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Granted, however, that a higher standard is desirable, it seems possible that the higher standard may in time be expressed in some more adequate way than by requiring the general normal diploma as a prerequisite.

A question as to whether graduates with special household-arts diplomas have readily secured positions, was answered in the affirmative by 32 normal schools and in the negative by 6 schools.

Section 11. HOME ECONOMICS STAFF.

Fifty-nine normal schools reported upon their teachers of home economics as follows: Sixteen schools have one special teacher; 18 have two special teachers; 9 have three special teachers; 12 have four special teachers; and 2 have seven special teachers; in one case the matron of the school dormitory gives instruction, and in another case the manual training teacher. There is distinct progress in the amount of instruction since 1909, when, according to Miss Usher's data, 51 schools had one special teacher; 10 had two; 4 had three; 5 had four; 2 had five; and 1 school had seven. Miss Usher suggests as a standard for normal schools, "two instructors of household science, if a two-year academic course in home economics is given, and if a teacher's course is offered with practice teaching, two more would be useful for each unit of 200 to 500, or fewer students."

VI. TECHNICAL INSTITUTES AND SPECIAL INSTITUTIONS.

There remains a group of technical institutes which give some of the most important instruction in the field of education for the home. In the preparation of teachers, as well as in the vocational applications of household science and art, these institutes have rendered a great service to American education. First among them is the foundation of Charles Pratt, which bears his name, established in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1887, when technical education was just being discussed by forward-looking educators. Pratt Institute has been a model for many similar foundations-Drexel Institute, of Philadelphia; Mechanics Institute of Rochester; Lewis Institute, of Chicago; Carnegie Institute, of Pittsburgh; and many others. These technical institutes have aided in the movement for an education for the home by helping to win the day for all technical and vocational education, and specifically by training teachers of household arts who were thoroughly competent in the practical arts as well as in the teaching art; further, by developing at equal pace the nonteaching vocations related to the household, household management itself, cooking, laundering, sewing, dressmaking, millinery, and the rest. Whether these vocations were to be practiced in the home or were to contribute to the home from outside, the institutes have been giving a practical vocational training and the home has benefited. Whatever the vocational colleges may accomplish in the distinctive household fields goes back for beginnings to the practical efficiency of the instruction of these institutes. Similarly the training of teachers of home economics in normal schools and colleges has one of its important sources here.

No attempt has been made to describe the work of all the technical institutes and special institutions which might be included here; rather, typical work as given by institutions of various types is outlined. Some of the additional institutions which should be included in any complete list would be: Hampton Normal and Industrial Institute, Hampton, Va.; Winthrop Industrial and Normal College, Rock Hill, S. C.; State School of Science, Wahpeton, N. Dak.

Section 1. PRATT INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Pratt Institute was founded "to promote industrial education, to inculcate habits of industry and thrift, and to foster all that makes for right living." It offers to both men and women day and evening

courses in a wide range of artistic, scientific, mechanical, and domestic subjects, and conducts normal courses in three of its schools for the purpose of extending its ideals and increasing its influence.

It has a school of household science and arts which is one of the early higher institutions in this field (1887). While the institute does not offer the academic work of a college, its technical work is upon a collegiate level. The school of household science and arts offers training in the application of art and science to all the activities of the household. Its courses are planned to meet the needs of three classes of people-those who wish to become teachers of household science and household arts, those who wish to become workers in the trade or professional world as housekeepers, dietitians, matrons, seamstresses, dressmakers, milliners, or costume designers, and those who wish training in the varied subjects of household science and arts for use in the home.

The school occupies a large section of the main building of the institute, an adjoining three-story building, a three-story house used as a dressmaking establishment, and an additional three-story house near by used as a practice house.

The courses for teachers offered by the school are organized in a two-year curriculum in which the student may specialize either in "household science and elementary household arts" or in "household arts and elementary household science." The first year gives training in elementary household science and household arts. The second year is differentiated for the two groups of students into advanced household arts and advanced household science.

The school year is divided into three terms and the curriculum in preparation for teaching is organized as follows (the numbers indicating the terms of work for each subject):

First year, common to both courses.-Psychology, 3; chemistry, 3; physiology, 3; cookery, 3; design, 3; physics, 2; sewing, 3; household administration, 1; care of the house, 1; serving, 2; laundry work, 1; marketing, 1; physical training, 3.

Second year for those specializing in household science, with elementary household arts.-History of education, 2; theory of education, 2; methods, 3; practice teaching, 3; economics seminar, 3; chemistry, organic, 3; bacteriology, 2; fancy cookery, 1; house planning, 2; experimental cookery, 1; dietetics, 1; handwork, 3; school gardening, 1; hygiene, 1; physical training, 3.

Second year for those specializing in household arts, with elementary household science.-History of education, 2; theory of education, 2; methods, 3; practice teaching, 3; chemistry, organic, 3; costume design, 1; millinery, 2; dressmaking, 3; weaving, 1; house planning, 2; handwork, 3; physical training, 3.

In the first year the educational aspect of the work is emphasized, in the second the professional. The time allotted different subjects in the teachers' curriculum may be summarized as follows: Educa

tion, 375 hours; science, 830 hours; science applied-615 hours for household science and 165 for household arts; design, 185 hours; art applied-300 hours for household science and 750 hours for household arts.

The requirements for admission to the course for teachers are as follows: The candidate must be 19 years of age, have satisfactorily completed a high-school course of four years, including a year of inorganic chemistry and a year of physics; preparation must also include elementary physiology, a practical knowledge of sewing, arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. Examinations are set in English literature, general history, and current events. Students may be entered with advanced standing, but such a rating is not given in cookery or dressmaking, and a two-year course at the institute is required of all students. The registration in the teachers' course in 1913 was 141.

The school offers also a one-year course for institutional housekeepers in preparation

for the work of the matron, the institutional housekeeper, and the dietitian, where the work of the latter is the charge of a diet kitchen. It does not prepare for the teaching of dietetics. To trained nurses or prospective trained nurses it offers preparation in the subject of nutrition.

This is a course of practical training, primarily, and candidates should be

mature women of fair general training, with executive ability, experience in life, skill in practical housework, physical strength and endurance. Only such women as seem to possess the qualifications enumerated, which are necessary elements of success in housekeeping, are admitted to this course. A good general education, including a working knowledge of percentage, of the metric system, and of elementary physiology is essential to success in this work.

There is opportunity for specialization of the practice work in dietetics and nutrition or the problems of household and institutional management, or in lunch-room work, as desired. Each student has one week of practical work in the practical house of the school, the students working in groups, and each student in turn acting as hostess, cook, kitchen-maid, waitress, laundress, and chambermaid. All students have practice in large-quantity cooking in the institute lunch room.

This course of study in housekeeping includes the following subjects: Principles of cookery, dietetics, serving, accounts, marketing, physiology, house furnishing, chemistry, diet for children, diet for invalids, care of the house, lunch-room work, laundry work, bacteriology, fancy cookery, dietaries for families, institutional problems, hygiene, sanitation, and physical training. Three months' probationary professional service in an institution is required at the end of the nine months' course before the granting of the certificate.

The school of household science and arts also offers a number of trade courses, including the following: Sewing for trade use, 5 days a week for 3 months; dressmaking for trade use, 12 months-9 of classroom work, 5 days a week, and 3 of workroom practice, 5 days a week; millinery for trade use, 5 days a week for 3 months; dress design and pattern making for trade use, 5 days a week for 3 months.

The school also offers a large number of part-time courses for home use, including cookery, 3 terms of 3 months each, twice a week; serving, 12 lessons; marketing, 12 lessons; laundry work, 12 lessons; household administration, 12 lessons; sewing, 3 terms of 3 months each, with 2 lessons a week; dressmaking, 3 terms of 3 months each, 2 lessons a week; and similar courses in millinery and embroidery.

Saturday morning classes are offered for school girls in cookery, serving, sewing, and shirt-waist making. Evening classes in household arts are offered as follows: Cookery for housekeepers, two classes; cookery for professional cooks, one class; serving; sewing, two classes; shirt-waist making; dressmaking, two classes; drafting and draping, two classes; millinery, two classes; and costume drawing, two classes.

Section 2. DREXEL INSTITUTE, PHILADELPHIA, PA.

Drexel Institute of Art, Science, and Industry, Philadelphia, established in 1892, offers both technical training and preparation for teaching in the fields of domestic arts and domestic science.

In the department of domestic arts, technical courses in dressmaking are offered, including the following divisions of work, each complete in itself: Hand and machine sewing course, shirt-waist course, general course in dressmaking, technical course in dressmaking (additional order work), course in weaving, course in basketry. In millinery there is provided the general course, the special course, and the technical course (for trade). Technical evening courses are also offered. The normal course in domestic arts, two years in length, combines technical instruction in sewing, dressmaking, millinery, design, and related subjects, with instruction in English, economics, psychology, methods of teaching, and practice teaching.

In the department of domestic science there are similar independent technical courses in cooking, and a normal course in domestic science for the preparation of teachers.

Section 3. MECHANICS INSTITUTE, ROCHESTER, N. Y.

Mechanics Institute, Rochester, N. Y., established a department of household arts and science in 1893. The institute offers a three-year normal course in household arts and science in preparation for teaching, high-school graduation being required for entrance. A summer

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