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tion in canning, pasteurization of milk; uses of sour milk; useful fermentations-butter, cheese, bread, and vinegar. (5) Economics of food-substitutes for meats in food value; comparative cost of milk, eggs, meat, and vegetables; cooking left-overs; buying in season; buying in quantities. (6) Colonial cookery-brown bread, baked beans, Indian pudding, pickles, corn bread, etc. Dutch luncheon. (7) Tea, coffee, and cocoa-food value, hygienic questions. (8) By-products of foods-candle dipping, candle molds, soap making.
Projects of fifth and sixth grades: (1) and (2) Cake. (3) Menus. (4) Canning. (5) Left-over dishes. (6) Dutch luncheon of the Colonial period. (7) Soap, candles.
In grades 7 and 8 the curriculum is differentiated. The household arts, which up to this point has been of a general informational character, industrially and socially cultural, now becomes technical and vocational, and is taken by the girls alone, while the boys take similar specialized work in industrial arts.
Section 2. UPPER-GRADE INDUSTRIAL COURSE-CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
An industrial course in household arts has been outlined for grades 6, 7, and 8 of the Chicago public schools, the intent being to emphasize the vocational aspects of household arts. The principals are authorized to substitute the industrial course for the regular course in these grades where the conditions make it appear advisable. Pupils who complete either the general or industrial course are admitted to high schools without prejudice.
The schedule for the industrial course provides 25 hours of instruction per week, of which 83 hours are devoted to English, history, civics, mathematics, geography, and penmanship; 5 hours to physical education, music, study, general use, and recesses; and 11 hours to art, nature study, and industrial arts.
The industrial course in household arts is outlined as follows:1
Household science three times a week (two hours); the kitchen; method in kitchen arrangement; in dishwashing; the range, its care and control; the ice box, its structure and care; vegetables, their structure and value; cereals, at least four, with and without fruit; eggs, in at least five ways; milk and eggs in combination; butter making and comparison of butter with substitutes; milk, at least five ways of using as the principal ingredient; flour mixtures, batter and doughs; meat, structure and methods in cooking; beverages, cocoa, chocolate, coffee, tea.
Infant diet; the responsibility of citizens, including children, for the cleanliness and beauty of home yards, of alleys, and streets; the school premises as a center of influence; the inspection of milk, meats, fish, fruits, and other supplies.
Food storage in plants; experiments with plant foods; animal foods; simple experiments in digestion; amount of water in foodstuffs.
1 Chicago Public Schools' Course of Study for Elementary Schools, 1912, pp. 85-87.
Sewing two times a week: Hand towel, sewing apron, sewing bag, pillow slip, crocheting (lace), knitting (lace), corset cover, damask hem, hemstitched collars, cuffs, and doily. All pieces to be carefully laundered.
Study (and culture, if possible) of flax, hemp, and cotton. Study of wool, washing, carding, spinning, and weaving. Comparison of various fibers; testing with chemicals and microscope.
Household science, two times a week: Preservation of fruit; flour mixtures, general principles controlling them; specific and general rules; study and general understanding of leavens; experimentation with yeast; deep-fat frying; meats, experiments for understanding various conditions of solubility and coagulability of muscle juice; methods of cooking reviewed and practiced; judgment of fish, methods of cooking; soup stocks; salads, salad dressings; combinations of fruits and greens; desserts, economical puddings, and frozen desserts. Laundry work: Washing and ironing towels, table linen, and simple garments; study of various bluings; making of soap; starching simple articles. Housewifery Sweeping, dusting, cleaning; care of linen, furs, and woolens; disinfection, prevention of vermin; emergency nursing, prompt aid in accidents: sickroom arrangement; personal and household hygiene; some understanding of municipal housekeeping.
Experimental study of bacteria, yeasts, and molds in relation to man's food and health; preservation of food by drying, heating, sweetening, pickling, and freezing; vinegar from cider, sour milk from sweet milk.
Simple experimental study of the effects of heat; expansion of liquids, gases, and solids; explanation of common applications; of the freezing and thawing of a vessel full of water, noting effects. Change of state; liquids from solids, melting; gases from liquids, evaporation; liquids from gases, condensation; solids from liquids, freezing; the study and explanation of common applications; making and using simple distillation apparatus; chemical change as illustrated in charring wood, bone, or food.
Sewing, three times a week: Machine practice, dish towels, gingham apron (salable), kimono dress or Russian blouse (4-year-old child, salable), nightdress, petticoat, gymnasium suit (salable), weaving.
Sewing, beginning with seventh week and continuing remainder of the year, three times a week, except for the spring millinery: Thin dresses; waists of various kinds and any garment in vogue possible to skill of pupils.
Millinery, three times a week for six weeks and three times a week beginning middle of March, eight weeks.
Household science, once a week for whole year: Work in large quantities and training in waitress work; simple experimental studies of liquids-the tendency of liquids to seek their level, illustrated by water in communicating vessels and in water gauges on steam boilers; water pressure due to height of column; application in standpipes and water-tank systems; pressure transmitted through liquids; application in force pump. pumping stations, circulation of the blood in man and animals; simple hot-water circulation apparatus.
Arithmetic problems related to household arts.-In the outline of mathematics for the sixth to eighth grades of the industrial course
for the Chicago public schools there is included a list of arithmetic problems "to be considered as the necessity arises in actual industrial work, rather than taught in whole or in part as a preparation for the future." The list suggests the type of correlated instruction which can be undertaken by the regular classroom teacher without the aid of special teachers. It is as follows:
Denominate numbers in avoirdupois, liquid, dry, and linear measure. New tables made for the capacities of spoons (table and tea), cup, and weight of same. Interchange of dry and liquid standards with their corresponding weights. Reduction of recipes from standard to enough for two or for the whole room. Inventories of the room with probable cost and consequent value. Computation of lesson costs per class, per individual. Wholesale and retail prices of material. Cost on the farm and at the store. Budget and apportionment. Wages and percentage of value of purchased articles. Comparison of cost of gas, oil, electricity. Reading of meters, gas and electric. Significance of a kilowatt hour. Percentage discount for prompt payment. Solutions-Medical, laundry, cookery. Insurance House, life, accident, industrial. Exchange on foreign money (especially where population is largely immigrant). Weighing all packages in kitchen and keeping written records. Comparison of costs of meats and their substitutes (cheese and chops, beans and steak, etc.). Capacity-Hot-water boiler, oil can, oil tanks, kettles, pails, baskets, coal bin, coal scuttle, ice box, size and consequent weight of ice, jars, air capacity of room, window boxes (amount of earth), bushels, barrels, pounds, cubic inches, gallons, quarts, cups (all interchangeable in sensible relations). Expansion of gases (cooking). Simple plane geometry, drafting of garments, amount required for need, measurements, allowances, etc. Familiar and accurate use of linear measure. Correct and rapid visualization of measurements. Perimeter, diameters, areas. Floors Wood, paint, covering. Walls-Paper or other covering. TilingVarious appropriate places. Bills, receipts, bank account, interest. Bonds, their significance and operation. Cost of cleaning street and vicinity, and cost of lighting the vicinity. Ratios in every possible connection. Foreign wage and cost of living (especially immigrant communities, data obtained by pupils) compared with American wage and cost of living. Cost of bread, at baker's and cooked at home (fuel considered). Various standard widths of common textile materials considered in terms of cost of garment as width varies.
Section 3. UPPER GRADES-VOCATIONAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, ROCHES
TER, N. Y.
The vocational classes and schools for girls in the Rochester (N. Y.) public schools aim to hold in school sixth, seventh, and eighth grade girls who would ordinarily drop out to go to werk; to try them out in handwork, plain sewing, dressmaking, millinery, cooking, and design, leading toward a trade; and, in the vocational school, to give two-year vocational or trade courses in dressmaking, in millinery, and in lunch-room management, and a similar vocational course for homemaking called "the household arts course."
1 Chicago Public Schools. Course of Study for the Elementary Schools, 1912, pp. 81-83.
There are two departments:
I. An elementary department open to girls 14 years of age who have completed at least sixth grade A, and requiring two years for such girls and one year for seventh grade A girls. In this elementary industrial department, of 35 hours per week of teaching, 8 hours are given to sewing, 3 to cooking, and 31 to drawing-household arts and drawing being given therefore nearly one-half the time.
II. The advanced department. This is a two-year curriculum with the first year devoted to a general course. Of the 35 hours a week in the first year, 8 are given to sewing, 4 to cooking, and 4 to applied design. The second year is a period of four specialized courses: (1) Dressmaking; (2) millinery-each offering preparation for trade under trade teachers, but including in the curriculum three hours of cooking which has reference to the potential vocation of homemaking; (3) lunch-room management course, preparing for wage-earning work in school or other lunch rooms, or for more intensive food work for home use; (4) the household-arts course, aimed directly and solely at homemaking.
One must note: (1) The place given household arts in every one of these varied vocational curricula in recognition of woman's universal vocation of homemaking, even where the individual prepares also for an industrial vocation (millinery or dressmaking); (2) the "lunch-room course," as offering preparation for a process, that of food preparation, which may be used outside the home, but skill in which is a great asset in the home; (3) "the household-arts course as giving preparation for homemaking itself for the girl not drawn off into outside industry.
The lunch-room course has as its practice work the preparation of daily lunches for the teachers and pupils; with responsibility for marketing, accounts, menus, cooking, and service, and three hours a day assigned to these duties. The full weekly schedules follow:
Lunch-room management course.-English, 4 hours; general science, 4; sewing, 3; applied design, 3; cooking, 15; foods, 2; physical training, 1; music, 1; study, 3.
The household-arts course.-English, 4 hours; general science, 4; cooking, 4; household decoration, 4; sewing or millinery, 8; textiles or foods, 2; physical training, ; music, ; household economics, 4; study, 4.
Thus, in this new type of education, the vocational training of girls, preparation for home responsibilities by school instruction is made an element in every course, and a special curriculum for homemaking is provided. The cost of running the school for 1912 was $7,831.37, less $240.74 received from sales, or a cost of $76.67 per pupil.
Section 4. DATES OF INTRODUCTION OF HOUSEHOLD ARTS INTO PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
The date of the introduction of household arts into the schools was reported by 444 communities. Only 52 of these (11.7 per cent) had the subject before 1900; 56 introduced it between 1900 and 1904; 156 between 1905 and 1909; while in the three-year period, 1910-1912, the subject was introduced by 166 communities (39 per cent of those reporting). Another grouping of the same returns shows that almost exactly half the total number (213 communities) have added household arts to the school curriculum since 1909. Home education, therefore, as a country-wide movement, is a recent phenomenon; the number of introductions per year reached the maximum in 1911. Whether the fall to 48 in 1912 indicates that the crest of the wave has been reached can not be told. The report for 1913 is for part of the year only.
How has the movement for home economics in public schools progressed geographically? Up to and including 1895 the subject is reported as introduced into the following States only: Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, Ohio, and Wisconsin. By virtue of New York City, New York State might be added to this list. In subsequent years dates of introduction can be given for cities in all States except Arkansas, Nevada, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Wyoming, and home economics is taught in all these States for which exact dates of introduction are not reported. The development of the subject by successive years throughout the various States is indicated, approximately at least, in the annexed table.
There is printed in Part IV of this report (Bulletin, 1914, No. 39) a list, by States, of 3,082 cities and towns which were teaching home economics in 1914; and a list of 2,440 high schools teaching household arts. This list is not complete, and one may safely assume from it that household arts is taught in not less than 3,500 or more towns and cities, and in probably 3,000 high schools, in 1914.