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zation, has since 1912 secured the organization of over 500 clubs with a membership of over 5,500. In Nodaway County, Mo., the county agricultural and domestic science association, an organization in which teachers take an active part, established contests in 1908 and furnishes score cards and rules for school contests in bread, cakes, canned goods, shirt waists, aprons, dolls, etc.
The Kansas home economics clubs of the Kansas State Agricultural College were organized in 1911 as one method of reaching girls from 10 to 20 years of age throughout the State who do not have the opportunity for such training in schools. The clubs are organized in two grades, junior clubs for girls from 10 to 14, and regular clubs for girls 14 to 20 years of age. The organization is intended to reach any groups, in schools or out, in industry or at home, in town or country. The local club organizes with a housekeeper or teacher as leader; the teacher, it is suggested, may have the club meet at noon, or after school, or on Saturday, or some housekeeper may conduct a club at her own home. The basis of cooperation with the State college requires such a leader, a regular time and place of meeting for the club, and a weekly report to the extension department of the college. A constitution is adopted, which states the object of the club "to promote the interests of the home." The college furnishes printed lesson sheets, a copy for each lesson, to the individual club member. Two lines of work are offered, cooking and sewing; in sewing, two courses each of 20 lessons are offered-hand sewing, drafting, and making undergarments; in cookery, three courses are offered, the first two covering the general field of foods, both theory and practice, while the third course is devoted to special subjects.
In high schools, two lessons per week of each course may be taken if the work is conducted by a regular teacher; in clubs, one lesson a week in any one course is usual, though two lessons may be allowed; college admission credit is not allowed for club work, but it may be considered for work given in high school under a competent teacher. A fee of $2, $2.50, or $3 for each course, varying according to the size of the club, or $1 for an individual taking the course, is paid to the college; local expenses for supplies and other necessaries are met by membership fees. Suggestions as to simple equipment are furnished to the clubs-the provision at the school building of a range, gasoline, or oil stove; a table made of boards, saw horses, and necessary utensils; the use of the kitchen of the woman acting as leader; or even the home kitchens of the club members. It is suggested that clubs arrange exhibits of their work in sewing, or serve some of their cooked products to parents and friends; and that funds for the expenses of the club be obtained by sales of articles made in cookery.
At present there are 65 active clubs in Kansas with a membership of 700, and 3,000 girls have been reached by the organization. A good many clubs continue through the several courses, and through them many rural and other schools have been helped and regular departments have been installed in many high schools. These clubs form one of four methods employed by the Kansas college to reach nonresident students, the others being the correspondence courses in cooking and sewing, movable schools in cooking and sewing, and special courses in home economics for women's clubs already organized. (See p. 97.)
Exhibits of club work.-It has become customary to arrange exhibits of the results of club work at local, county, and State fairs as a means of increasing interest. Often such exhibits are held first in each district school; then winning exhibits are sent to county contests, and county winners to State contests. In some instances instruction is provided in connection with the exhibits, and so a school of domestic economy may be maintained during the exhibition. A striking instance of this is the Illinois State fair with its model house for domestic science instruction, provided at a cost of $20,000, in which domestic science instruction is given during the fair. (For exhibits, see further, p. 174.)
III. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AND EDUCATION FOR THE HOME.
This chapter presents, in the earlier sections, selected typical curricula to indicate the character of instruction in household arts given in the elementary school, and in the later sections statistical discussions of certain aspects of the elementary school situation based on returns from a schedule of inquiry sent to city schools.
Section 1. HOUSEHOLD ARTS IN LOWER ELEMENTARY GRADES SPEYER SCHOOL OF TEACHERS COLLEGE.
One solution of the household-arts problem in the lower elementary grades is that of the Speyer School of Teachers College, Columbia University, in which a single combined subject of "industrial and fine arts" (household arts, industrial arts, manual training, and fine arts combined) is introduced in the first six grades, with appropriate units from each of these aspects and with no differentiation of work for boys and girls. In its organization the material groups itself about man's needs in six particulars-foods; shelter; clothing; records; utensils; tools, machines, and weapons.
The work under each is divided into subject matter and projects. Projects are illustrative of processes of manufacture. Their design involves a careful study of the principles of design, an examination of designs used to-day, and a study of the designs used by historic peoples. Processes of construction involve not only hand production but a study of power machinery, factory production, and transportation. The social aspects of the subject include studies of sources of material, markets, the conditions of laborers, and the relation of employers and laborers and of these to consumers. Excursions form an essential part of the work.1
The advantages of the plan are these: A solution for the crowded curriculum by reducing art work and all manual work to a single unified subject, industrial and fine arts; a further simplification by providing uniform work for boys and girls; social gains by grounding the boys in some knowledge of the household, its arts and problems, and similarly by acquainting the girls with industrial materials, processes, and conditions; a consideration of the arts that is thoroughly and fundamentally humanistic, not technical and not voca
1 The Speyer School Curriculum, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1913, 179 pp., 50 cents.
tional save in the sense of awakening and developing interests and capacities, and thus providing a basis for later vocational choice.
For the seventh and eighth grades the work is differentiated to meet vocational needs of students, whether professional, industrial, household, or commercial-i. e., whether going on to higher professional training or planning to turn shortly into household, industrial, and commercial work. As to the work of the first six grades, a definite beginning in industrial and fine arts is made in the kindergarten to the extent of interpreting ideas and feelings through materials. In the first grade the work in social and industrial life constitutes the larger part of the year's work. There is no attempt to differentiate the several aspects; the unified life experience of the children in the basis. Topics considered are: The family-members; pleasures; activities; material needs, including food, clothing, and shelter. For example, as to food, the subject matter may include: "What we eat; how our needs are supplied; how mother preserves some kinds of fruit for winter use." There is practice in projects: Preserving of fruit for the day nursery; modeling fruits and vegetables from clay; making a fruit and vegetable stand of wood to represent grocer's display; brush work and paper cuttings of fruits and vegetables. Certain community activities related to the house are also studied.
In the second grade social and civic aspects rather than the industrial are emphasized; the problems of primitive people are considered in so far as they lead into the present; nature study, hygiene, and constructive activities are related to the study of social and industrial life.
The topics include:
In present-day life-A. Individual needs of food, clothing, and shelter related to nature study; for example, as to shelter: (1) Uses protection from the weather, abode of the family group, protection for family property. (2) Kinds of homes-the house for one family, for several families, for many families; houses at the seaside and on the farm. (3) Materials used-wood, stone, bricks, cement, steel. (4) How we can help in our home-sweep, dust, set table, make beds, wash dishes. B. Community needs of city government for fire, police, health protection, etc. In primitive life-food of tree dwellers, early cave men, and later cave men; shelter, clothing, education.
The projects of the second grade include
food, shelter, clothing, utensils, tools, sand-table projects; in shelter, for example, (1) making a simple house form with a frame of wood covered with burlap, containing a door and window, using celluloid for the window panes; the top or roof is left open; the parts are in panels and are easily folded; the wall of the schoolroom may be used as one side of the house. (2) Furniture for the house-table, chairs, buffet, bed, bureau, and bookcase, made in simple style of wood by screw construction; each piece is made by two or more children working together. (3) Housewifery, using the house and furniture made; (a) care of dining room-sweeping, dusting, setting table, washing dishes, launder
ing linen; (b) care of bedroom-sweeping, dusting, making bed, laundering linen.
In the third grade the correlation of the unified-arts work is sought in the history, which deals with hunting, fishing, pastoral, agricultural, and commercial stages, and in the geography and nature study. The industrial and fine-arts work includes foods, shelter, clothing, records, utensils, and tools, machines, and weapons. Foods as outlined include:
Subject matter: (1) Milk and milk products related to study of pastoral people; food value of milk as compared with other foods; care of milk-questions of sanitation; butter-food value, process of making, action of rennet; thickening of milk-with flour, egg, rennet, starch; whey and curds. (2) Indian foods in connection with history; dried foods-pumpkin, apples, and meat; uses of corn-mush, meal, hominy, parched corn; corn dance of the Indians. (3) Storage of fruits and vegetables for the winter; Indian methods compared with ours; marketing in New York. (4) Hebrew food in connection with history-unleavened bread, lentils; cleanliness relative to meat. (5) Food products of the eastern Mediterranean region. Olives-olive oil, food value, use in salads. Oranges, dates, figs.
Projects of third grade: (1) Butter, cottage cheese, custard, junket. (2) Dried pumpkin, dried apples, corn meal by mortar and pestle (made and used); corn-meal mush, hominy, parched corn. (3) Unleavened bread, lentil soup. (4) Salad, orange jelly, stuffed dates.
Grade 4 repeats in the arts work much the same correlation; with history, in which the children study the Greeks and Romans as types of civilized society; with geography, activities of peoples in other lands. The general arts subjects remain the same. The topic of foods includes the following:
Subject matter: (1) Eggs-food value as compared with milk, meat, vegetables, etc.; methods of preparing eggs; cold storage; candling, etc.; use in preparing other foods, as thickening milk, lightening batters, etc. (2) Starchfood value; test for starch, method of cooking starch, uses of rice as a food, preparation of vegetables, serving with white sauce. Macaroni-food value, manufacture, preparation for use. (3) Fish-food value; methods of preserving, canning, drying, etc.; preparation for food; oysters, cod, salmon, mackerel, etc. (4) Cocoa and chocolate-source, manufacture, food value, preparation for use. (5) Serving a luncheon-to give first idea of balancing a meal by proper selection of food values.
Projects of fourth grade: (1) Boiled eggs, deviled. (2) Rice cooked with cheese, vegetables served with white sauce, baked potato, macaroni and cheese. (3) Oyster soup, chowder. (4) Cocoa. (5) A luncheon.
Grades 5 and 6 repeat the general correlation suggested. The arts work is suggested by the food topics of grade 6:
Subject matter: (1) Doughs and batters, methods of preparing. (2) Methods of lightening doughs-by air in egg or folded pastry; by baking powder; by soda and sour milk; by yeast. (3) Dietaries-organizing the food values of various products studied so as to give basis for planning meals with approximate balance. (4) Fermentation-summary of previous studies; causes-yeast and bacteria; evidences; favorable conditions; methods of prevention-steriliza