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TABLE 8.-Salaries of special teachers of household arts in elementary schools, by amounts and by States.
Below $400 $400 $450 $500 $550 $600 $650 $700 $750 $800 $850 $900 $950 $1,000 $1,050 $1,100 $1,150 $1,200 $1,250 $1,300 $1,350 $1,400 $1,500
Section 11. COST OF HOUSEHOLD-ARTS SUPPLIES IN ELEMENTARY
Cost of sewing supplies.-The cost to the school per pupil per year for sewing lessons is reported by 163 schools as from twotenths of 1 cent to $4. The median cost is 25 cents, and for 50 per cent of the schools the cost falls between 10 and 50 cents per pupil per year. This cost varies of course not only with the amount of instruction, but also with the amount of sewing materials supplied to the pupil by the school authorities. The most frequently reported costs are, in cents, 2, 5, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 50, and 100. The full distribution of costs as reported follows:
. 8. 1.0 1.1
TABLE 9.-Yearly cost for sewing in elementary schools.
1 3. 8.
TABLE 10.-Cost of food per lesson in schools reporting such cost.
1 2. 7.
1 15. 0.
Cost of food per lesson in elementary cooking instruction.-The cost of food per pupil per lesson in the elementary school was reported by 182 schools and varied from one-half to 15 cents. The median cost is 2 cents, and 50 per cent of the schools pay from 2 to 3 cents per pupil per lesson for food materials. The distribution of costs follows:
In comparing relative costs to the school board of food material (mean cost of 2 cents per pupil per lesson) and textile materials (mean cost of 25 cents per pupil per year) the difference in time period considered is obvious. Assuming a school year of 35 weeks, more or less, the cost to the school board would be approximately $1 for each weekly cooking lesson given throughout the year, as compared with 25 cents a year for sewing supplies. In the latter case the cost of materials is often borne by the pupil or parents and may vary widely. The garments made, however, enter into the child's wardrobe and become of practical use.
IV. THE HIGH SCHOOL AND EDUCATION FOR THE
The American high school is both a college preparatory school and a finishing school. The pull of the college upon it has determined its curriculum in the past, and those students whose education was not to extend beyond the high school were formerly sent through a curriculum whose end point was the college. This is all changing, however, and the recognition that the high school must be the people's great vocational school, fitting for all lines of activity in the community-industrial, commercial, agricultural, household-has become the most fruitful principle in high-school organization. Not that our secondary education should be transformed into trade schools exclusively, but that alongside the college preparatory curriculum should be placed vocational curricula, each with its systematic cultural training as well as its definitely organized technical subjects leading to vocational efficiency in its appropriate field. Granted that nine-tenths of our young people who go into high schools are to go no further than the high school, what manner of course shall they pursue? The last word in education is to conserve all that there is of good in academic cultural training, but to add to it for every individual specialized preparation for some one useful vocation. This means, for our high schools, curricula that are combinations of academic and technical subjects, organized for definite end points of service, in the home and in outside employment.
The vocational dilemma of young women has been noted by many. On the one hand is the growing demand that they equip themselves as wage earners in some outside employment, and, on the other, their own interest in the vocation of homemaking and the social pressure that modern knowledge be applied in housekeeping. The average young woman must command two vocations, actual wage-earning and potential housekeeping. Shall she learn two vocations in high school?
At present the vocational adjustment for girls in high schools seems to be developing about as follows: Some young women choose outright an industrial or commercial course; in such cases there should be time allowed within it for a year or more of work in