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11.40 the children responsible for that day's menu go to the kitchen, while the teacher discusses with the rest the cooking lesson for next day. At 12.20 lunch is served. In the early fall canning of fruits and vegetables, to be used for lunches later in the year, is undertaken; a little later nuts are studied, and in the butchering season meats form the material of instruction. Thus the lessons grow directly out of the things that are at hand.1

Section 3. THE CONSOLIDATED SCHOOL AND HOUSEHOLD ARTS

TEACHING.

The consolidation of rural district schools into a stronger centralized school means, among other items of progress, the possibility of teaching home science to girls and agriculture to boys, not as an incident in the work of the general teacher, but by the trained service of a specialist. The Minnesota law, for example, regarding consolidated schools sets the same standards for teachers as in villages and cities, and requires instruction in agriculture, manual training, sewing, and cooking in every consolidated school that receives State aid. State aid is give not alone for maintenance of instruction, but also for the provision of an adequate building and equipment which must meet standards set by the State. Minnesota adopted a more generous plan of aid to consolidations in 1911, and in the two following years over 600 consolidations took place. The progress toward consolidation in other States is also emphasizing household arts teaching.

In the home-economics course in the Minnesota consolidated schools, industrial education is to begin in the seventh grade, and is to be given for not over 200 minutes a week. Cooking is planned for five 40-minute periods a week for one year, one period for theoretical work and two double periods for practice; sewing is outlined for 160 minutes a week for two years; textiles for 40 minutes a week for one-half year; laundering for 40 minutes a week for a half year, with instruction and demonstration; personal and home hygiene, 40 minutes per week for a year.

Section 4. SPECIAL AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION FOR THE

HOME.

Many of the States have established special secondary schools of agriculture, and practically without exception home education for girls has been provided parallel to agriculture teaching for boys. The establishment of such schools may be by county action, as in Wisconsin or Mississippi, or by direct State action, as in New York, where several schools have been located in different parts of the State.

1 Miss Helen Swift, Fruitville, Mo., in Missouri State Board of Agriculture Bulletin, March, 1913.

In Georgia, Alabama, and Oklahoma special schools have been established in the congressional districts; in Arkansas four district schools have been established; and in Virginia a special State grant has been made to one high school in each congressional district. This type of school makes possible a more thoroughgoing kind of vocational training in homemaking than high schools can usually provide. Another important consideration is that most of these special agricultural schools provide dormitory life for their students, and this is usually utilized as an element in the home-training course. Details of typical schools are given.

County schools of agriculture and domestic economy, Wisconsin.-Seven county schools of agriculture and domestic economy have been established in Wisconsin under the law of 1901. One of the recent establishments, the Milwaukee County School, at Wauwatosa, may be described to illustrate what these schools are doing in domestic economy. It gives instruction in farming, homemaking, and community welfare to boys and girls who have finished the common schools, offering three-year curricula in agriculture and in domestic economy. In addition, the school undertakes considerable extension work in both fields. The domestic-economy department offers 29 different courses in cookery, dietetics, homemaking, foods, home nursing, laundry, household management, design, sewing, dressmaking, millinery, textiles, household chemistry, and bacteriology, which are combined with academic work in English, mathematics, and rural welfare, and with courses in agriculture of interest to women. Highschool graduates can complete the course in two years.

The school is located on a farm of 236 acres, a mile and a half from Wauwatosa, accessible to day students as well as to boarding students. A residence hall provides room and board. The plant includes buildings for horticulture, dairy farming, mechanics, poultry, etc. The second floor of the administration building is devoted to domestic economy, with a sewing laboratory, food laboratory, and a practice home consisting of a suite of rooms.

The school maintains an annual conference on rural and suburban life, and a summer session called the "Out-of-doors farm school for boys and girls." This summer session-six weeks in length-is intended for boys and girls between 14 and 17 years of age," and offers exceptional opportunities to the boys and girls of the city to spend part of their vacation in recreation and study along lines of work which would not be available within the city." Opportunities for camp life are provided the boys, and the dormitory is used for the girls.

The domestic-economy department has undertaken extension work in the organization of women's domestic clubs; the organization of

the first club was prepared for by a house-to-house canvass of 75 homes.

What is done at Wauwatosa illustrates sufficiently the work of the six other county schools of agriculture and domestic economy of Wisconsin.1

Virginia has provided that in at least one high school in each congressional district agriculture, domestic science and art, and manual training shall be taught, State aid being given for these courses. The Manassas (Va.) Agricultural High School is one of these schools. It offers a two-year course in domestic science, including in its food study the serving of dinners for the monthly farmers' institutes which meet at the school. This institute includes a woman's auxiliary for home-economics discussions. Other extension work includes club work, lectures, and demonstrations, expert advice, and aid to rural schools in agriculture and domestic science teaching. Besides the agricultural, domestic-science, and manual-training courses, the school maintains a college-preparatory course and a normal-training course. The latter includes domestic science.

County agricultural high schools of Mississippi.-Any county school board in Mississippi may establish an agricultural high school. This school must employ a skilled agriculturist as a teacher, and must also have a teacher of home science. Twenty-seven of these schools were recently recorded as in operation and eight more in construction, with 3,000 pupils in attendance, of whom 1,600 were boarding pupils. Over 900 of the pupils are reported as working part of their way through school, and 200 of these are entirely self-supporting. After the first year board is estimated to cost $6 a month and dormitory expenses $4 to $5 a month per pupil.

The course of study drawn up for the schools includes 4 units of agriculture for boys and 4 units of home science for girls, 4 units of English, 2 units of history, 2 units of mathematics-a total of 12 units required. A minimum of 3 units of elective work in addition is necessary for graduation.

The course of study in home science includes cooking, serving and etiquette, sewing, millinery, home care of the sick, feeding of invalids and infants, laundering, dietetics, house planning and decoration, gardening and floriculture, poultry raising and marketing, preserving and canning, sanitation and hygiene, study of texture, manufacture, cost, and durability of fabrics, household management, and keeping of accounts.

The schools are expected to undertake extension work for the improvement of agriculture and country life. The development of teacher training departments is contemplated.

1 See, also," County schools of agriculture and home economics in Wisconsin." A. A. Johnson, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Experiment Stations Bulletin 242.

Jamestown Farm-Life School, North Carolina.-Domestic science was introduced into the Jamestown State High School, Jamestown, N. C., in 1911. By special act of the general assembly of that year there was established a farm-life school, receiving State aid, with the object of giving the boys and girls of the country a new vision of the social and economic possibilities of rural life.

In choosing their course of study the girls are allowed to take either Latin or home economics; the boys take either Latin or agriculture. This arrangement applies to the four years of high school. Some pupils of exceptional ability and energy carry both subjects.

The work in home economics at present embraces the general subjects of cooking and sewing, with additional topics, such as invalid cookery, home nursing, house decorating, and first aid to the injured. The second-year class was required last year to make a miniature house on aper, showing the color scheme, arrangement of furniture, and the general plan and furnishings. The chief consideration is to give the girls things that will be of practical value to them at home or in their future work. The third-year class made their commencement dresses. The method pursued in the conduct of the classes is to have recitations based on the text two days in the week, experiments one day, and a double period for laboratory work one day. The teacher in domestic science is employed for her entire time, the idea being that some form of extension work shall be carried out during the year. The tomato-club work for girls has been the chief channel through which this side of the work has been developed so far, but a special effort has recently been put forth to interest the adult women of the community. Some mothers' meetings have been held, at which such everyday topics as arrangement of the kitchen, feeding the baby, making bread, etc., are discussed. The response to the call of these meetings has been encouraging. While this work is only in its infancy, results are already seen which promise greater usefulness in the future. The course seems to be meeting the need of instruction adapted to southern rural conditions.

The California Polytechnic School, San Luis Obispo, is a State Vocational school of high-school rank for both boys and girls. It offers three principal lines of instruction-agriculture, mechanics, and household arts. The polytechnic school has recently extended its course to four years in length. In household arts the following courses are offered: General science, domestic science, dietetics and nutrition, home economics and sanitation, plain sewing, dressmaking and millinery, advanced dressmaking, home gardening, drawing and design (four courses). In the household arts curriculum, mathematics, physiology, English, chemistry, physics, botany, general history, and United States history are required in addition to the courses stated.

Section 5. BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS AND HOME IMPROVEMENT
THROUGH THE RURAL SCHOOLS.

Popular education for the rural home has found an important agency in the clubs of boys and of girls formed, usually in connection with the rural schools, to carry on some contest, such as in corn raising, bread baking, tomato canning, sewing, gardening, etc., one result of which has been the learning of some useful process and the acquiring of a skill that can be employed sometimes for remuneration, sometimes in producing products for immediate consumption in the family. The new earning power makes possible a better home; the new skill, if it is in the household arts, itself means better housekeeping. The club work has usually been initiated by the State college, State department of education, or the United States Department of Agriculture.

The first State-wide movement was in New York in 1898, beginning in nature-study lessons sent out to the schools by Cornell University, and since developing into corn growing and other agricultural interests and contests in sewing and bread making for girls. In 1910 the Cornell farm boys' and girls' clubs had a membership of 75,000. The Nebraska clubs were organized by the State department of education in 1905, and the department of domestic science of the State university cooperated with the girls' work. In Ohio the extension department of the State university organized clubs; in Illinois the county superintendents of schools and the farmers' institutes initiated the work. Certain Iowa counties and Southern States, notably Texas (1903) and Georgia, were early organizers of clubs, while the United States Department of Agriculture through its farm demonstration work has in the last few years extended corn clubs for boys and, since 1910, tomato-canning clubs for girls throughout most of the States. In 1910 partial figures showed 28 States, with 2,132 counties, reporting that 395 counties had organized for club. work with 144,170 members in the clubs. Ten of the States then utilized household arts in club plans.

The clubs have often been connected with the rural schools, and such an organization promises best for wise direction and permanence. The contest feature in the clubs and the exhibiting of products at school, local, county, and State fairs have undoubtedly greatly stimulated the movement. The wise direction which the State departments of education, the State universities and normal schools are giving the movement, and similar help from county superintendents of schools, may be trusted to make of it an educational agency and not a mere means of income seeking. In Idaho, for example, the State superintendent of public instruction, with the cooperation of the State university in preparing home economics bulletins, and of county school superintendents in effecting local organi

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