Northern Normal and Industrial School, Aberdeen.

State Normal School, Madison.

Spearfish State Normal School, Spearfish.

State Normal School, Springfield.

Texas:

Tennessee:

East Tennessee State Normal School, Johnson City.

West Tennessee State Normal School, Memphis.
Middle Tennessee State Normal School, Murfreesboro.

State Agricultural and Industrial Normal School for Negroes, Nashville.

West Texas State Normal College, Canyon.

North Texas State Normal College, Denton.

Sam Houston State Normal Institute, Huntsville.

Prairie View State Normal and Industrial College, Prairie View.
Southwest Texas State Normal School, San Marcos.

Vermont:

Castleton State Normal School, Castleton.
State Normal School, Johnson.

Virginia :

State Female Normal School, Farmville.

Fredericksburg State Normal and Industrial School, Fredericksburg.
Hampton Normal and Industrial Institute, Hampton.

State Normal and Industrial School for Women, Harrisonburg.

Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute, Petersburg. Washington:

Bellingham State Normal School, Bellingham.

State Normal School, Cheyney.

State Normal School, Ellensburg.

West Virginia :

Concord State Normal School, Athens.

Fairmont State Normal School, Fairmont.

Glenville Normal School, Glenville.

Marshall College, Huntington.

West Liberty State Normal School, West Liberty.

West Virginia Colored Institute, Institute.

Wisconsin:

State Normal School, La Crosse.

State Normal School, Milwaukee (summer course only).

State Normal School, Oshkosh.

River Falls State Normal School, River Falls.

Stevens Point Normal School, Stevens Point.

Superior State Normal School, Superior. State Normal School, Whitewater. Wyoming :

State Normal School, Laramie.

Section 8. DATES OF INTRODUCING HOME ECONOMICS INTO STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS.

By combining data secured by Miss Susannah Usher in 1909-10 and that secured for this study in 1912 the year of introducing home economies into some 86 public normal schools was obtained. Prior to 1900, of 12 normal schools which had introduced this teaching, 5 were for colored students only, 3 for whites only, and 4 for both All but four of these institutions were in the South. These normal schools, which merit note for early recognition of this subject, are as follows: Jacksonville (Ala.) Normal (for whites), 1883;

races.

Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, Normal, Ala., 1883; Kentucky Normal and Industrial Institute for Colored Persons, Frankfort, 1890; State Normal and Industrial College (for white women), Milledgeville, Ga., 1891; State Normal and Industrial College (for white women), Greensboro, N. C., 1892; Winthrop Normal and Industrial College (for white women), Rock Hill, S. C., 1895; State Teachers' College, Greeley, Colo., 1895; Branch Normal School (for negroes), Pine Bluff, Ark., 1897; Lincoln Institute (for negroes), Jefferson City, Mo., 1897; State Normal School, Providence, R. I., 1898; State Normal School, Framingham, Mass., 1898; State Normal School, Reno, Nev., 1899.

The number of normal schools introducing home-economics courses in successive years has been as follows: 1883, two schools; 1890, one school; 1891, one; 1892, one; 1895, two; 1897, two; 1898, two; 1899, one; 1901, four; 1902, four; 1903, two; 1904, three; 1905, three; 1906, three; 1907, five; 1908, six; 1909, eighteen; 1910, eight; 1911, thirteen; 1912-13 (in part), five.

The subject is now taught in all but perhaps 10 of the public normal schools. Miss Usher found that household science in some form was taught in 1909-10 in 96 of 150 normal schools from which data were secured (the total number of normal schools being then placed at 168). Miss Spethman, of the United States Department of Agriculture, compiled in 1911 a list of normal schools teaching home economics, 102 schools in all, which included 82 State normal schools.1 Miss Usher's detailed facts for 1909-10 were as follows:

TABLE 17.-Household science in State normal schools, 1909–10.

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The leadership of the South in introducing home economics into higher institutions has never before been made evident. The introduction into negro schools was doubtless with a primarily industrial aim, but the similar introduction into the institutions for white women at Jacksonville, Ala.; Milledgeville, Ga.; Rock Hill, S. C.; and Greensboro, N. C., antedated by several years recognition in similar institutions elsewhere, and was for purposes of general higher education as well as for preparation for teaching. In allotting credit

1 Journal of the Home Economics, Baltimore, 1911, p. 274.

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