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For 5 cents the children have: One hot vegetable: sandwiches; rolls or doughnuts; crackers and milk.

as to manual training; or, if we adopt ultimately the proposal to amalgamate all practical arts subjects, agriculture, manual training, household arts, fine arts, etc., into a single industrial and prevocational subject for the elementary grades, then the certification of all elementary teachers should include an examination in this field. A different approach to the same end (of providing some knowledge of domestic science to grade and rural teachers) is, of course, afforded by the laws regarding normal training classes in high schools and normal schools, elsewhere referred to (p. 125), which tend to include domestic science in the curricula. Domestic science in the preparation and certification requirement of every common-school teacher seems a desirable and possible standard. Only thus can large numbers of girls be reached with training for homemaking.

The special teacher and supervisor of household arts.-The related problem of certification of special teachers and supervisors of household science has received more attention. Thirty-three States issue some form of special State certificate to the special household-science teacher and supervisor (Table 1, p. 42), and in at least five other States the special normal-school diploma or other credential or examination by State, city, or county officials provides a modus operandi. Nine States report definitely that no provision has been made for State certification of special teachers of domestic science. Three-fourths of the States, therefore, have considered it desirable. to standardize, by State certification, the qualifications of the special teacher of household science. A statement of the regulations as to certification in the different States is given elsewhere (p. 36); there follows herewith a statement of the general tendencies in the State regulations and certain recommendations as to standards.

In the State regulations as to certification of special teachers of domestic science there is a tendency to specify special training in an approved higher institution which requires high-school graduation for admission, and provides a two years' course as a minimum. The minimum is stated as one year by Indiana, but as two years by Idaho, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, and Ohio. Oklahoma specifies special training without defining the amount. Two years of special training is short enough, and with the movement for requiring college graduation for high-school teachers this requirement for the special teacher of domestic science will gradually advance. At present a minimum of two years' professional training beyond high school is a standard which the various States may well adopt as soon as possible.

The time must be at hand for revoking laws or regulations which now permit persons who have had no formal training to qualify by examination as supervising teachers of domestic science. Eighteen

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States at least thus grant special domestic-science certificates on examination without even specifying a minimum of training; this open door may be necessary in the initial stages of a new subject, but home economics is beyond such a stage. Now that there are available graduates of colleges, normal schools, and technical schools who have completed a two-year or longer technical course, it is educational suicide to encourage persons to prepare by self-study for examinations ast special teachers of household science. If such examinations are continued as a possible alternative to certification on the basis of approved training, it is desirable to throw stringent safeguards about them.

Such a provision as that of Vermont authorizing, without examination, a special certificate to a successful teacher who has held a certificate is also open to objection. It may guarantee a person who knows how to teach, but it has no safeguard as to what is taught. It is a transition measure, of course, to be succeeded, as soon as possible, by certification of persons "of special training," as the same Vermont regulation provides.

One State at least requires the holder of the special certificate to hold also a regular teacher's certificate. This seems unnecessary if teaching ability is guaranteed by training in methods of teaching as part of a two-year technical training.

The Texas plan of permitting cities at the discretion of the city superintendent of schools to hire special teachers, without requiring an examination or a teacher's certificate, disregards the whole value. of certification and is not to be recommended.

The granting of the certificate for a limited time, say, one year, to be renewed for two or three years without examination, and then made permanent, or, better, renewable, without examination, for periods of 5 or 10 years-as long as one teaches-is better than the granting unconditionally of a life certificate. The initial life grant is dubious in all cases, and the life grant after a preliminary period may be questionable in case of those who give up teaching and years later wish to resume it without reexamination.

The New York provision that the State commissioner may, in special cases, certificate for vocational schools persons with "intimate knowledge gained by field or shop experience, with evidence of a satisfactory general education," is likely to have occasional significance, especially if the teaching of household trades in industrial schools is organized with its necessity of trade-trained teachers. The requirement of the Pennsylvania vocational law that the practical household-arts teacher must have, in addition to a two-years' special training, "three years' experience in practical housekeeping," is commendable; so is the New Jersey method of having such experience tested by an examining committee of two housekeepers.



The use of the normal-school diploma as a standard for a special certificate, as in Colorado and Wisconsin, is intelligible, and may be recommended elsewhere as the normal schools strengthen their household-science departments. The Maine law giving aid for domestic science to all normal schools, so that every teacher may include this subject in her preparation and special additional aid to one normal school in order that it may train supervisors and special teachers of domestic science, is relevant here.

More desirable perhaps is the statement of standards for such certificates in terms of university or college study of home economics, as suggested in the Montana statute and as stated in detail in the noteworthy specifications for high-school certification in domestic science and art in Utah, where required collegiate courses are quantitatively enumerated thus: For domestic science, three State credits in organic chemistry, physics, economics, physiology, art (high-school art accepted); four State credits in dietetics (two may be in physiological chemistry or advanced physiology); house sanitation (two may be in bacteriology); and six State credits in food. For domestic art, the same, except that botany shall be included or may be substituted for physics, sewing for food, and textiles for dietetics. Such a requirement cuts the ground from under ill-prepared teachers who may hope to "squeeze through" teachers' examinations and secure certificates for teaching an attractive specialty. It suggests the serious standards set in State medical examinations. Truly these teachers of home making need to be competent "social physicians," and the Utah requirements rigidly enforced point one way to guaranteeing their proficiency.

New York City certificates.-The regulations regarding teachers of cooking and sewing and supervisors or "directors" of these subjects may be quoted:

Cooking teachers.-To be eligible for examination for license as special teacher of cooking the applicant must have one of the following qualifications: (a) Graduation from a satisfactory high school or institution of equal or higher rank, or an equivalent academic training, or the passing of an academic examination, and the completion of a satisfactory course of professional training of at least two years in cooking; (b) graduation from a college course recognized by the regents of the University of the State of New York, which includes satisfactory courses in the principles of education and in cooking; (c) graduation from a satisfactory high school or institution of equal or higher rank, or an equivalent academic training, or the passing of an academic examination; and the completion of a satisfactory course of professional training of at least one year, followed by two years' successful experience in teaching cooking.

Sewing teachers. To be eligible for examination for license as a special teacher of sewing the applicant must have the following qualifications: (a) Graduation from a satisfactory high school or institution of equal or higher rank, or an equivalent academic training, or the passing of an academic examination; (b) the completion of a satisfactory course of professional training of

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