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edge of the most searching problem in the aim of teaching household arts: What is its social meaning? The educational thought of to-day is emphasizing "practical arts" in education. Two-thirds of the schools, as we have just seen, recognize this in their statement of aim in household teachings, either by enumerating the useful arts and knowledge thereby imparted, or by urging that the theoretical background of these arts is worthy of study, or (in half the cases) by pointing out their application in the home. The social valuation of this teaching is, however, the final test-i. e., What is it worth to us all, as we live in families, in communities, in States, and in the human brotherhood, that the practical arts by which the household exists, and the ideals which hold it together, shall be made plain to the up-growing youth by regular instruction? The family and home, so far as we can see, are the sine qua non of humanity.

Rightly, then, the bearing of household arts on home making is emphasized by 53 schools. Twenty-eight schools recognize the social values in household-arts teaching from still other and significant viewpoints. Eight schools refer to it as furnishing preparation for life or adjustment to life, five note its economic significance in getting girls into a sympathetic understanding of the world of work, and two note its "economic utility," which may be interpreted as broadly as may be desired; and three the fact that it helps in "making pupils useful"; two see its wide bearing on "health," "hygiene," and "right living," which are coming more and more to be considered as social matters, while the practical nature of the social aim is here and there brought out-how it means "better and more reliable women," or, in quaint phrase, “getting the child headed right," so that, as another school says, "they may be fit for service—– not become stuffed owls."

It would be easy to find fault with these several hundred informal statements of purpose in teaching household arts jotted down on a Government schedule by busy superintendents and supervisory teachSome are archaic, some contradictory, some whimsical-all inadequate. Thrown together, however, they supplement each other and present in a remarkable way the controlling ideas behind the teaching of household arts in our elementary schools. There is the development of mental abilities, the acquiring of manual skill, the learning of useful arts and their explanations, the application of these arts in the home, the relation of school and home to the progress of humanity. Household arts seem to be finding a rational place, therefore, in the program of the schools.

Aim in lower grades.-The question was asked whether the aim of household-arts teaching in the lower grades varies from that of

the upper grades. From 12 schools (14 per cent) the reply was that it did vary; from 71 schools (86 per cent) that it did not. Differences in the teaching are said to be: In higher grades, attention to cost and food values; more involved technique; theoretical basis emphasized; fundamental aim the same, but approach varies. In lower grades, technical skill; manipulation. Several schools replied that there was not much difference.

Vocational aim in elementary school.-By 123 schools (85 per cent) it was stated that no vocational aim was taken into account in the elementary school teaching of household arts, while 22 schools (15 per cent) stated that such aim is operative. The replies are not without ambiguity, however, as "vocational" was interpreted in some instances as preparation for home making, in some as indicating wage earning only. In one city the vocational aim is stressed in colored schools. The Chicago and Rochester outlines of industrial work in the grades are given above (pp. 64, 66). Cambridge, Mass., has done prevocational work in household arts in the grades in dressmaking and millinery.

Special classes in the higher grades, with longer household-arts periods, might often be organized and valuable results secured to be applied later in the home or in certain industries. In general, however, home making and housework have been the only vocational aims in the elementary school.

Section 9. SPECIAL TEACHERS OF SEWING AND COOKERY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

Of 402 elementary schools, 151 (37.5 per cent) report that the regular grade teacher gives the instruction in sewing, and 251 (62.5 per cent) report that special sewing teachers are employed. Of 287 elementary schools, 10 (3.4 per cent) report that the regular grade teachers give lessons in cookery, and 277 (96.6 per cent) report that special cooking teachers are employed. Stated otherwise, sewing is taught by the regular classroom teachers in over one-third of the schools, or ten times as frequently as cookery is taught by the regular class teacher. This is doubtless a leading influence in the earlier introduction of sewing. The distribution by States is shown in Table 7.

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B. LAUNDRY LABORATORY, WASHINGTON IRVING HIGH SCHOOL, NEW YORK, N. Y.

TABLE 7.-Elementary school instruction in household arts.

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Section 10. SALARIES OF SPECIAL TEACHERS OF HOUSEHOLD ARTS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

In 273 elementary schools the salaries of special teachers of household arts varied from $150 (doubtless for part-time service) to $1,500. The median salary is $800, and 50 per cent of the schools pay between $650 and $1,000. The distribution of salaries, by amounts and States, is given in Table 8.1

1 Where a salary schedule is given as lying between a minimum and maximum, the maximum figure was used in the table. Amounts are grouped by fifties, i. e., $500-549 as $500, except in the first column and last two columns.

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