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dence of moral character and two years' teaching, to the State board of examiners, and, if recommended by the board, shall be entitled to a certificate from the State superintendent.

Persons completing the training course for teaching manual training and domestic science in Wisconsin normal schools are to be given a license for teaching manual training and domestic science for one year; after one year an unlimited State certificate will be granted.

Any city superintendent may issue certificates to teachers of special branches after such examination as may be provided by the school board and approved by the State superintendent.

Wyoming. The State superintendent, on the recommendation of the State board of examiners, shall issue a special technical certificate, valid for four years, to teach technical subjects. The candidate shall pass an examination in the special branches he expects to teach, but a certificate may be granted without examination to a graduate of the University of Wyoming to teach subjects covered by his course of study.


This table summarizes some of the important points in the legislative provision for education for the home stated in the preceding sections; but, especially, it presents the returns of a schedule of inquiry sent to the State superintendents of education.

TABLE 1.-State provision for education for the home, by States.

[Entries made in columns below indicate the following: (Columns 2, 3, 4, 5) Is there State legislation authorizing the teaching of household subjects in public elementary schools
(column 2)? In public high schools (column 3)? In industrial and vocational schools (column 4)? In rural schools (column 5)? Is instruction in any household subject required
by law (column 6)? Is there legislation giving special State grants for education related to the home-in elementary schools (column 7)? In high schools (column 8)? Is continu-
ation education in household arts authorized in evening schools or elsewhere for home women and for working girls and others (column 9)? Does the State issue a special license
or certificate to teachers of household arts (column 10)? Entry of indicates yes; 0 indicates no.]

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Domestic science required in 9 district agricultural high schools: State aid.

State aid, one-half; maximum, $2,500, to designated high schools; similarly to normal schools.

Domestic science in 4 district agricultural schools; State aid.

Domestic science required in normal schools; special home economics in normal schools.

State aid, one-half; maximum, $50 per pupil for schools or courses in "trades, useful occupations, and avocations.'

Domestic science required in district agricultural high schools; State aid.

Domestic science required in rural high schools.
Special certificate issued by county superintendent.

Domestic science required in grades, and may be in high schools; two-thirds aid to voca-
tional schools and departments.

Domestic science required in State-aided normal training high schools; in aided consoli-
dated schools; domestic science required in public schools in 1915.

Domestic science in State-aided normal training high schools; local tax for industrial training.

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Special State supervision of household-arts teaching has been instituted in Illinois, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Louisiana, Maine, and New York. In the States mentioned a woman expert in such work is employed. In Illinois she is a high-school inspector of household science in connection with the University of Illinois; in Louisiana she is a "State supervisor of home economics" in public schools, in connection with the department of agricultural extension at the State university; in Massachusetts a supervisor of the vocational classes in household arts, under the State board of education; in Wisconsin a State supervisor attached to the office of superintendent of public instruction; in Maine the director of home economics in the Farmington State Normal School is also State supervisor of home economics; and in New York a supervisor of home making was added to the staff of the vocation education division of the State education department in October, 1914. State supervision in a number of other States-New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, and New Mexico-is provided to some extent for household arts by the special State supervisor of industrial education, in connection with the new industrial education laws; and in at least two States, Minnesota and Tennessee, such supervision by the State high-school inspector is directed to the introduction of home economics. The provision of State supervision of household-arts teaching in the schools seems one essential point in its rapid and successful introduction; whether the necessity of such inspection will continue permanently is another question.1

The Louisiana supervisor of home economics gives the following facts as to her work with the 60 public-school departments and the 4 normal-school departments:

The State gives $500 aid to each school teaching home economics and requires two rooms well equipped. The same credit is given for the work in home economics as for any other line of work, and it may be substituted for Latin or geometry.

Every teacher of home economics is supposed to do some extension work either in the town or in the near-by country. This extension work is in the form of clubs for the study of cooking or sewing, home nursing or sanitation, or anything connected with the home. Besides the mothers' organizations, the girls are organized into clubs for work in gardening and the preserving of garden products, and these are under the direction of the home economics teachers. Many of the schools are working out a plan for noon luncheons.


There are several interesting experiments under way. One is to have a model home for the principal and his wife, and have this used as a show" house for the people of the community. Another is the making of a home economics

1 Those interested in State inspection might well secure information as to the methods employed by the provincial inspector of household science, education department of Ontario, Toronto, and should also consult the reports of the women inspectors" of the English board of education.

center department along the lines of a regular home, having a bedroom, dining room, kitchen, and bathroom, to be used as a laboratory for the classes. We have 10 baby outfits that we are using for a traveling exhibit. We send one of these outfits to a rural school where there is no department of home economics and leave it there long enough for the teacher to use it as a model for an outfit to be made by the girls for that school. Then we try to induce them to buy a doll, regular baby size, and keep it in the school, letting it be brought home as a reward for home work well done. We hope to be able to do much with this exhibit. We have a number of the little one-room rural schoolhouses around the State that have been abandoned and the district consolidated. In some cases these have been made into charming little domestic-science departments or centers.

Miss Emma A. Conley, State inspector of domestic science for. Wisconsin, writing of her work, says:

We have 150 high schools where this work is given, and so this past year an inspector of domestic science was appointed whose duty it is to inspect rooms, equipment, work, pass on the course of study, the teaching ability of the teacher, the standard of work required and maintained in schools, to consult with school boards when they desire to add domestic science to the course, to give talks on the subject whenever her services are required, and to organize the work and put it on a fairly uniform basis. In addition to the high-school work, State aid is now given for cooking and sewing work in the two or three room graded country school, if the work is up to standard.

Certain definite requirements are fulfilled for State aid and for credit as a high-school subject so that it may count toward graduation, and be equivalent to other high-school work. These requirements are: Equipment adequate; rooms adequate for needs; course of study planned in detail and approved by the State superintendent; legally qualified teacher; inspection by State inspector of domestic science; and work of teacher must be satisfactory.

The aim is to have the work so well planned in every high school that the girl taking the work will be prepared to take complete charge of a home. This means improving the course of study by providing less actual cooking, and more study of the place of foods in the diet, and by strengthening the work in household management, hygiene, sanitation, and care of infants.

Mrs. Eva W. White, formerly agent of the Massachusetts State Board of Education in supervising vocational classes in household arts, writes as follows:

I believe strongly in State supervision for the purpose of standardizing work in a State and of bringing to the various communities the accumulated knowledge which it is possible for agents of a State board of education to gain.

I do not believe, however, in any form of State supervision which drives communities to the working out of particular methods or adopting particular courses of study. I believe in State supervision which stimulates and which throws on the local communities the full responsibility for initiative and for the development of their schools.

I believe that State money should be expended in the line of experiment or in order to help communities carry on types of schools where the need is clearly evident, but where the expense of maintenance, as gauged by the tax rate, is too great for a community to assume. Such State subsidy and State supervision, in order to justify this subsidy, is allowable because of the general good in the life of the State.

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