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session is also provided. Professional nonteaching courses are offered as follows: A one-year certificate course in household arts is offered to girls 16 years of age or older having at least grammar-school training; a trade dressmaking course and a dressmaking apprentice course open, respectively, to young women of 16 and 15 years of age; two professional courses related to food-administration are offered the lunchroom management course (see below), and the dietetics course, the latter open to women 24 years of age who are high-school graduates and who wish to equip themselves for work in hospitals. Another professional course, in the care of infants, is offered to girls 16 years of age or over, in conjunction with the infant summer hospital.

Lunch-room management course.-A one-year course, five days a week, prepares women to take charge of lunch rooms, cafeterias, or lunch rooms in public schools, department stores, factories, and Christian associations. Applicants must be 24 years of age and have had good household experience. The class is divided into three groups, and the groups rotate between classroom and laboratory work. The cafeteria of the institute affords a practice field, all its cooking and serving being undertaken by young women in the lunchroom course. Each student in turn acts as manager, as well as serving in subordinate positions. The course of study includes work in bookkeeping, house construction, physiology, foods, practical cooking, household management, planning, and cost of menus, and laboratory work.

Section 4. HOMEMAKERS' SCHOOL, STOUT INSTITUTE.

The Stout Institute, of Menomonie, Wis., which opened the training school for teachers of domestic science and art in 1903, established a homemakers' school in 1907, maintained for the purpose of preparing young women, who do not wish to teach, for the responsibilities of the homemaker.

President Harvey,1 of the institute, in speaking of the course of study, states that it was planned as follows:

The most important activities demanded of a woman because of her position as a homemaker were enumerated and classified, so far as their interrelation made such classification possible. An attempt was then made to answer the question, What does a woman need to know and to do for the proper performance of each of these activities? The answer to this question in each field of activity indicated the scope and character of the course of study for that field. This plan makes it possible to concentrate upon the essential things and to eliminate the nonessentials. It is probable that, if time permitted, the course of study in each particular field might be considerably elaborated with an addi

1 "A School for Homemakers," L. D. Harvey. Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education, 1911, pp. 313-329.

tion of cultural value, although it is believed that there is high cultural value in every detail of the work regarded as necessary. In the main, effort has been concentrated on the essentials. The course in home and social economics is perhaps the only one in which there has been a development of work beyond the essentials into the field of what would be desirable because of its effect in broadening interests and giving a wider outlook on woman's relation to the home and society and a larger appreciation of her opportunities and responsibilities.

The subjects treated in the curriculum are as follows:

The house, with instruction in house sanitation, house decorating and furnishing, house management, business management in the home; food science, with training in food study and preparation, chemistry, biology, physiology, dietics, selection of food materials, care of food materials, preparation of food, and serving; clothing and household fabrics, including house decoration and furnishings; the care of children; home nursing and emergencies; home and social economics, which treats of woman's ethical, social, and industrial relations with the other members of the family and with the members of society outside her home.

Section 5. GIRLS' TECHNICAL INSTITUTE, MONTEVALLO, ALA.

This is a State institution for girls, the purpose of which is (1) to teach the principles of the liberal arts and sciences and their application to homemaking; (2) to enable young women who are its graduates to do effective work as teachers; (3) to train young women to be self-supporting through proficiency in the industrial or fine arts; (4) to inculcate in the young women of Alabama ideals of character and culture, so that they may carry forth into the State the blessings of strength, ability, and refinement.

The institute is open to white girls who are 15 years of age or older, and who have finished the seven grades of the public schools. It gives the equivalent of a high-school course and one or two years of college work. In home economics there are two departments— domestic science, which teaches the principles underlying housework, offering three majors and three minors in the regular course, and domestic art, which offers interrelated courses in sewing, art, textiles, home management, house planning and furnishing.

Other departments offer commercial work, fine arts, manual training, music, and education.

Section 6. BRADLEY INSTITUTE.

Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, Ill., receives graduates of the common school for a six-year course, which provides the equivalent of high-school training and two years beyond. There is specialized technical work in several branches, and college work is offered corresponding to the first two years in a college, university, or engineering school. In the teaching of domestic economy the institute offers a two-year course leading to the diploma and a four-year course

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leading to the degree of bachelor of science; 15 points of academic work are required for admission.

Section 7. SOUTHWESTERN LOUISIANA INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE.

The Southwestern Louisiana Industrial Institute, at Lafayette, La., founded in 1898 by the State of Louisiana, was opened in 1901 to offer (a) practical courses one or two years in length in various vocational fields, (b) a four-year academic-industrial course, and (c) normal courses two years in length in home economics and in agriculture. The institute also conducts a summer school. Graduates of grammar schools are admitted to the institute, and graduates of the State high schools are admitted into the fourth year of its courses. The institute offers, in domestic science, courses in food preparation, home nursing, laundering, dietetics, advanced cooking, and food chemistry; and in domestic art, courses in elementary clothing, sewing, textiles, millinery, and the theory and practice of teaching domestic art in schools. Practice teaching in domestic science is also offered in the normal course in home economics.

Section 8. TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE (COLORED).

Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, located at Tuskegee, Ala., was founded in 1881, and provides a combined academic and industrial training for young colored men and women. The idea and the inspiration of Tuskegee was derived from Hampton Institute, Virginia, founded in 1868. The general program at Tuskegee provides three days of academic work a week and three days of industrial work. The academic course embraces seven years' work-three years of preparatory instruction and four years of normal work. The closest possible relation is maintained between the academic and industrial departments.

The department of women's industries furnishes instruction in the following: Plain sewing, two years; dressmaking (requires plain sewing as prerequisite), three years; ladies' tailoring (for postgraduates and those who have completed dressmaking), one year; millinery (hand sewing required for admission), two four-month terms; cooking, four years; laundry (with soap making), one year; child nursing and nurture, including the care of the infant, small children, and larger children. Outside industries for girls, including vegetable gardening, ornamental gardening, and fruit raising, are also given as a two years' course. Mattress making, broom making, and basketry are also taught.

The girls' industrial building, Dorothy Hall, 120 by 144 feet, contains the various classrooms and workrooms, including rooms devoted to the laundry, for washing, drying, ironing, etc.; rooms used for

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