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I believe that a State supervisor should continually keep in touch with the communities through personal visits, through correspondence, through meetings organized in the various localities, and through teachers' meetings. The State requirements, however, should be worked out on the basis of mutual cooperation. The State supervisor should not be a censor.
Section 7. SUMMARY: A STATE PROGRAM OF EDUCATION FOR THE
There is presented herewith, in summary, a brief statement of points comprising a State program of education for the home as they may, with advantage, be expressed in its school legislation.
1. A requirement that household arts be taught in every elementary school, city and rural.
2. State supervision of household-arts education by an expert inspector, preferably an assistant attached to the office of the State superintendent of schools, who can give direction to the development of a progressive program.
3. Home economics included as a part of the normal-school preparation of every grade teacher and as a part of the course in all training classes for teachers, city and rural, so that household-arts teaching may be included in the grade work of the regular teacher.
4. A certificate for special teachers of household arts requiring not less than two years of professional training beyond the high school, and for supervisory teachers a three-year or, preferably, a full fouryear course.
5. A State grant toward the salary of special teachers of household arts and supervisors of household arts-that is, of teachers with the specified preparation who devote full time to household teaching.
6. A system of supervision of household-arts teaching in rural schools, through a visiting teacher who gives special instruction and who aids the regular teacher in this special field (see Baltimore County plan, p. 48); by a system of consolidation of rural schools; or by the Minnesota system of associating rural schools with a central school.
7. In secondary education encouragement of household science. teaching in all public high schools; first by State grants toward teacher's salary, and ultimately by a requirement that the subject be offered at least as an elective.
8. The recognition of household arts and homemaking in the new program of vocational education by giving these subjects a place coordinate with training for industry, commerce, and agriculture.
9. Prevocational classes of the seventh and eighth grades in household arts and in other fields to hold pupils who now leave schoolbut not to encroach on fundamental education of a general character.
10. On the secondary level, distinct vocational training in household arts and in other fields-by day schools, by part-time continu
ation schools at daytime hours, or by evening classes to be done away with as soon as the part-time continuation school at daytime hours can be introduced. This vocational training will be given in special schools such as are illustrated by the county schools of agriculture and domestic economy in Wisconsin and elsewhere (p. 55), the Garland School of Home Making in Boston (p. 148), and the distinctly vocational courses in household arts in public high schools (p. 93); but especially will practical vocational training be given in continuation classes in household arts and home making, in connection with the public schools, to reach three definite groups: (a) the housewife, home maker, and young woman living at home; (b) the wage-earning houseworker or "servant "; and (c) the wage-earning young woman in other employments who desire to improve her skill in home making; these classes will treat unit subjects, will meet at daytime hours, and for the wage earner will provide opportunity for such study on the employer's time (see p. 113).
11. Higher institutions, normal schools, technical institutes, and colleges will provide vocational instruction upon a higher level.
12. The program of extension education to reach the homemakers of the present generation to be carried out both in city and country. In the city this involves lectures, day and evening classes under the public schools, and instruction by settlements, philanthropic societies, churches, and other agencies through classes, visiting housekeepers, home schools, or model flats, and other means. In the country the prime need is for movable schools of homemaking, and visiting advisory teachers of housekeeping, whose work as consultants may be developed in connection with the farm demonstration work in agriculture. Meanwhile women's institutes, homemaking clubs, correspondence courses, housewives' bulletins, and similar agencies are utilized increasingly by agricultural colleges and local schools to reach the rural home.
II. THE RURAL SCHOOL AND EDUCATION FOR THE HOME.
The problem of rural home betterment has been approached through many popular educational agencies, such as the grange, institutes for farm women, and the visiting household teachers whose work will be organized with that of county agricultural experts (see p. 159); through systems of extension education for the home. radiating from the State colleges and universities; and, most hopefully of all, through the enlistment of rural schools in the home. education movement.1
Section 1. THE RURAL DISTRICT SCHOOL.
At first thought the rural district school seems impregnable against any such reform as the teaching of household arts. There is but one teacher; she must teach all the grades, which means 20 or 30 classes a day. Not only is there no money for equipment, but no room for it if it were purchased; and the patrons "know how to cook." Yet, in the face of graver difficulties than those cited, wideawake rural teachers are experimenting and securing the cooperation of patrons in adding to general education a vocational interest in agriculture for boys and rural homemaking for girls.
It is particularly important to recognize that the rural district school, especially the consolidated school, is becoming a community center in much the same way that the urban school is. Teachers in rural schools are organizing women's clubs, mothers' organizations, country-life associations of men and women, and these in turn are furnishing leadership in the better-living movement of the country.
There will be cited here certain pieces of pioneer work.
Rural schools of Baltimore County.-Miss Letitia E. Weer, supervisor of home economics in Baltimore County, Md., public schools, furnishes the following statement regarding the teaching of home economics under her direction:
Rural school work in home economics was begun in 1912-13, and while there is the usual difficulty in not having trained teachers responsible for the work. much progress has been made. The policy is to furnish rural teachers with
1 Those interested in the rural-school problem should note also discussions elsewhere of (a) the State aid now generously given in many States for the introduction of education for agriculture and home arts into rural schools (p. 9); (b) the training of teachers who go into rural schools so that they will be competent to teach elementary home economics (p. 125); see also the rural extension work of colleges in Part III of this report.
ABANDONED DISTRICT SCHOOLHOUSE USED AS A DOMESTIC SCIENCE
B. MODEL HOUSEKEEPING FLAT, ASSOCIATION OF HOUSEKEEPING CENTERS,
NEW YORK, N. Y.