Slike strani

dressmaking, ladies' tailoring, plain sewing, and millinery departments; rooms for cooking and dining-room service; other rooms for nursing and child care; and a suite of kitchen, dining room, bedroom, and sitting room for instruction in home keeping. A five-room practice cottage is provided in which the senior girls keep house in groups of five, "living in the cottage and having entire charge of themselves and the house, doing all the work pertaining to housekeeping from Monday's washing to the Saturday's preparation for Sunday."

The provision made for cooking indicates the general method in the industrial division. In this department there are two kitchens, three dining rooms, a sitting room, a bedroom, and a bathroom, which are used for practice work. Special stress is laid upon cooking plain food. Cooking is obligatory for all girls; in a single year 500 girls receive instruction. A limited number of young women desiring to be cooking teachers, professional caterers, and workers in related fields receive special training.

The department of school extension of the institute has been an influence for home betterment as well as industrial betterment through its annual conferences, local conferences, farmers' institutes, mothers' meetings, settlement work, and extension work in the county rural schools, 55 of which are now under the general supervision of Tuskegee Institute. The institute also maintains a department of research and an experiment station, certain publications of which bear directly on home betterment (see Bibligraphy in Part IV of this report, Bulletin, 1914, No. 39).

Voorhees Industrial School (colored), Denmark, S. C.-The Voorhees Industrial School, for young colored men and women, was opened by a graduate of Tuskegee in 1897. The industries in which young women are instructed include: Plain sewing, two years' course; dressmaking, three years' course; laundering, mattress making, broom making, cooking, three years' course; canning, nurse training, three years' course. Academic instruction accompanies the industrial training.


"Cooking schools" were established in various eastern cities beginning in the seventies (Part I of this report, Bulletin, 1914, No. 36, p. 15); such schools had been organized in Europe at least a generation before. The New York Cooking School, which has a long and useful history, is typical of these schools; as its name implies, it teaches practical cookery. Its aim is "the betterment of the food in all homes, especially in those of toilers and all dependent upon their own earnings for daily bread." The school offers ladies' morning classes once a week for 12 weeks; Saturday morning classes for boarding-school pupils: evening classes for teachers, business women,

and girls; afternoon mission classes (philanthropic classes with the expense borne by the patrons of the school-gifts of $12 to $60 providing a class); classes for nurses and attendants in hospitals; normal sewing classes, with a certificate for teachers; and private lessons. Three grades of work are given-simple, plain, and general; and printed outlines are furnished, which are available for use elsewhere.


The School of Mothercraft, New York City, opened in 1911, is intended to provide information and practical instruction in the home care and training of children, in eugenics, and in problems of · the family.

The work is designed to meet the needs of young women, mothers, mothers' assistants, social workers, nurses, kindergartners-women who desire special training to understand the child and to meet, sympathetically and intelligently, the responsibilities of childhood.

The special subjects of study include the following:

The family, biology, eugenics, physical care of infants, child hygiene, dietetics, children's cooking, laundry and sewing, marketing, housewifery, management, home care of sick children, emergencies, hygiene for mothers, child psychology and mental hygiene, principles of child training and of the kindergarten, children's stories, games, songs, handwork, nature study.

A one-year curriculum is offered which includes study of the subjects listed and practical work in the nursery, household, and kindergarten. It is a vocational course for homemakers, mothers' assistants, social workers, teachers of mothercraft. A certificate is granted to students completing the course satisfactorily. Applicants for admission must be at least 18 years of age and have the equivalent of a secondary education. Students desiring to qualify as teachers must be at least 20 years of age and have a college or normal training. A limited number of students can be received in residence.

Special short courses are also arranged, adapted to the needs of different students, as on "The nursery," "Story telling," "The kindergarten in the home," and "Childhood and literature."

"The child garden" is maintained for children under 7, with morning sessions and a program of outdoor play, nature study, music, speech training, etc.; and a resident nursery is maintained where infants may have continuous care during emergencies.

The registration for 1912 was about 30 extension students; no students are reported as completing the full course, but two partially completed it; in 1913 four students entered for the full course and three others took part-time work, in addition to extension students.

The director of the school is Mary L. Read, and, besides three assistants devoting full or part time to the school, there were some dozen special lecturers in 1912-13. The school has attracted attention locally and nationally as an attempt to provide direct training in child care.


A number of private schools for girls have opened departments of home economics. The most striking experiment in this line is the Garland School of Homemaking, Boston, described below. The Barnard School of Household Arts, of New York City, is another interesting experiment in this field. Many other private schools are offering more or less extended instruction in the household arts and thus meeting the current demand. It is obvious that these private schools, as well as the public schools, must fit young women to meet the ordinary responsibilities of the home.

Some of the European schools have introduced not only householdarts instruction for young women, but also instruction in the arts of country life which especially concern women, such as the direction of the country estate and such special activities as dairying, poultry raising, kitchen gardening, horticulture, beekeeping, and the like. State colleges of agriculture and the secondary schools of agriculture are quite commonly combining such agricultural instruction with household arts for their young women students. It seems certain that the girls' private school of the future will provide instruction not only in homemaking, but in many instances, because of the rural responsibilities which come to women of wealth through the ownership of country estates, also training in landscape gardening, horticulture, and rural economy.

The Garland School of Homemaking.-The Garland School of Homemaking, of Boston, was established in 1902, as a course in homemaking in a kindergarten training school which should attempt to express an ideal of nonprofessional training in homemaking, which was taking form at that time. The homemaking course was an experiment in "arousing consciousness of this great educational need and in developing by experiment a curriculum to meet that need." It did not pretend to form popular courses in cooking and sewing, nor to train teachers and professional housekeepers, but simply aimed at equipping the young woman as a more efficient homemaker in her own home. In 1909 the kindergarten course was discontinued and the homemaking course became the sole work of the school. In 1913 the school, which was located at 19 Chestnut Street, opened a second house at 35 West Cedar Street, known ast the Home House, which is utilized for practical instruction in housekeeping.

The Garland school offers a regular course to both resident and nonresident students with a curriculum requiring five mornings and one afternoon a week. A special abbreviated course is given three mornings a week, also a half-year course for graduates of the school requiring two mornings a week, and special study courses for housewives. The regular course includes instruction in the following subjects, all taught from the homemaking point of view: The family and the home, the house, household management, food and dietetics, clothing, eugenics, physics, chemistry, biology, economics, literature. The special course omits economics, literature, house building and furnishing, and millinery. The graduates' course includes child study, house furnishing, millinery, food buying, the planning of meals, and cooking. Field work is provided in the regular and special ecurse by visits to markets, milk farms, factories, shops, schools, and the like. A striking feature of the school is the provision of practice work in housekeeping for resident students. The home house provides the resident girls with a home in which they try out their skill in various departments of household management. They go to market, plan meals, occasionally prepare the family dinner, direct the cleaning of rooms, and try time experiments in regard to various household duties. A competent adviser is always at hand to help when needed in making application of the principles studied in school to the home problems of buying and accounting, of meal planning, cooking, etc. All of the practice work is done solely from the standpoint of its educational, not of its industrial, value. Consequently the students do not carry the burden of the housework throughout the year, since this would often necessitate a sacrifice on the educational side. They are, however, the homemakers and the managing housekeepers; and their responsibilities, though varying, are genuine and must be fulfilled with faithfulness and intelligence.


One of the remarkable educational developments of the new century are the schools of organized philanthropy and professional charity work which have been established in New York, Boston, Chicago, and St. Louis. Their common purpose may be stated, as by the New York school, "to fit men and women for civic and social service either professional or volunteer." Such service inevitably concerns the home more than any other social institution; it is the home that often causes individual and social lapses; it is in the home that the effects of such lapses are most evident; and philanthropic effort must often be directed at home rehabilitation. So the New York School of Philanthropy has on its staff one specialist in "families" and another in "child welfare." "Family rehabilitation" is one of

the central topics of instruction in such a school of philanthropy; and the facts and procedures which these schools are developing in repairing broken family life will be found to have a wealth of suggestion for teachers of normal home life in schools of home economics. The special one-month courses, or "institutes," given by the New York School of Philanthropy in June, 1914, included courses on "family rehabilitation" and on "housing."


Instruction in the household arts is a part of the curriculum of the schools for Indians. Miss Spethman in 1911 reported that such instruction was given in 138 Indian schools. The United States Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, has published certain outlines for such instruction which should be consulted by persons interested: "The outline lessons in housekeeping, including cooking, laundering, dairying, and nursing, for use of Indian schools," and "Some things that girls know how to do, and hence should learn how to do when in school."


Statements secured from 36 of the 50 State industrial schools for girls, or as they were formerly called, reform schools, show that the household arts have an important place in the general economy of these institutions. The most striking fact is that in three-fourths of these schools all of the housework is performed by the girls and young women who are members of the school; and in four others three-fourths of the work is so performed, while two schools report that only one-fourth of the housework is performed by the girls. This situation will be good or bad in the industrial school, of course, not in proportion to the amount of work done by the girls, but according as it is organized with an educational and social method and purpose.

An attempt was made to get at this problem of fundamental educational purpose in the schedule of questions sent to the schools, but probably not with complete success. Of the 36 industrial schools, 12 report that no formal lessons in housework or any of its branches are given; instruction is reported by the remaining 24 schools in different aspects of household arts as follows: Food materials, by 14 schools; cooking of foods, by 22 schools; service of foods, 20; care of rooms, 15; care of floors, 15; laundry, 17; plain sewing, 20; dressmaking, 15; millinery, 4; household accounts, 4; care of children, 5; costume, 1; art sewing, 7; care of sick, 1.

Another question asked was whether practice work in the household arts was required. Various forms of practical work were re

1 Journal of Home Economics, Dec., 1911.

« PrejšnjaNaprej »