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Dakota, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin-the State grants aid, directly or indirectly, to elementary schools (Table 1, p. 42); in 29 States aid is given for domestic science in secondary schools. This aid may be open to any secondary school upon certain conditions, or it may be limited to a certain group of secondary schools. (Table 1, p. 42.) In certain States special State appropriations have been made for domestic science in normal schools, as illustrated by California's establishment of a "State Normal School of Manual Training and Home Economics" in 1909; the special aid to the Texas normal schools since 1909; the Maine statute of 1911, which provides for householdarts departments in all normal schools, and a more advanced department for training of special teachers of home economics in one normal school; the Arizona provision of the same aid to normal schools as to high schools, in introducing domestic science; and the special provision for domestic science in certain normal schools, as in Wisconsin. These facts indicate that the subject of training teachers of home science in the State normal schools has been a matter of special legislative consideration in a number of States. Similarly there has been legislative action regarding higher education in home economics in State universities and colleges, and regarding extension education in homemaking in several of the States, but as regards normal schools and colleges alike there seems little need for a detailed review of legislation by different States, since both types of institutions are usually directed in their development by administrative boards rather than by the legislature. The facts of the present status of normal schools and higher institutions as to education for the home are presented elsewhere.
It is of interest to consider further, however, the basis of State aid to elementary and secondary public schools.
The aid for household arts in elementary schools may be classified as to method as follows: (a) A direct money grant, definite in amount, conditioned on the introduction of household arts, is the simplest administrative device. North Dakota gives $150 to firstclass graded schools providing two years of high school and meeting certain other conditions, including courses in manual training, domestic science, and elementary agriculture, and $100 to secondclass graded schools which have two teachers and give courses in manual training, domestic science, and agriculture, while first and second class rural schools receive $100 and $50, respectively, if they teach agriculture. Wisconsin grants $350 to schools which introduce domestic science in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades and the high school, and $250 for work done in the high school alone. Similar provision is made for other departments of manual training, with the limitation that aid shall not be given to one school for more than three departments. Louisiana has made an appropriation
of $50,000 a year for departments of agriculture and domestic science in schools. (b) A direct money grant, proportioned in amount to the local expense, is a slightly different and decidedly more efficient form of State aid. Maine grants two-thirds the expense of salary for domestic science and manual training up to $800 for elementary schools and $500 for high schools; New Jersey duplicates the local contribution, i. e., bears one-half, up to a maximum of $5,000, for both high and elementary schools in a district; and Rhode Island meets one-half the expenditure for "vocational" instruction, including the elementary school in its provisions. (c) A third method of State aid to elementary instruction in domestic science is by grants toward the cost of supervising household-arts teaching. Maryland grants $1,500 toward the support of county industrial schools for colored children, one-half to be used for the school itself and one-half for supervision of industrial instruction in the colored. schools of the county; several of the States encourage the appointment of county organizers of industrial work. (d) A fourth method of giving financial aid for household arts in elementary schools is the Minnesota system (1909) of rural associated schools and central schools. A grant of two-thirds the cost, up to $2,500, is given to each of 30 high, graded, or consolidated schools to maintain courses of agriculture, manual training, and home economics; in addition, $150 to the central school for each associated rural school into which it extends the teaching of these subjects, and $50 to each rural school so associated. State aid and additional authority are thus bestowed upon the central school, which in turn will seek to extend its industrial work to surrounding districts, and these districts also receive grants to help meet the expense of the new instruction. North Dakota in 1912 adopted this associated-school plan of State aid for vocational education, including household arts. This Minnesota plan, it is to be observed, is not that of school consolidation (Minnesota uses that method, too); school districts retain their individual existence. State aid granted for the consolidation of schools, a matter apart from this discussion, has a bearing here, however, as the consolidation of schools is among the strongest influences making for the country-wide adoption of home economics into the schools, and State aid in consolidation has been made contingent upon manual training, including home economics, as in Minnesota.
State grants in aid of home economics in secondary schools, usually in connection with other manual training and vocational subjects, may be either (a) the definite money grant, as the $250 Wisconsin grant, the Maryland grant of $400 for a teacher, the Minnesota grant of $1,000 for courses in agriculture and in either home economics or in manual training in high or graded schools, and the North Dakota
grant of $2,500 to high, graded, and consolidated schools, to five schools the first year and to not more than five additional each succeeding two years; or (b) the more common graduated grant, as in Arizona, one-half up to $2,500; in Maine, two-thirds up to $500; in Minnesota, two-thirds up to $2,500; in New Jersey, one-half up to $5,000 for a district, and for a vocational school up to $10,000; Rhode Island, one-half the amount expended for teaching and apparatus; and Texas, duplicating from $500 to $1,000 provided locally for a department of domestic science. (c) The granting of aid to a restricted group of secondary schools may be separately considered. Alabama has established State-supported agricultural departments in nine high schools and "a system of domestic science" by statute shares in the State appropriation. In the 10 similar agricultural high schools of Virginia, the 11 district agricultural high schools of Georgia, the 4 district agricultural schools of Arkansas, and the congressional district agricultural schools of Oklahoma-all supported by State appropriations-there are departments of home economics. Wisconsin has had since 1901 a well-known system of county schools of agriculture and domestic economy, 7 of which have been established, receiving State aid from $6,000 to $8,000, dependent upon the attendance; Michigan has a similar plan (1907), with State aid on a two-thirds basis up to $1,000; and Minnesota adopted, in 1905, a similar plan for county schools of agriculture and domestic science, though no schools have been organized under this law. North Carolina's law authorizing "farm-life schools" (1911) for each county is similar in scope. Analogous, if not identical, are the provisions for county high schools in Tennessee-aid to a maximum of one-third the amount received from other sources (1909), since (1913) increased by duplicating expenditures for agriculture, home economics, and manual training; the provision for county agricultural high schools in Mississippi with State aid up to a maximum of $1,500 to a county; the aid given in Iowa and Kansas to a special group of high schools, "the normal-training high schools," which are to prepare teachers of rural schools, conditioned upon the adoption of a curriculum which includes elementary agriculture and domestic science. These two subjects, it is obvious, are absolutely essential in the new rural school. Other States with normal-training high schools or normal-training classes in high schools have a most important suggestion here. (d) Indefinite grants are made in the South Carolina law (1907) for State aid to high schools by the provision of possible additional aid for commercial and industrial subjects, and the Louisiana appropriation of $50.000 (1912) for agriculture and domestic science in the public schools; but by action of State boards of education these grants have been made definite in amount.
The relation of the new plans for State aid in distinctly vocational education for the home merits separate consideration. The New Jersey industrial education act dates from 1881, with various recent amendments, and provides for State duplication within limits of money raised locally for industrial schools. The Massachusetts vocational education law of 1906, as amended, provides for the organization of independent industrial, agricultural, or household-arts schools, with day classes and continuation classes for persons over 15 and evening classes for persons over 17, including the new evening classes in household arts (law of 1912), and for all these State supervision and State aid equal to one-half the net maintenance cost; also agricultural departments in high-schools, with aid of twothirds the salary expense. The New York law of 1908 provides aid to general industrial and trade schools, and the amendments of 1911 and 1913 to "schools of agriculture, mechanic arts, and homemaking,” which may be organized as separate "schools" within high schools; aid of two-thirds the salary of the first vocational teacher and one-third that of additional teachers is given, and a State supervisor of industrial education provided. Maine has provided aid for general industrial schools (1911); Connecticut, in 1909, established two State trade schools, and in 1913 a general plan of vocational education was adopted; Michigan, in 1911, authorized vocational schools; Ohio, in 1910, authorized local boards of education to establish part-time day schools for youths between 14 and 16 in employment and to require their attendance not to exceed eight hours a week; Wisconsin, in 1911, provided for a system of industrial education, including industrial, continuation, evening, and commercial schools, with State aid of one-half the expense; Pennsylvania, in 1911, authorized local school directors to establish vocational schools, and in 1913 adopted a comprehensive plan for vocational schools; Indiana in the same year adopted a vocational education law.
These legal provisions for education of a strictly vocational nature may be relevant to an education for the home at any one or more of the following points: (1) The household trades of cooking, cleaning, laundering, service, may be included in their curricula, although, so far, much less has been done with them than with the former household trades of sewing and millinery; the laws generally give a basis, however, for full curricula for professional homemaking or the home trades; (2) there is a tendency to include something of home arts in vocational courses for girls preparing for business and industry, i. e., the double vocational future of the average woman is recognized, first, outside industry and later homemaking; (3) this tendency to recognize homemaking appears in provisions made for girls' continuation education; for example, specifically in the Massachusetts law for evening practical arts classes which have been organized as even
ing household arts classes for young women over 17 who wish to equip themselves for homemaking—a provision since adopted by several other States.
It is important to note that a law simply providing continuation instruction in the vocation or industry followed may not, in the case of industrial young women, meet this vital need of preparation for homemaking; what is necessary for them is not only further skill in the industrial vocation they are now following, but acquaintance with the homemaking arts, their vocation of to-morrow. Such plans as the Ohio part-time day schools, the Wisconsin and other continuation schools, should be so administered as to meet this double vocational need of girls and young women.
Fifteen States-California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, and Wisconsin-report definitely in response to an inquiry addressed to their State superintendents that "continuation instruction in household arts is authorized in evening schools or otherwise for home women and for working girls,” and such instruction is found in many other States. (Table 1, p. 42.) Replies to a similar inquiry as to whether "vocational instruction for cooks, dressmakers, milliners, children's nurses, and in other household fields is authorized in the industrial schools of the State," were in certain cases ambiguous, but such authorization for teaching housework as a trade exists in the following States at least: Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
Section 2. THE LAWS OF THE STATES ON EDUCATION FOR THE HOME, BY STATES.
Alabama.-Part of the appropriation for the district agricultural high schools is, by law, to be used for "a system of domestic science."
Arizona.-The Territorial legislature in 1905 authorized instruction in manual training and domestic science in public schools with 200 or more pupils, to be given by special teachers, supported by special tax, and to follow approved courses of study.
The School Code of 1913, chapter 23 (originally adopted, 1912), provides: "That in all school districts instruction may be given in manual training, domestic science, and kindergarten; provided that such subjects can be pursued without excluding or neglecting the subjects previously provided by law.” Courses of study are to be prescribed by the local board of trustees subject to State approval; and boards of supervisors are authorized to levy additional tax for salaries and materials; no tuition is to be charged bona fide residents.
Chapter 13, paragraph 2791, School Law, 1913 (originally adopted, 1912) provides that "Any high school having satisfactory rooms and equipment, and having shown itself fitted by location and otherwise to give elementary instruction in agriculture, mining, manual training, domestic science, or other vocational pursuits, may upon application to the State board of education be designated to maintain such departments"; each such high school shall employ trained in