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TABLE 2-Year of introduction of household arts into city public schools, by States.
[Figures refer to separate communities.]
1 Part only of year.
or be- 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 fore.
1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 19131 Total.
71887, 1888, 1895.
* 1882, 1887.
TABLE 2.-Year of introduction of household arts into city public schools, by States-Continued.
1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1903 1906 1907
1908 1909 1910
Section 5. TOPICS TREATED IN ELEMENTARY HOUSEHOLD-ARTS CURRICULUM.
Returns from 388 schools as to the topics taught in the elementary grades under "household arts," "cooking," "sewing," "domestic science and art," and other titles applied to education for the home exhibit the following facts:
TABLE 3.-Topics taught in elementary curriculum.
271 First aid_
107 Judgment of textiles_.
169 Art in relation to dress--
In addition, the following topics are taught by one or more schools: Preparing lunches, serving lunches, food production and manufacture, kitchen and flower gardening, food physiology, cooking for the sick, cost of foods, knitting and crocheting, embroidery, raffia and reed work, weaving, braiding, cardboard winding, dyeing, pattern making, cutting and repairing of clothing, basket making.
It is noteworthy that in the case of foods the theoretical aspects, as "food principles," "planning of menus," appear as frequently in these elementary school programs as do "practical cooking" and "table service."
The comprehensive subjects of "household management" and "sanitation" and their practical aspect, "housewifery or housework," appear with approximately two-thirds the frequency of "cookery"; the topics "first aid," "home nursing," and "care of children" are not very generally taught.
In subjects relating to clothing, "plain sewing" appears most frequently. The next most common topic is "practical cookery.” "Dressmaking" is just one-half as commonly taught as is “plain sewing," and "millinery" one-twelfth. The theoretical aspects of clothing, the training of judgment in regard to textile values, and the development of the artistic sense in regard to costume are stressed less than the theoretical aspects of foods, appearing in less than one-half the schools. Progress is needed here, for, after all, the woman of to-day needs training in buying clothing as well as in its making. Art in decoration and furnishing fares even less well than "art and costume," and appears in only one-half as many schools, i. e., in one
fourth as many as teach plain sewing and one-third as many as teach plain cooking.
No attempt was made to canvass social teaching regarding the family, and there was no suggestion of this topic in the data furnished; yet here is a topic by means of which the elementary school must do its part in strengthening family life. Its teaching will doubtless be only incidental to the household-arts program, although it is an important part of the ethical teaching which the elementary school must undertake.
Section 6. ORDER OF INTRODUCTION OF HOUSEHOLD ARTS INTO SCHOOL SYSTEMS.
The elementary school welcomed household arts as a subject of instruction earlier than did the high school. (Table 4.) Of 403 communities reporting the date of introducing household arts into the school curriculum, in 145 household arts had been introduced in the elementary schools alone; in 92, introduction had been made into the elementary schools, followed by introduction into the high schools; in 24, introduction had been into high school alone; and in 29, into the high school, followed by introduction into elementary schools; in 113, the subject had been introduced simultaneously into elementary and high school. Therefore, in 237 cases, introduction was first into elementary schools, in 53 cases first into high school, and in 113 cases simultaneously throughout the lower and higher schools. This indicates that for a subject such as household arts there is a readier welcome in the elementary than in the high school; the initial introduction in the elementary school is approximately four times as frequent as in the high school; and approximately twice as frequent as the simultaneous introduction in elementary and high school. Such is the general order or sequence of introduction.
The same figures state another fact of importance, namely, the relative distribution of household arts at present in elementary and high school. In 36 per cent of the communities (145 reported) direct education for the home is restricted to the elementary grades; in 6 per cent of the communities (24 reported) it is restricted to the high school; while in 58 per cent of the communities (234 reported) it has a place in both elementary and high school. The tendency is doubtless for the subject, if given at all, to be given in both elementary and high school; and if started in elementary or high school alone to be added in the other, although there is a noticeable tendency to give it in the elementary school alone. These figures are probably acceptable as to the relative distribution of instruction, but they do not indicate at all the total distribution in elementary and high schools.
Of 390 communities furnishing data as to the elementary-school curriculum, 7 (2 per cent) offer cookery alone, and 165 (42 per cent)
offer sewing alone, while 218 (56 per cent) offer both cookery and sewing. There is thus indicated a tendency to offer both subjects in the elementary school, while, if but one is offered, sewing is the favorite subject 23 times as frequently as cookery. Sewing is doubtless chosen because of its ease and economy of introduction. Little equipment is required for sewing, and the regular teacher often gives the instruction. The tendency to include both subjects and to favor sewing rather than cookery in the elementary school is also shown in the sequence or order of introducing sewing and cookery. Of 390 cases, 134 introduced cookery and sewing simultaneously; in 7 cases cookery alone has been introduced; and in 24 cases cookery, first introduced, has been followed by sewing; in 165 cases sewing alone has been introduced; and in 60 cases sewing, first introduced, has been followed by cookery; i. e., if cookery was first introduced there has been a chance of 3.4 to 1 that sewing would be added, while if sewing was first introduced there has been a chance of only 0.36 to 1 that cookery would be added.
TABLE 4.—Order of precedence in introduction of household arts into public schools.
A. ORDER AS REGARDS GRADE OF SCHOOL.
(Reported from 403 communities for 379 elementary and 258 high schools.)
Schools so reporting. 145
1. Introduced into elementary school; not yet into high school__.
2. Introduced into high school; not yet into elementary school__.
3. Introduced into high school first; subsequently into elementary school__ 4. Introduced into elementary school first; subsequently into high school__ 5. First introduced into elementary school (1 and 4 combined).
6. First introduced into high school (2 and 3 combined) ---
7. Introduced simultaneously into high and elementary schools_
B. ORDER AS REGARDS CHARACTER OF INSTRUCTION INTRODUCED INTO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
(Reported from 225 elementary schools teaching cooking and 383 elementary schools teaching sewing.)
1. Cooking alone introduced; sewing not yet taught.. 2. Sewing alone introduced; cooking not yet taught..
3. Cooking introduced first; sewing subsequently_
6. Sewing first introduced (2 and 4 combined)