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room he heard in the kitchen some Indians talking. Wondering what they were doing there at that hour of the night, he opened the door and found his cook conversing with an Apache. He asked his cook where he had acquired the Indian language. The cook said: “He speak all same me. I Tartar Chinese; he speak same me, little different, not much.” At Williams, in Navajo County, is another Tartar Chinaman, Gee Jim, who converses freely with the Apaches in his native language. From these facts it would seem that the Apache is of Tartar origin.

From the fact that the Apache language was practically the same as that of the Tartar Chinese, color is given to the theory advanced by Bancroft in his “Native Races,” Volume 5, p. 33, et seq., that Western America was "originally peopled by the Chinese, or, at least, that the greater part of the new world civilization may be attributed to these people.”

In this connection it may be stated that the swastika, which is an oriental emblem, is found on the painted rocks in the range of mountains south of Phoenix, according to Herbert R. Patrick, and this sign is used by most of the Arizona Indians in their basketry.

COYOTEROS (Spanish:"wolfmen";so called in consequence, it is said, of their subsisting partly on coyotes or prairie wolves [Gregg, Com. Prairies, 1, 290, 1844]; but it seems more probable that the name was applied on account of their roving habit, living on the natural products of the desert rather than by agriculture or hunting). A division of the Apache, geographically divided into the Pinal Coyoteros and the White Mountain Coyoteros, whose principal home was the western, or southwestern, part of the present White Mountain reservation, eastern Arizona, between San Carlos Creek and the Gila River, although they ranged almost throughout the limits of Arizona and western New Mexico. The name has evidently been indiscriminately applied to various Apache bands, especially to the Pinal Coyoteros, who are but a part of the Coyoteros.

PINAL COYOTEROS. A part of the Coyotero Apache, whose chief rendezvous was the Pinal Mountains and their vicinity, north of the Gila River in Arizona. They ranged, however, about the sources of the Gila, over the Mogollon mesa, and from northern Arizona to the Gila, and even southward. They are now under the San Carlos and Fort Apache agencies, where they are officially classed as Coyoteros.

They are reputed by tradition to have been the first of the Apache to have penetrated below the Little Colorado among the pueblo peoples, with whom they intermarried. They possessed the country from the San Francisco Mountains to the Gila, until they were subdued by General Crook in 1873. Since then they have peaceably tilled their land at San Carlos. White, for several years a surgeon at Fort Apache, says that they have soft, musical voices, uttering each word in a sweet, pleasant tone. He noted also their light hearted, childish ways and timid manner, their pleasant expression of countenance, and the beauty of their women. Married women

tattooed their chins in three blue vertical lines running from the lower lip.

PINALENOS (Spanish: “Pinery people”). A division of the Apache, evidently more closely related to the Chiricahua than to any other group. Their principal seat was formerly the Pinaleño Mountains, south of the Gila river in southeastern Arizona, but their raids extended far into Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. They are now under the San Carlos and Fort Apache agencies, Arizona, being officially known as Pinals, but their numbers are not separately reported. The Pinaleños and the Pinal Coyoteros have often been confused.

TONTOS (Spanish: “fools," so called on account of their supposed imbecility; the designation, however, is a misnomer). A name so indiscriminately applied as to be almost meaningless : (1) To a mixture of Yavapai, Yuma, and Mohave, with some Pinaleño Apache, placed on the Rio Verde reservation in 1873, and transferred to the San Carlos reservation in 1875; best designated as the Tulkepaia. (2) To a tribe of the Athapascan family well known as Coyotero Apache. (3) To the Pinaleños of the same family. (4) According to Corbusier, to a body of Indians descended from Yavapai men and Pinal Coyotero (Pinaleño) women who have intermarried. The term Tontos was therefore applied by writers of the 19th century to practically all the Indians roaming between the White Mountains of Arizona and the Colorado river, comprising parts of two linguistic fami


lies, but especially to the Yavapai, commonly known as Apache-Mohave.

SAN CARLOS APACHE. A part of the Apache dwelling at the San Carlos agency, Ari

The name has little ethnic significance, having been applied officially to those Apache living on the Gila river in Arizona, and sometimes referred to as Gileños, or Gila Apache.

GILA APACHE. The name Gila, or Xila, was apparently originally that of an Apache settlement west of Socorro, in southwestern New Mexico, and as early as 1630 was applied to those Apache residing for part of the time on the extreme headwaters of the Rio Gila in that territory, evidently embracing those later known as Mimbrenos, Mogollons and Warm Springs (Chiricahua) Apaches, and later extended to include the Apache living along the Gila river in Arizona. The latter were seemingly the_Aravaipa and Chiricahua, or a part of them. There were about 4,000 Indians under this name in 1853, when some of their bands were gathered at Fort Webster, New Mexico, and induced by promises of supplies for a number of years to settle down and begin farming. They kept the peace and made some progress in industry, but were driven back to a life of pillage when the supplies were stopped, the treaty not having been confirmed. They are no longer recognized under this name. The term Gileños has also been employed to designate the Pima residing on the Gila in Arizona.

MOGOLLON (from the mesa and mountains of the same name in New Mexico and Arizona, which, in turn, were named in honor of Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollon, governor of New Mexico in 1712–15). A subdivision of the Apache that formerly ranged over the Mogollon mesa and mountains in western New Mexico and eastern Arizona. They were associated with the Mimbrenos at the Southern Apache agency, New Mexico, in 1868, and at Hot Springs agency in 1875, and are now under the Fort Apache and San Carlos reservations in Arizona. They are no longer officially recognized as Mogollons.

MIMBRENOS (Spanish: “people of the willows”). A branch of the Apache who took their popular name from the Mimbres mountains, southwestern New Mexico, but who roamed over the country from the east side of the Rio Grande in New Mexico to the San Francisco river in Arizona, a favorite haunt being near Lake Guzman, west of El Paso, in Chihuahua. In habits they were similar to the other Apache, gaining a livelihood by raiding settlements in New Mexico, Arizona and Mexico. They made peace with the Mexicans from time to time, and before 1870 were supplied with rations by the military post at Janos, Chihuahua. They were sometimes called Coppermine Apaches on account of their occupancy of the territory in which the Santa Rita mines in southwestern New Mexico are situated. In 1875 a part of them joined the Mescaleros and a part was under the Hot Springs (Chiricahua) agency, New Mexico. They are now divided between the Mescalero reservation, New Mexico, and Fort Apache agency, Arizona.

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