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A. GROUP WORK, PUBLIC SCHOOLS, WASHINGTON, D. C. One group as family practicing table service with salad course; another group taking notes; another, washing dishes.
following amount may be had from all subjects taught in the general course of the school and from the special subjects each year:
First year (6 periods).—Household arithmetic, vocation study, study of vocation fitness, current history, epochs of English history, clothing-its care and remodeling-German, French.
Second year (6 periods).-Millinery, household chemistry, epochs of European history, epochs of American history, epochs of ancient history, history of women's work, history of arts and crafts, current history, German, French. Third year (14 periods).-Domestic science, domestic art, applied design, German, French, applied physics, current history, music (appreciation).
Fourth year (14 periods).-Domestic science, domestic art, economics, fundamentals of legal procedure, German, French, current history, physiology, bacteriology and sanitation, household design and decoration, music (appreciation).
Section 5. INSTRUCTION RELATED TO THE HOME OFFERED IN ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS OF HIGH SCHOOLS.
High schools that have no distinctive household science departments may provide instruction related to the home by applied topics and possibly applied courses in the departments of chemistry, biology, physics, economics, art, and other school subjects that bear directly on the household. The course in " domestic chemistry" given in the Los Angeles high schools (p. 92) well illustrates this possibility; and the experience of Mr. Rexford in teaching food values in applied biology, and the outlines of household physics and applied economics for high schools, given below, make the same point in other fields. Those interested in this "related instruction" should compare the statistical findings as to this situation in high schools (p. 109), and also see the parallel offerings in normal schools (p. 123) and colleges (Part III, Bulletin, 1914, No. 38).
Food instruction in biology.-Mr. Frank A. Rexford, teacher of biology in the Erasmus Hall High School, Brooklyn, N. Y., has emphasized the teaching of food values in high-school biology, and in particular has developed a successful method of securing the cooperation of the home with this instruction. He has drawn up a "one-portion food table," in which the food values are expressed in terms of "Food as we eat it, weight of the ordinary helping in ounces," and this is distributed as ounces of proteid, fat, and carbohydrate. He has also drawn up for students' use a dietary record blank for a three-day record which his students are asked to fill out at home and bring to the laboratory. Another blank form is provided for the weekly food account of the family, and the students bring in a report of the family cost of food, and the kinds purchased for the week. He has found a great interest on the part of the students and the parents in this type of study. It suggests a type of applied science instruction that can be undertaken in high schools that have no distinctly household science courses.
Applied physics or household mechanics course.—The New Hampshire program of secondary school studies outlines a course in applied physics under the title of "Household Mechanical Appliances.
This is a field little worked, yet of great importance. It gives a ready opportunity to instruct girls in the principles of physics from the applied standpoint. It can be made an informational course of the greatest value. The concrete side of instruction will probably be better left for the most part to lecture-table demonstrations than to laboratory exercises of the ordinary type.
In condensed form the topics follow:
Heating appliances.-The nature of combustion. Fuels: Their essential chemical nature, source, relative cost. Heat: Study of the elementary principles of heat. Forms of heat generators. The cooking range: Construction, drafts, economy of heat, loss of heat. Gas and oil stoves: Compared with coal and wood ranges; waste of heat as compared with other ranges. Electric heat possibilities. Heating and ventilating the house. The hot-air furnace. Steam heat. Hot water: Construction of boiler and piping system; principle of convection current employed compared with hot-air and range hot-water heater; regulating devices; compared with steam and hot-air heat.
Plumbing.-Detailed scheme of typical residence plumbing system. The elementary principles of hydraulics. The water piping of a residence. The sewerage system.
Electricity.-Elementary principles; static and voltaic current; the electric current and wiring; electromagnetism apparatus depending on the principle of the electromagnet-door and other cell bells, annunciators, the telegraph and telephone, devices for thermostatic control of heat; the dynamo-construction of simple dynamo, wiring for current, the city system-power house, street mains, transformer, current compared with that from cell, storage battery, the electric motor.
Electric lighting: Transformation of current into heat and light; different forms of lamps; candle power, watts and watt hours, amperes, volts; wiring the house danger from fire and why, precautions used, laws and ordinances and insurance regulations governing wiring.
Electric heating: Compared with lighting, appliances for heating, cost and possible economics in use as compared with other forms of heat Electric meter and reading same.
Gas lighting.-Different forms of gas used in lighting; gas meter. Oil and other forms of lighting; source, compared with gas and electricity, appliances, economy.
Power in the household.-Elementary mechanics: The pulley, screw, wheel and axle, inclined plane, belts and shafting. The water motor. Other sources of power, such as steam engine, hot-air engine, and gasoline engine. saving machinery which can be used for household purposes.
Exercises: 1. Heating appliances; description of different chemical elements; experiments showing illustrations of chemical combination; description of different oxidizing processes with what takes place; study of stove under draft and with draft closed, describe what takes place. Complete and incomplete combustion; study of smoky fire and correction; compute cost of heating with wood, coal, gas, gasoline, and oil at current rates, from data secured at school or in the household. Study, sketching and description of Bunsen flame. Ex
1 Two texts in "household physics have recently appeared: Lynde, C. J., "Physics of the Household," Macmillan, 1914, pp. 313; and Butler, A. M., "Household Physics," Boston, Whitcomb and Barrows, 1914.
periment to show thermometer readings at freezing and boiling point. Experiment to show measurement of heat quantity. Experiment to show (a) conductivity of different metals, (b) convection currents. Melting and boiling points of a few substances other than water. Study of ice-cream freezing as illustration of freezing mixtures and of latent heat; study of the refrigerator as illustration of latent heat. (Most people think the cream freezes and the temperature is lowered in the refrigerator because the ice is cold.) Study and sketch essential features of different forms of ranges; make schema showing essential principles of heating and ventilating apparatus; make schema showing essential principles of hot-air furnace and ducts, steam boiler, and piping, hot-water boiler, piping, and expansion tank. 2. Plumbing; make schema showing system; experiment to show mercury balanced against air; show by notebook description what is happening; sketch different forms of pumps; make schema showing drainage piping in household. Set up voltaic cell; connect up cells and magnets and call bells under different conditions and for different purposes. Make schema showing house wiring for light. Connect up small electric motor to cells; belt motor to pulleys; apparatus, none except what can be obtained from the physics or chemical laboratory, the kitchen, or the home.
Instruction in applied economics in the high school.-In connection with household-science courses for girls and general courses in economics for both boys and girls in high schools, a type of instruction might be developed which would be of interest to both boys and girls, the general nature of which is suggested by the topics mentioned below. This topic or subcourse in "applied economics" should emphasize those economic matters having to do with the daily life of the household and the daily work of the wage earner, in part as follows:
The earning of money.-Choice of a vocation; emphasis upon local industries and vocations; each one studied as regards wages; preparation needed; constant or irregular employment; hygienic conditions; child labor; labor of girls and women; industrial conditions, wage-earning class especially; organizations of wage earners; factory welfare work; employers' liability; women's work.
The spending of money.-The family budget and the intelligent handling of money by the individual and within the family; each division of the family budget should be taken up in turn and detailed studies made, looking to the acquiring of practical control of family expenditures. A consideration of shelter, for example, should include standards of housing in the city and the country; the relation of law and municipal regulation to improved housing; responsibility of the landlord, janitor, and the householder; sanitary considerations with regard to the house and their cost; the improvement of shelter as regards roof areas; municipal measures which affect housing; the control of expenditures, systems of personal and household accounts, with enough practice to give skill.
The saving and investment of money.-Institutional methods of saving money, banks, etc.; insurance and its various forms; investments; loans; all of these topics taken up from the point of