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clubs and similar organizations; the supervision of volunteer workers for home betterment.
The possibility of visiting instruction in rural homes has been under consideration at Cornell University for some time, and the directors of the department of home economics did some experimental work two years ago.
While "county household demonstrators" are not yet actually at work in the campaign for rural betterment, they probably soon will be. The method of such work, it should be noted, has already developed in the case of the visiting housekeeper or domestic teacher, who has been operating for several years in various cities under social-betterment societies. To cite another parallel, the visiting nurse who makes calls on order for a small fee is already in many communities helping the family to meet the emergencies of sickness. Such a service may gradually be extended as regards all housekeeping problems, and a type of household consultant be provided who will aid the individual housekeeper in her individual problem. One principle discovered in agricultural demonstration is that the place for a demonstration is the farmer's own farm, not on some county demonstration farm. This principle, applied to the household, means that the county household expert must get into the individual home and show how to do better with what is there and then how in time to secure better. The "getting in" looks like the nub of the problem, but experience will point a way. Perhaps Ambassador Walter II. Page's phrase about the tomato club work in the South, that "the tomato was the key that unlocked the kitchen door to the trained worker." points a method of wide application.
Section 4. YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION.
The Young Women's Christian Association maintains educational work in the local associations, supplementary to its central religious work, and this educational work commonly includes classes related to the home. In 1913, 151 associations reported an enrollment of 18,862 students in domestic-arts courses, and 117 associations an enrollment. of 9,343 students in domestic science, a total of 28.205 students. In 1913, 80 domestic-science directors and 91 domestic-art directors were employed, giving full time to teaching. The registration figures quoted do not include work done with club girls who have some instruction in home economics, nor does it include the kitchen garden work, which is sometimes done with the junior girls. The range of courses offered in associations, according to a statement furnished by the education secretary, is about as follows, though not all of this would necessarily be given, especially in the smaller cities where a
teacher would be employed by the hour or where volunteer service might be used:
First. Domestic-science courses for those young women who are expecting to be married or for women in their homes.
Second. Cooking courses for business women similar to the above, but with less expensive materials. This is the type of course most often given and is patronized by wage earners and women of moderate circumstances in their homes.
Third. There are occasionally courses for maids, for which mistresses may pay the necessary fee.
Fourth. The courses for industrial girls. Sometimes these are supper classes for which the girls make partial preparation of the simple supper, or they may be menu classes in which the girls are instructed to prepare breakfasts, lunches, and dinners at a minimum cost per person.
In addition to the above domestic-science teachers sometimes give courses away from the building, such as demonstrations in factories, providing the girls with copies of the recipes used; courses with homemakers in their own kitchens or courses in the kitchen of a church, or some institution, adapted to the needs of any group of girls who can be collected.
The courses in domestic arts include courses in trade dressmaking, in a few instances in home dressmaking, in the making of undergarments, in making over and repairing and elementary work for members; millinery classes, which are among the most popular of all; basketry; crocheting; embroidering; and almost any sort of work which may interest a particular group.
The household-arts commission, composed of domestic science and art directors, in 1913 drew up certain standard courses for the associations, which will doubtless assist in improving the work given. Two courses in cookery, each providing 15 lessons of two or two and one-half hours, are recommended for classes of actual and prospective homemakers and for business women; and two courses in sewing, each of 15 two-hour lessons, which include the making of underwear and a shirt waist.
Certain associations, notably Boston and St. Louis, undertake more ambitious educational work in this field. The women's training school of the St. Louis Young Women's Christian Association has two household-arts departments, domestic science and domestic art. The former (1) offers a two-year normal curriculum in preparation for teaching domestic science, with some work in domestic art, which requires in addition to household-arts subjects, educational courses, including practice teaching; (2) opportunity for registration in individual courses is given for all classes of women, homemakers and business girls, mistresses and maids, for prospective teachers, and even children." The following domestic-science subjects are offered: Theory of domestic science (four courses); cookery, plain and advanced (four courses); homemakers' course; supper courses ("preparing, serving, and eating simple meals; each pupil in turn acting as hostess, as waitress, and as guest; efficient preparation of meals, with a jolly good time"); luncheon course: dietetics and
serving; invalid cookery; maids' and cooks' course; infants diets' course; household management and accounts; cooking demonstrations; laundry course; junior course (for girls 8 to 14 years); and cafeteria work (the association maintains three lunchrooms). The domestic-art department offers instruction in sewing, dressmaking, and millinery for home use, and separate courses in preparation for trade.
The school of domestic science of the Boston Young Women's Christian Association, established in 1888, aims to equip teachers of domestic science and domestic art, workers and teachers in settlements, Christian associations, charitable organizations, and institutions of various kinds. A striking feature of the school is that all students are in residence and are responsible for the household management, cooking, sanitation, and other essentials of the school home. In this respect the school sets an example of much significance in household-arts training.
One of the new developments of the Young Women's Christian Association is to push its organization into the rural district. This means a movement in part for the benefit of the rural home.
Section 5. HOUSEHOLD-ARTS INSTRUCTION IN SETTLEMENTS.
A settlement, as an institution which works for neighborhood betterment, must make home betterment one of its main points of attack. Accordingly, we find that settlements quite commonly include in their activities all manner of household-arts teaching. The "Handbook of settlements," published in 1911, prints detailed reports of 413 settlements, in various parts of the United States, urban and rural, under private and public auspices, secular and religious in their foundation. An analysis of the reports there made shows that 225 settlements, or somewhat over half, offer some form of teaching in household arts. Sewing classes are reported by 202 settlements and sewing schools by 40 schools, while cooking instruction is given by 162 settlements, domestic science by 29, and a public school cooking class by one. The numbers of settlements providing other classes are as follows: Homemaking classes, 51 'settlements; home sanitation, 3; mothers' meetings, 52; kitchen garden, 38; home nursing, 14; child care, 3; domestic art, 5; dressmaking, 63; millinery, 53; needlework, 78; knitting, 9; textiles, 1; laundry, 6. Such a list can be criticized on the face of it, possibly, as unduly stressing the individual arts of housekeeping, and as not emphasizing the unified work of household management or homemaking. One notes, too, the predominance of the sewing arts, which are reported in 445 cases, as compared with 192 of cooking and food preparation, and 129 of homemaking, household management, nursing, and mothers'