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ical toys, which are exhibited in some of their dramatic entertainments. Nowhere among the aborigines of North America are the Hopi excelled in dramaturgic exhibitions, in some of which their imitations of birds and other animals are marvelously realistic.

The Hopi language is classified as Shoshonean; but, according to Gatschet, it “seems to contain many archaic words and forms not encountered in the other dialects, and many vocables of its own." The published vocabularies are very limited, and comparatively little is known of the grammatical structure of the language; but it is very evident that it contains many words of Keresan, Tewa, Pima, Zuni, Ute, Navaho, and Apache derivation. As among other southwestern tribes a number of words are modified Spanish, as those for horse, sheep, melon and the names for other intrusive articles and objects. Slight dialectic differences are noticeable in the speech of Oraibi and Walpi, but the language of the other pueblos is practically uniform. The Hopi language is melodious and the enunciation clear. The speech of the people of Awatobi is said to have a nasal intonation, while the Oraibi speak drawlingly. Although they accompany their speech with gestures, few of the Hopi understand the sign language. The Keresan people have furnished many songs with their words, and Zuni and Pima songs have also been introduced. Some of the prayers also have archaic Tanoan or Keresan words.

The Hopi are pre-eminently a religious people, much of their time, especially in winter, be

ing devoted to ceremonies for rain and the growth of crops. Their mythology is a polytheism largely tinged with ancestor worship and permeated with fetishism. They originally had no conception of a great spirit corresponding to God, nor were they ever monotheists; and, although they have at times accepted the teachings of Christian missionaries, these have not had the effect of altering their primitive beliefs. Their greatest Gods are deified nature powers, as the Mother Earth and the Sky god—the former mother, and the latter father, of the races of men and of marvellous animals, which are conceived of as closely allied.

The earth is spoken of as having always existed. In Hopi mythology the human race was not created, but generated from the earth, from which man emerged through an opening called the si papu now typified by the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. The dead are supposed to return to the under-world. The Sky Father and the Earth Mother have many names and are personated in many ways; the latter is represented by a spider; the former by a bird—a hawk or an eagle. Such names as Fire God, Germ God, and others are attributal designations of the great male powers of nature, or its male germinative principle. All supernatural beings are supposed to influence the rain and consequently the growth of crops. Every clan religion exhibits strong ancestral worship, in which a male and a female ancestral tutelary of the clan, called by a distinctive clan name, is pre-eminent. The Great Horned or Plumed Serpent, a form of sky god, derived from the South, and intro

duced by the Patki and other southern clans, is prominent in sun ceremonies. The number of subordinate supernatural personages is almost unlimited. These are known as "kachinas,” a term referring to the magic power inherent in every natural object for good or for bad. Many of these kachinas are personations of clan ancestors, others are simply beings of unknown relationship but endowed with magic powers. Each kachina possesses individual characteristics, and is represented in at least six different symbolic colors. The world quarters, or four cardinal points, play an important role in Hopi mythology and ritual. Fetishes, amulets, charms and mascots are commonly used to insure luck in daily occupations, and for health and success in hunting, racing, gaming, and secular performances. The Hopi ceremonial calendar consists of a number of monthly festivals, ordinarily of nine days' duration, of which the first eight are devoted to secret rites in kivas, or in rooms set apart for that purpose, the final day being generally devoted to a spectacular public ceremony or “dance.” Every great festival is held under the auspices of a special religious fraternity or fraternities, and is accompanied with minor events indicating a former duration of twenty days. Among the most important religious fraternities are the Snake, Antelope, Flute, Sun, Lalakontu, Owakultu, Mamzrautu, Kachina, Tataukyamu, Wewuchimtu, Asltu, Kwakwautu, and Kalektaka. There are also other organized priesthoods, as the Yaya and the Poshwympkia, whose functions are mainly those of doctors or healers. Several


ancient priesthoods, known by the names Koyimsi, Paiakyamu, and Chukuwympkia, function as clowns or fun makers during the sacred dances of the Kachinas. The ceremonial year is divided into two parts, every great ceremony having a major and a minor performance occurring about six months apart; and every four years, when initiations occur, most ceremonies are celebrated in extenso. The so-called Snake and Flute dances are performed biennially at all the pueblos except Sichimovi and Hano, and alternate with each other. Ceremonies are also divided into those with masked and those with unmasked participants, the former, designated kachinas, extending from January to July, the latter occurring in the remaining months of the year. The chief of each fraternity has a badge of his office and conducts both the secret and the open features of the ceremony. The fetishes and idols used in the sacred rites are owned by the priesthood and are arranged by its chief in temporary altars in front of which dry paintings are made. The Hopi ritual is extraordinarily complex and time-consuming, and the paraphernalia required is extensive. Although the Hopi cultus has become highly modified by a semi-arid environment, it consisted originally of ancestor worship, embracing worship of the great powers of nature-sky, sun, moon, fire, rain, and earth. A confusion of effect and cause and an elaboration of the doctrines of signatures pervade all their rites, which in the main may be regarded as sympathetic magic.

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