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for early normal training, one must not overlook the normal class at the Boston Cooking School, taught by Miss Maria Parloa in 1880-81, apparently the first American school to train teachers of cooking, and continued for several years under other teachers; and the Boston Normal School of Cookery, established in Boston by Mrs. Mary Hemenway in 1887, and transferred in 1898 to the Framingham (Mass.) State Normal School; nor, similarly, private foundations like Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (1887), and Teachers College, New York (1888).
The date of establishing the special diploma in household-arts teaching is stated by 37 normal schools. The earliest date stated is Kalamazoo, in 1904. The dates and the number of schools established each year are as follows: 1904, two schools; 1907, one; 1908, four; 1909, three; 1910, seven; 1911, ten; 1912, seven; 1913 (part of year), three.
Section 9. TIME ALLOTMENTS IN NORMAL-SCHOOL CURRICULA IN HOME
(A) Time allotments by subjects or topics.-Of 92 public normal schools furnishing data as to hours of instruction in home-economics courses, 83 report (column 2, Table 18) courses in elementary cooking, 64 in advanced cooking, 26 in cookery for the sick, 50 in food chemistry, and 44 in nutrition and dietaries; a total of 267 food courses. Similarly, there were reported 82 courses in sewing, 50 in dressmaking, 24 in millinery, 28 in textiles, and 12 in costume design; a total of 196 clothing courses, which is about one-fourth less than the number of food courses. In other divisions of home economics, instruction was reported as follows: Household management in 31 normal schools; accounts in 13; housewifery, 11; home nursing, 22; care of children, 4; laundering, 15; household sanitation (bacteriology), 31; house decoration, 27; preparatory courses for nurses, 7; household mechanics, 1-a total of 182 courses or parts of courses, which (as was the case in high-school curricula, p. 106) compares favorably for this recent group with the 196 courses in clothing and 267 in food. In addition to these technical courses in household arts many schools offer instruction in the "special methods" of teaching household arts (see p. 137).
The relative importance of these technical courses in home economics is suggested by the number of institutions giving instruction as just cited; it is better measured by the number of hours of instruction actually given in these subjects (columns 3, 4, 5, 6 of Table 18). The accompanying table states (1) the minimum and maximum hours of instruction given in any institution for each of these subjects; (2) the median or mean hours of instruction given in each subject as the most typical single figure representative of the actual practice
of the various schools; (3) the two limiting numbers which, when the hours of instruction for a given subject in various schools are arranged in order of size, will include between themselves the middle half of the schools, i. e., one-half of the numbers just above and just below the median value; and (4) the modes, or those numbers of hours for which instruction is more commonly given than for other numbers of hours.
Of these representative numbers the medians may be noted here as indicating the relative time alloted different subjects. These typical hours for the food courses (mean hours) are as follows: Elementary cooking, 120 hours; advanced cooking, 144 hours; cooking for invalids, 45 to 60; food chemistry, 72 to 80; nutrition and dietaries, 60 hours. In other words, were a normal school to give typical courses in all of these subjects, which are offered in any normal school, it would need to provide, on such an ideal basis, 424 hours of instruction in food courses. Similarly, these typical median hours of instruction in clothing courses are as follows: Sewing, 100 hours; dressmaking, 144; millinery, 74 to 76; textiles, 45 to 48; and costume design, 60. A normal school giving typical courses in all these clothing subjects would have to provide 452 hours of instruction in clothing. Similarly, typical normal-school courses in the third division of home economics are indicated by the following mean hours of instruction: Course on the house, 50 hours of instruction; household management, 40 hours; accounts, 45; housewifery, 30; home nursing, 45 to 48; care of children, 24 to 36; laundry, 45; household sanitation (bacteriology), 60; house decoration, 60; preparatory courses for nurses, 60; household mechanics, 24 hours; a total of 490 hours of instruction required if a normal school were to give typical courses in all of these subjects. In the normal schools, therefore, this third division of home economics represents subject matter slightly more extensive than the food courses (424 hours) and the clothing courses (452 hours). Were all of these normal-school courses to be presented in typical form (as expressed by the mean hours of instruction actually given in these subjects), there would be required a total of 1,766 hours of instruction. It is noteworthy that this is 83 per cent more than the sum of the mean hours of instruction given in typical high-school courses in home economics (963 hours, see p. 105), an indication that the normal-school instruction is, as it should be, upon a distinctly higher level than high-school instruction. This ideal total of 1,766 hours of instruction in household arts, secured by combining in a single normal school all the household courses given in any normal school, should be compared with the actual total hours of instruction given, stated in the paragraph below as a mean of 600 to 608 hours.
TABLE 18.-Public normal schools-Hours of instruction in home-economics subjects-General tendencies.
Total hours of instruction
50-99. 100-149. 150-199. 200-249. 250-299.
Number and Median-
1, 000-1, 049.
TABLE 19.-Total hours of home economics in public normal schools.
(B) Total hours of instruction allotted home economics.-Data from 92 public normal schools show that the total hours of instruction in home economics offered vary from a minimum of 4 or 5 hours in one school to a maximum of 5,458 hours in another school. (Total hours are secured by multiplying for each course the number of hours per week by the number of weeks that instruction is given, and summing the totals for all courses in a school.) The medium number of hours is 600-608, and half of the schools give between 20 and 1,020 hours of instruction in household subjects. The three institutions giving the unusual time allowances of 2,889 hours, 5,180 hours, and 5,458 hours are, respectively, the West Virginia Colored Institute, at Institute; the Colored Normal, Industrial, Agricultural, and Mechanical College of South Carolina, at Orangeburg; and the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, at Tuskegee, Ala. The distribution of the total hours of instruction is given in abbreviated form.
Modeshours of instruction.
Normal schools 80
Section 10. HOME ECONOMICS IN NORMAL SCHOOL CURRICULA RE-
(A) Required home-economics subjects in general curriculum.— Of 72 normal schools reporting, 44 (61 per cent) require all students preparing to teach to take some instruction in home economics, as part of their general preparation, while 28 schools (39 per cent) make no such requirement. In 29 cases a course in cooking is required, and in 27 cases, sewing; while other subjects are required, as follows: Dressmaking and house sanitation, each, by four schools; "domestic science," by three schools; hygiene, home nursing, nutrition, and household design, each required by two schools; and housewifery, euthenics, laundry, domestic art, the house, and household economics, each by one school. The requirement of the Springfield (Mo.) Normal School that each intending teacher shall take a course in home economics or in agriculture is worth citing. Such a requirement may be recommended to normal schools as opening the way for some instruction by the regular teacher in these important living arts in a community, without the necessity of waiting for a special teacher to be provided. The fact that probably one-half of the normal schools which teach home economics (nearly two-thirds of those replying to the question) require all intending teachers to take one or more courses in home economics agrees with the legal requirement in several States regarding the course of study in teachers' training classes, that it must include home economics, and the requirement in four States that household arts shall be taught in every public school. The subject may doubtless well be required in the general preparation of every elementary school-teacher in normal school or elsewhere.
(B) Elective home-economics courses.-The percentage of general students in public normal schools who elect one or more homeeconomics courses was stated by 34 schools and, approximately, by 8 more; for the 42 schools the median percentage of students electing household arts was 16 per cent, and for half the schools the percentage lies between 10 and 50 per cent. In three schools all the students elect home economics, and in two more nearly all so elect, while in six schools the percentage is very small. That one-sixth the general students tend to elect home economics shows their appraisal of its value to them, either for professional or for personal reasons.
(C) Courses for special diploma in teaching home economics.—Of 87 public normal schools reporting regarding the granting of a special diploma in home economics, 54 schools (62 per cent) grant such a special diploma, i. e., train special home-economics teachers, while 33 schools (38 per cent) do not.
As to the curriculum for this diploma the following reports were made: Of 54 schools, 49 include a course in the history of education, 4 do not require it, and with 1 school it is an elective subject; all of 51 schools reporting require courses in educational psychology and general methods of teaching for this diploma; all of 50 schools reporting require a course in special method of teaching home economics; of 53 schools reporting, 49 require practice teaching of household subjects for such special diploma and 4 do not.
A question as to the amount of practice teaching brought answers from 36 schools, but answers that have no common denominator. Twenty of the answers were expressed in weeks and varied from 2 to 57 weeks, and these with the answers of the 8 other schools which require one year's practice teaching will give a quantitative measure. Of these 28 replies the median value is probably 30 weeks, but 24 weeks and 40 weeks or a year are the most common values. Probably 30 weeks of practice teaching is a representative amount. Of 6 schools measuring their practice work in hours, 120 hours is the median value; this is about equivalent to 30 weeks. The statement of certain schools that general practice teaching in the grade is required and that this is then supplemented by practice teaching of household arts is noteworthy; one school requires 12 weeks of grade teaching, followed by 24 weeks of household-arts teaching; and another one term of each. Among other subjects included in the requirements for the diploma in teaching household arts in various normal schools are ethics, social ethics, social economics, sociology, economics, and history of household economics.
The question was asked as to whether candidates for the special diploma for teaching household arts are excused from any items in the regular normal school requirements. Fifteen schools report that students are not excused from any of the regular work—i. e., graduation from the regular course is required as prerequisite to the special household-arts diploma. Nineteen schools report exceptions phrased in various ways. Four schools substitute home economics for about one-half the regular work, and the others make exemptions greater or less than this in amount. Here, then, are two standardsone requiring the general normal diploma as a prerequisite to granting the household-arts diploma, the other granting the householdarts diploma upon requirements equivalent to the regular diploma. The former is to be approved as setting higher requirements for the teacher of a special subject than for a regular classroom teacher.