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or skirt; emphasis on method of sponging and pressing; tailored shirtwaist; with supplementary work, silk waist and option of five weeks of millinery. Textile study-Methods of identification of the various textile fibers; textile adulteration; cleansing of fabrics; careful study of the economics of dress and the right apportionment of the income.
In A11: Practical work-simple afternoon or evening dress, illustrating the draping of soft materials; study of color combinations most effective in artificial light; methods of finishing linings; draping of heavy materials as illustrated in the making of simple evening wrap; with option of five weeks of millinery. Textile study-Continuation of B (see above).
Course III. Millinery: B. Practical work-designing and making of frames in buckram and willow; making of hats from foundation to trimming; making and placing of all kinds of trimming, i. e., bindings, facings, bows and rosettes, bandeaux, etc. This course includes also a study of design and color and of materials used in the making of both hand-made and factory-made hats; renovating and the use of old materials; use and care of ostrich and other feathers. A. Practical work-designing and making of wire frames; trimming of straw hats; making of shirred hats and children's hats; dyeing and pressing of old hats and renovating of trimmings. It is desirable for the student to make as many hats for others as possible and to study the adaptation of line and color in a hat to various types of faces. Use of old materials is encouraged.
Course IV. Costume sketching and design-the aim of this course is to develop creative power in the art of costume design. Practice is given in the application of the principles of harmony as expressed in line, in dark and light, and in color. The course includes sketching of costumes in pencil, charcoal, pen and ink, and in color; quick sketching; the making of designs for dress embroidery and for costumes which may be reproduced in materials in the domestic art department; a study of designs as found in lace, textiles, and embroidery; a short survey of the history of costume, including comparisons with present-day fashions. Individuality in dress is considered; cost and quality of materials estimated.
Course V. Home furnishing and decoration-this course takes up the problem of the decoration and furnishing of the entire house. It deals with color schemes, cost of materials, kinds of materials used, economic and artistic values, and estimates for specific problems; visits to decorating shops will be included.
The domestic chemistry course offered in the Los Angeles high schools is part of the home economics curricula. This one-year course is "designed especially for girls, and its purpose is to train them to be intelligent and efficient homemakers. To this end an effort is made to develop a scientific attitude which will enable them to judge intelligently of the merits of household articles and supplies independently of the claims of the manufacturers." It includes a semester's work in the third year, as follows: "A brief study of the principles of general inorganic chemistry with special reference to physical and chemical changes, the atmosphere, water, fuels, and illuminants. Emphasis is placed on those parts of the subject having direct application in the home." A second semester's work is given in the senior year as follows: "Simple chemistry, food constituents, food values, and relative costs; food adulterants; common poisons and their antidotes; soaps and cleaning compounds; examination and care of textiles; dyes and mordants.”
Section 3. A CURRICULUM FOR GIRLS-DOMESTIC-SCIENCE SUBJECTS— VOCATIONAL TRAINING: EAST TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL, CLEVELAND.
The Cleveland East Technical High School prepares boys and girls for definite vocations; also for entrance to technical schools of college rank; and maintains continuation education for wage earners. In most classes, differing vocational purposes require separate classes for boys and girls, so that a boys' school and a girls' school are organized within one building. A daily schedule of nine 45-minute periods with technical work in double periods is provided, and the usual program is of three academic and two technical subjects.
The curriculum for girls includes the following subjects, arranged in 45-minute periods as follows:
First year.—English, 5 periods; mathematics, 5; botany and physiology, 5; cooking, 6; sewing, 4; applied arts, 6; physical training, 4 or 3; study, 10 or 11. Second year.-English, 5; mathematics, 5; chemistry, 6; cooking, 4; sewing, 6; applied arts, 4; physical training, 4 or 3; study, 11 or 12.
Third year.-English, 5; history, 5; physics of German or French, 6 or 5; elective technical, 15; study, 14 or 15.
Fourth year.-Art history and civics, 5; science or German or French, 5; elective academic, 5; or elective technical, 10; elective technical, 15; study, 10 or 15. Physical training and sex hygiene are electives.
The domestic-science course has a threefold purpose-to prepare for practical housekeeping; to teach related theory as applied science; to teach institution cookery and kitchen management as trade subjects, so that students may be prepared for catering as a vocation. The technical subjects involving homemaking are taken as the basis of the course, and around these, other subjects are grouped. As girls meet separately in academic work, the academic subjects are correlated directly with the technical; training in domestic science is thus greatly strengthened by these other departments; and the academic training is by no means weakened by practical applications, but is made interesting and of practical benefit. Graduates of the course have in many cases gone to college.
The work as outlined in the syllabus follows:
First year.-General subject: Selection, preparation, and physiological uses of foods. Method-Laboratory work in cookery and food experimentation. The following outline is observed in presenting the work: Energy-giving or fuel foods-carbohydrates and fats. Energy-giving and body-building foods-protein. Body-regulating food-water. Body-regulating and body-building foodmineral matter. Body-stimulating materials-food adjuncts.
Since the required academic sciences for the first year are physiology and botany, the physiological uses of foods are emphasized in the experimental and theoretical work of the beginning domestic science. For work in cookery, foods are also grouped as to their functions in the body.
Included in this part of the course are food experiments from which a direct, definite application can be drawn as to the selection, preparation, and digestion of foods to be cooked. Recording in a notebook the purpose, method, result, and application of each food experiment is required, so that the accuracy attained in observing and recording results lays the foundation for the laboratory method of study and especially prepares for the study of applied chemistry, a second-year subject. To do the maximum of actual cooking, thereby making the subject interesting and practicable to freshmen students, and at the same time to develop the reasoning power through factors interesting and helpful to a housekeeper, directions for cooking foods are arranged somewhat as instructions for laboratory work of an established scientific subject. To directions or suggestions for preparing foods are added questions, answers to which (recorded in a notebook) require careful observation as to cause and effect of the given method, difference in results obtained by substituting one food material for another, comparison of different methods of cookery, economy of material and time, proportions of ingredients in recipes. In short, by using a recipe book as a laboratory manual, students acquire skill in practical cookery and at the same time mental development in reasoning and logical thinking.
The "meal method" of teaching, somewhat modified, is used at least once a month. A group of foods, the combination of which would be suitable for a simple meal or part of a meal, is prepared. Each pupil prepares the entire group of foods in individual quantity. Only such foods are selected as have been previously prepared, so that this method affords a means of reviewing. Also, most satisfactory results are obtained by this method in training pupils to gain speed and skill in the preparation of several foods at one time.
In other subjects of the curriculum, topics relating to domestic science are included as follows: In machine sewing-hemming of dishcloths and towels; making of holders, aprons, and cases for silver. In applied art-making and decorating articles for the household, such as tiles, fern dishes, vases, and desk furnishings.
In botany-cell structure; storage of food materials in seeds and underground stems; food materials in leaves and stalks; growth of molds and yeast plants. In physiology-digestion of each foodstuff; uses of foods in the body; personal hygiene. In English-subjects pertaining to domestic science used as themes; spelling and pronunciation of culinary terms. In arithmetic-problems involving costs of foods; relation of nutritive value to cost of food and method of preparation; comparison of one method of cookery with another as to economy of time and fuel; division of quantities used in the ordinary recipe that the student may appreciate the relation of the individual to the practical recipe.
Data for these problems are obtained from observations made in the kitchen laboratory; while skill is acquired in preparing a food material in the school kitchen, valuable information concerning the same food is received from propositions and solutions of mathematical problems.
Second year-General subject: Composition, combination and serving of foods; dietaries. Method-laboratory work in food experimentation, cooking and serving of foods; making menus; calculation of fuel value of menus. The following subjects are treated: Batter and doughs; food combinations; planning, cooking, and serving meals; calculating of the fuel value of meals. Food composition and combination are selected for second-year work, because applied chemistry is a required science. Dietaries are included, so that the mathematical computations of food values can be solved in arithmetic, which is also in part a second-year study. The same methods are used as in the first year for the theory and practice of cookery for the first part of the second year.
During the latter part of the year entire meals are planned, cooked, and served. The food value of the meal is computed.
Related work in the second year is given in domestic art, applied art, applied chemistry, and mathematics.
Third year.-General subject: Applied biology, food preservation, and laundering. Method-laboratory work in school kitchen, laundry, and biological laboratory; recitations. The following subjects are treated: Food preservation, household bacteriology, laundering, home nursing, emergencies and invalid cookery.
Food preservation includes canning, preserving, jelly making, and pickling. Household bacteriology, embracing processes of sterilization, use of disinfectants and antiseptics, examination of air, water, ice, and milk, does much to elucidate work in food preservation, home nursing, and in invalid cookery.
Laundering furnishes practical application of scientific principles learned in applied chemistry with regard to soap making, removal of stains, and use of bluing and washing reagents. Methods of washing and ironing all garments and fabrics usually found in the family laundry are practiced.
No attempt is made to train pupils for professional nursing, but simply to give such theoretical and practical instructions as will enable them to care for the sick in the home-e. g., changing of bed linens; methods of bathing a patient; administering medicines; ventilating, heating, and furnishing a sick room; treatment of burns, cuts, poisoning, and fainting; bandaging of wounds. Home nursing also includes a study of pathogenic conditions which are dependent for the most part upon dietetic treatment. Special diets for sick patients are prepared. Much stress is laid upon children's diseases and the care and feeding of infants.
Related work, in the third year, is given in applied art and physics.
Fourth year.-General subject: Household management, food preparation. Method-laboratory work in school kitchen and furnished apartment; visits to
The following subjects are treated: Advanced cookery, household sanitation, household economics, housekeeping, household architecture, and decoration.
Food preparation consists of advanced cookery, in which the fundamental principles given in the first and second years are reviewed and enlarged upon. Household sanitation considers the location of a house; construction, convenience, cost, and efficiency of heating, lighting, and ventilating methods and systems; water supply, removal of waste, care and cleaning of all materials and furnishings found in a home.
Household economics considers organizing, dividing, and systematizing work of the household and various economic problems of the home.
Situation and site of a home, materials for building, practical and artistic requirements for a home, house planning, finishing, furnishing, and decorating are discussed in the study of household architecture. Drawing plans for various rooms, indicating furniture and drawing complete plans for a home, are requirements for this subject.
To those students desiring to specialize in applied art, practical problems are given in designing and executing decorations for walls and hangings of various rooms of the school building and apartment for housekeeping.
The course ends with work in housekeeping in a furnished apartment. Related work in art history is given this year.
Vocational training.-Aside from the regular four-year course in domestic science, which has for its aim the training of homekeepers,
there is offered, after the second year, an elective course in vocational cookery, requiring three or more consecutive hours preparing foods in large quantities. The school offers also vocational courses in sewing and millinery.
In the vocational cookery, the first problem is that of marketing. The pupils are given cash to pay for materials selected at the large markets. Purchases are carried back to school and registered in an account book. Then the foods are prepared. After obtaining the finished product, the cost of the materials and time of preparation are calculated. The product is then ready for sale; each girl in turn acts as cashier.
A public sale is held once in two weeks, a legitimate profit being made on all articles sold. Two or three times a week the foods are sold to the school lunch room at a very small profit.
The aim of this work is not only to gain skill in cooking, but to acquire knowledge in the purchasing of food, and to gain experience in business management.
Demands for graduates able to undertake cooking and catering are coming to the school, although the cookery course has just been established.
Section 4. A HOME-CRAFT COURSE WADLEIGH HIGH SCHOOL, NEW YORK CITY.
The Wadleigh High School, New York City, has recently organized a home-craft course which is not only intended to provide home training, but also to furnish a new kind of secondary curriculum for the type of girl not attracted by the usual classical, scientific, or literary curricula. Nor is the course a usual manualtraining course made over for girls. It includes the home-making subjects, but it makes novel provision for vocational study and puts a distinctly present-use valuation on all subjects. There are new subjects dealing not only with woman's home work, but with her social relations-historical, legal, cultural, economic. The purely disciplinary view of education is rejected; Latin and Greek are not heard of; the modern languages are elective; in mathematics a year of "household arithmetic" is required, and also another year of mathematics, unless equivalent work has been elected in the general course of the school. The other required general subjects are a year of English, devoted to inspirational literary study with composition and oral expression, a year of biology, two years of drawing, two years of music, four years of physical training. The required subjects of household concern are: Domestic science and domestic art, two years of each; hygiene and sanitation, household management, "social efficiency," and "essentials of conduct." Election to the