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Virginia-representation in first Congress, Art. 1, Sec. 2, 1 3.
Vote-each Senator shall have one, 1, 3, 1.

Vice-President not to have, except on equal division, 1, 3, 4.
requiring concurrence of two Houses to be presented to Pres.

ident, 1, 7, 3. right to, not to be abridged by reason of race, color, etc., Am.

15, 1. each House may expel a member by two-thirds, 1, 5, 2. bill vetoed may be passed by a two-thirds, 1, 7, 2. of two-thirds required for conviction on impeachment, 1, 3, 6. two-thirds of Congress necessary to propose amendments, 5. consent of two-thirds Senate necessary to make treaty, 2, 2, 2. two-thirds necessary to remove disability for office, Am. 14, 3.

War-power of Congress to declare, 1, 8, 11.

power to make rules and articles of, 1,8, 14.
no State, without consent of Congress, to engage in, 1, 10, 3.

treason consists in levying, 3, 3, 1.
Warrants—to issue only on probable cause, Am. 4.

on oath or affirmation, Am. 4. Weights and measures-Congress to fix standard of, 1,8, 5. Welfare-purpose of Constitution to secure, Preamble.

Congress shall have power to provide for, 1,8, 1.
Witnesses-no person to be compelled to testify against himself, Am. 3.

accused to be confronted by, Am. 6.
accused to have compulsory process for, Am. 6.

testimony necessary for conviction for treason, 3, 3, 1. Writs-of election to fill vacancies in representation, 1, 2, 4. Written opinion-of heads of departments, President may require,

2,2, 1. Yeas and mays-at desire of one-fifth to be entered on Journals, 1, 5, 3.

passage over veto to be determined by, 1,7,2.

THE

Constitutions of California

Constitution of California.

ADOPTED BY THE CONVENTION, OCTOBER 10TH, 1849; RATIFIED BY THE PEOPLE, NOVEMBER 13TH, 1849; PROCLAIMED, DECEMBER 20TH, 1849; AND AMENDED IN 1837,

1862, AND 1871.

PRE AMBLE. We, the people of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure its blessings, do establish this Constitution.

ARTICLE I.

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. § 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty; acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.

§ 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Gov. ernment is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and they have the right to alter or reform the same whenever the public good may require it.

Constitution

OF THE

STATE OF CALIFORNIA

ADOPTED IN CONVENTION, AT SACRAMENTO, MARCH 3RD, A. D. 1879; RATIFIED BY À VOTE OF THE PEOPLE ON WEDNESDAY,

May 7TH, 1879.

PREAMBLE AND DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.

PREAMBLE. We, the people of the State of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure and perpetuate its blessings, do establish this Constitution.

ARTICLE I.

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. § 1. Ali men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty; acquiring, possessing, and protecting property; and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.

§ 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and they have the right to alter or reform the same whenever the public good may require it.

8 3. The State of California is an inseparable part of the American Union, and the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land.

§ 4. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed in this State; and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so con. strued as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this State.

§ 5. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.

§ 7. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offenses when the proof is evident or the presumption great.

§ 6. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessivo fines imposed; nor shall cruel or unusual punishments be inflicted; nor shall witnesses be unreasonably detained.

§ 3. The right of trial by jury shall be secured to all, and remain inviolate forever; but a jury trial may he waived by the parties, in all civil cases, in the manner to be prescribed by law.

§ 9. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions on indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives and for justific able ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.

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