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at least two years in the special branch she is to teach; (c) one year of experience in teaching sewing, or three years' experience as a class teacher teaching sewing a satisfactory portion of the time. These three years may be inclusive of the years devoted to professional training.

Director. To be eligible as a director of a special branch, the applicant must have the following qualifications: (a) Graduation from a college or university recognized by the regents of the University of the State of New York; (b) graduation from a course of professional training of at least two years in the special branch that he is to supervise or teach; (c) at least three years' successful experience as teacher of such special branch.

Section 4. STATE REGULATIONS REGARDING CERTIFICATES FOR SPE-
CIAL TEACHERS OF HOUSEHOLD ARTS, BY STATES..

Arizona.-Manual training, domestic science, or kindergarten teachers who are graduates of an approved manual training, domestic science, or kindergarten school may be licensed to teach such subjects by the State board of examiners. If such a teacher can not so qualify, then such teacher must pass such an examination as the State board of education may prescribe.

California.—County boards of education may grant special certificates on examination, or credentials, or both.

Colorado. The normal school issues special diplomas for domestic science, manual training, and sewing.

Delaware.-The State issues certificates to graduates of approved schools or on examination.

District of Columbia.-Certificates are issued by the board of education of the District.

Fiorida.-" A special certificate, valid for five years, may be issued by the State superintendent on satisfactory testimonals as to peculiar fitness for teaching any one or more branches not included in the requirement for the second-grade certificate; the candidate shall make a grade of not less than 90 per cent on such branch or branches in such examinations as shall be prescribed by the State superintendent with such assistants as he may select."

Georgia.-Special certificates, entitling the holder to teach or supervise the special subject, and requiring graduation from high school or its equivalent in scholarship, and training in the specialty and in the science and art of teaching, may be granted by the State board of education in domestic science and art, manual training, and certain other subjects.

Idaho.-The State board of education may issue specialists' State certificates good only for special teachers of music, drawing, manual training, domestic science, and physical education to graduates of approved schools which offer courses of not less than two years' work, with high-school work prerequisite. Valid for special subject only for eight years. (See 91, b, law of 1911.)

Illinois. Special certificate in domestic art, valid for two years in elementary or high schools of the county in which issued and renewable for three-year periods, is granted by the county superintendent. Requirements shall be graduation from a recognized high school, or equivalent preparation, and a certificate showing completion in a recognized higher institution of learning of at least two years of special training in the subject or subjects the candidate desires to teach; or in lieu of that, satisfactory evidence of four years' successful teaching of such subject and successful examination in English and the principles and methods of teaching.

Indiana.-The State superintendent issues "supervisors' licenses" in sewing and in cooking, respectively, valid to supervise and teach the subject in any of

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the public schools; examination open to persons "meeting the eligibility requirements for a 12 months' common school" (graduates of a commissioned or certified high school who have had at least 12 weeks' normal training) and to those who have had a course of one year or more in some approved school of sewing or cooking. The licenses are issued for 12, 24, or 36 months. The county superintendent issues similar licenses, good, however, only in the county of issue.

The vocational-education law of 1913 provides that "after September 1, 1915, all teachers required to teach elementary agriculture, industrial work, or domestic science shall have passed an examination in such subjects prepared by the State board of education." (Sec. 6.)

Iowa. The education board of examiners may issue a special certificate to any teacher of music, drawing, penmanship, or other special branches, or to any primary teacher of sufficient experience, who shall pass such examination as the board may require in the different branches. Valid for the branch specified for five years.

By an act approved 1913 elementary agriculture, domestic science, and manual training are required to be taught in public schools after July, 1915, after which date "elementary agriculture and domestic science shall be included among the subjects required in the examination of those applicants for teachers' certificates who are required by the provisions of this act to teach agriculture and domestic science."

Kansas. Special certificates in manual training, domestic science, and domestic art are issued to holders of valid teachers' certificates who have had special preparation satisfactory to the State board.

Teachers of domestic science and art and agriculture in high schools approved by the State board of education and receiving State aid must be approved by the State superintendent.

Louisiana." The qualification of the teacher shall be the equivalent of a full course in home economics in an institution offering specific training to teach the subjects in this course."-"Rules and Regulations to govern. Departments of Agriculture and Domestic Science, 1913."

Maryland. The credentials of special teachers of household subjects must be accepted by both county and State superintendents, or the teachers must be examined.

Massachusetts.-Chapter 375, 1911, provides that after July 1, 1912, no person shall teach in a State-aided high school unless he possesses a high-school teacher's certificate issued by the State board of education. A special certificate is granted in manual arts, domestic science, and other subjects.

Minnesota. Each high school or grade instructor in sewing or cooking must be a graduate of an accredited technical school and must hold a special industrial certificate secured from the superintendent of public instruction and issued only on the recommendation of persons in position to know the qualifications of the candidate and upon the indorsement of the State inspector.

Missouri. Special certificates in household arts, valid for five years and for life, are issued as follows: (1) Standard four-year high-school course or equivalent is the required basis for preparation; (2) thorough preparation shown by diploma from special professional school of high rank or by searching examination and other evidences of proficiency in the study and teaching of the subject is required; (3) all candidates for five-year special certificate will be given an examination in pedagogy and elementary psychology, and, in addition, for household arts, in literature, geography, chemistry, physiology, and hygiene, household arts (including drawing and designing). In each examination the

specialty will be waived on presentation of a diploma of graduation from a school of recognized standing.

Montana.-Act of 1913, section 905: "(e) Special Certificates. Upon the request of any board of school district trustees or its representatives, or any county superintendent of schools, a special certificate valid only in the district requesting the same may be granted by the State superintendent of public instruction, in music, drawing, elocution, physical, culture, penmanship, manual training, domestic science, agriculture, commercial and kindred subjects, first three primary and kindergarten grades, to any teacher who presents satisfactory evidence of special proficiency for teaching any of the above subjects, as shown by any certificates and credentials held by such teacher: Provided, That such special certificate shall be valid only for one year and shall entitle the holder to teach only such special subjects as are stated in said certificate."

Act of 1913, section 1700, provides that teachers in manual-training schools must have the special manual-training teachers' certificate, granted on the basis of "a sufficient general education and the professional and technical training necessary for such manual and industrial training"; and that teachers in vocational-training courses shall have special certificates based on general educational qualifications and "special training and practical experience in the vocation which they are to teach."

Nebraska.—State and city certificates may be granted to a special supervisor of domestic science on examination or, in lieu thereof, on graduation from a recognized special training school.

Nevada.-The State board of education shall grant special certificates valid for music, manual training, penmanship, commercial subjects, kindergarten work, or any specified foreign languages, "provided it shall be satisfied that the applicant is competent to teach such special subject. The board shall determine as to the fitness of the applicant by whatever method shall appear to be most appropriate." Valid for two years.

New Jersey.—“ Special certificates" are issued to teachers of industrial and technical subjects; among others, to teachers of cooking, requiring, examination in the theory and practice of cooking, household chemistry, and physiology and hygiene; and to teachers of sewing, requiring the theory and practice of sewing, including dressmaking. These certificates are valid for one year, are renewable without examination for two years, and are made permanent after three years of successful teaching. "Vocational certificates" may be issued to applicants for positions in State-aided vocational schools in various subjects, including the “household arts vocational certificate.” The limited certificate, granted for one year, requires at least a two-year course in general household arts in a recognized school or college (in lieu of this academic training and adequate experience in household arts may be accepted), and in addition a demonstration of ability to a committee of at least two housekeepers appointed by the State board of examiners. The candidate must further be 21 years of age. The certificate may be made permanent after three years of successful teaching. A "supervisor's vocational certificate in household arts" may be issued to an applicant for a position as supervisor or as principal in a State-aided vocational school, provided she holds a permanent vocational certificate" and has had adequate experience in a vocational school. This may be made permanent after a year.

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New Mexico. The State board of education is empowered to require an examination in vocational subjects, including domestic science, in the certification of teachers. By recent resolution of the board two credits may be allowed for these subjects toward certification of teachers, but no more. Also these subjects are included in the optional list, but if one is used as an optional and a credit made, only this credit and one other are counted.

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New York.-A special license is issued requiring high-school graduation and two years' special training in an approved institution. In vocational schools there are similar requirements of high-school training followed by a completed course in the special subject in an approved professional institution; but in special cases intimate knowledge gained by field or shop experience, with evidence of a satisfactory general education, is accepted in the case of such Vocational teachers.

North Carolina.-The teacher in the department of county farm-life school “for special training of girls for homemaking and housekeeping on the farm must hold high-school teacher's certificate on all required subjects except Latin, Greek, and the modern languages, including an additional certificate from the State board of examiners and the president of the State Normal and Industrial College, stating such person has furnished satisfactory evidence of qualifications by special training and practical experience for such position."

North Dakota.-Special certificate for teaching agriculture, the commercial subjects, domestic science, manual and industrial training in the common schools, graded or high schools, may be issued to applicants who possess qualifications equivalent to those for second-grade professional certificate (20 years of age, nine months' experience in teaching). Such certificates are valid for as many years as the State board of examiners may specify. Domestic science is included among the elective subjects in examinations for elementary certificates and professional certificates for teachers.

Ohio. Special domestic science certificates are granted to graduates of any approved normal school, teachers' college, college, or university who have a minimum of two years' academic or professional training beyond the high school.

Oklahoma.-Special certificates to teach or supervise in special subjects shall be issued by the State board of education to applicants presenting proof of graduation from departments of special work for which certificate is requested, provided such school and department be approved by the State board of education: Provided further, That such teacher is holder of State certificate of at least the grammar-school grade.

First-grade, second-grade, and third-grade teachers' certificates all require an examination in domestic science.

Oregon. Upon the application of any board of directors the State superintendent of public instruction may at his discretion issue a certificate, without examination, to teach in a number of special subjects, including domestic science and domestic art. Before issuing the certificate the superintendent must receive satisfactory evidence of the applicant's fitness to teach the subject. Pennsylvania.-The superintendent of public instruction shall provide for special examinations and for temporary or permanent certificates for teachers of special branches. He may grant temporary or permanent certificates for teaching special subjects to graduates of approved special schools, under such conditions as he shall make.

The qualifications of special teachers of household arts in the household-arts schools and departments authorized by the act of 1913 are stated by the State department of public instruction, as follows: The director must "have a training equivalent to that received in a household-arts course of a recognized college or a school which gives at least a two years' course in household arts. She should have a certificate which enumerates the subjects she is required to teach." "The practical household-arts teacher will be approved as to qualifications when the following conditions are fulfilled: She should have a certificate which entitles her to teach household-arts subjects; a training equivalent to that received in a two years' course in general household arts in a rec

ognized school; at least three years' experience in practical housekeeping." "The fact that a teacher holds a certificate enumerating household-arts subjects does not necessarily mean that her instruction will be approved."

Rhode Island.-Special certificates are granted by the State, for which evidence of training is accepted.

Tennessee.-High-school teachers are certificated according to departments. "Home economics" forms one department, and for it examinations are required in spelling, English grammar, cookery, sewing, and sanitation.

Texas. Cities and towns with 500 or more school population have boards of examiners, and any one of such cities, "may, at the discretion of the superintendent of the city schools, employ a teacher of any special branch not included in the requirements for. a State certificate without requiring an examination or a teacher's certificate."

Utah.-Requirements for high-school certificates in domestic science and art: 1. Domestic science high-school diploma.—An applicant for this diploma must fulfill all the requirements for a regular high-school diploma and must present college credit to the equivalent of three State credits for the following subjects which may be taken in the college course: Organic chemistry, physics, economics, physiology, art (this may be high-school art), and the college equivalent of at least four State credits in dietetics (two of these may be physiological chemistry or advanced physiology), house sanitation (two of these may be in bacteriology), and six State credits in food. This diploma entitles the holder to teach in any elementary or high school for life, provided the holder does not allow five consecutive years to elapse without following some educational pursuit.

1a. Domestic art high-school diploma.-Same as above, except that botany shall be included or may be substituted for physics, sewing for food, and textiles for dietetics.

2. Temporary domestic science or art diploma.-This diploma may be granted to a teacher who presents all the qualifications of 1 or la except the teaching requirements.

In the elementary school the regular certificate is required.

Vermont.-Special certificates may be issued by the superintendent of education, without examination, to a teacher of successful experience in teaching and previous certification in first or second grade or of special training for teaching. Such certificate shall be a license to teach special high-school subjects-e. g., industrial arts and sciences. Such certificates are valid for five or two years, according to the grade of certificate previously held; in the case of special training, the grade of such certificate is to be determined by the superintendent.

Virginia.-A special certificate may be granted to teachers engaged in department work or in special subjects, as manual training and domestic science; valid for five years. The candidate must pass first-grade examination, provided that the examiner may make exceptions for special certificates in music, drawing, and domestic science.

Washington.-Special certificates shall be issued by the county superintendent or the city superintendent in any city to applicants who show by examination or otherwise satisfactory evidence of fitness to teach special subjects, such manual training, domestic science, etc. The special certificate shall be valid so long as the holder continues to teach in the city or county where granted, unless revoked.

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Wisconsin. The holder of a diploma from a manual training school or school of domestic science, upon the completion of a training course for teachers equivalent to the Wisconsin normal-school course, may present these facts, with evi

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