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corpse should thus be buried so far from home. Kisatc avers that the spirit within the grave replied to the speech by saying that he did not stay there all the time, but that he occasionally went over to hang about the villages, and that he felt unhappy in the state in which he found himself. Of course the medicine-men claim to be in communication with the spirits of the departed as well as with supernatural beings capable of imparting magic power.”'
DREAMS. “Dreams are variously regarded as the result of evil doing, as a natural and normal means of communication with the spirit world, and as being caused by Darkness or Night. During the dream the soul wanders away and passes through adventures as in the waking hours. The young men never slept in the council ki for fear of bad dreams.
“To dream of the dead causes sickness in the dreamer and if he dream of the dead for several nights in succession he will die. Dreams are not consulted for information concerning future action except in the case of the would-be medicine-man who may be called to his profession by means of persistent dreams. Since Night may cause one to dream as he wishes it is fair to presume that it is that god who oversees the destinies of the medicine-men.
“Many years ago Kisatc, in either a swoon or trance, believed that he went far away to a place where a stranger gave him a magnificent bow and a set of beautiful arrows. On regaining
consciousness he asked for the things that had been given him while he was away and became quite indignant when they assured him that he had not been out of their sight. To this day he believes that they deceived him.”
SACRED PLACES. “Stones Strike, is a large block of lava located in the eastern Santan Hills. The largest pictograph ever seen by the writer in the Southwest is cut upon it and two or three tons of small angular stones foreign to the locality are piled before it. There are also many pictographs on the bowlders round about. This was probably a Hohokam shrine, though it is regarded with reverence by the Pimas, who still place offerings of beads, bits of cloth, and twigs of the creosote bush at the foot of the large pictograph. There is a tradition that a young man was lying asleep on the flat rock and was seen by two young women who were passing along the opposite hillside. They tried to awaken him by tossing the pebbles which are yet to be seen. Pima maids thus awaken their lovers to the present day.
“Hâ-âk Lying, is a crude outline of a human figure situated about five miles north of Sacaton. It was made by scraping aside the small stones with which the mesa is there thickly strewn to form furrows about 50 cm. wide. The body furrow is 35 m. long and has a small heap of stones at the head, another at a distance of 11 m. from the first, and another at the junction of body and legs. The latter are 11 m. long and 1 m. apart. The arms curve outward
from the head and terminate in small pyramids.
“Iáksk, Place of Sacrifice, is a heap of stones
“Place of the Bad One, is the name of a grave at Gila Crossing. It seems probable that the grave of some Hohokam medicine-man has been taken for that of the son of Kakanyp.
“There is another similarly inclosed but unnamed grave at Gila Crossing, also one between Sweetwater and Casa Blanca, and there are three at Blackwater. Such inclosures are called o'namuksk, meaning unknown. Beads are to be found strewn about all of them.
“Puma Lying, or Place of the Mortar, is a heap of small stones between the Double Buttes, ten miles west of Sacaton. Stones are there piled over a shallow mortar in which beads have been placed and partly broken. Bunches of fresh creosote branches were mingled with the decaying fragments of arrow shafts at the time of the writer's visit, showing that while the shrine is yet resorted to, it is of considerable
antiquity, for wood does not decay rapidly in that climate.
“Evil spirits dwell in the Picacho and Estrella mountains, but this belief may be presumed
to be an inheritance from the Apache period. The writer has not learned of any shrines being located in those ranges.
“It is said that in the Santa Rosa mountains there was once a tightly covered medicine basket which was kept on a mountain top by a Papago medicine-man who carried offerings to it. All others were forbidden to touch it; but someone found it and when he lifted the cover all the winds of heaven rushed forth and blew away all the people thereabout.
“Near the summit of one of the lava-formed Santa hills is a small cave in which the Hohokam placed sacrifices. A number of articles were discovered there a quarter of a century ago and sent to some eastern museum. Since that time the Pimas deposited the body of a child and some other things in the cave, which were secured by an Arizona collector in 1901. The cave is known as Basket Lying, because it contained a basket such as the Pimas use for their medicine paraphernalia. It was discovered by two Pima warriors, who were serving their sixteen day period of lustration for having killed Apaches. The basket contained sinew from the legs of deer, and sticks, which the finders assumed to be for the same purpose as those with which they were scratching their own heads at the time.
“When a medicine-man dies, his paraphernalia, if not transmitted to his descendants, may
be placed in an olla and hidden under a heap of stones in the hills. He may also sacrifice a part
a of his stock in a similar way during his lifetime. The property of warriors is sometimes similarly cached.
“Such places were formerly respected by the tribe, but they are now robbed with impunity to get relics' to sell. A man at Pe-e-putciltk' informed the author's interpreter, Jose Lewis, of the location of one of these caches in the low hills south of Casa Blanca. We found that a number of concretions, crystals, shells, a bird carved from stone, and a war club had been deposited in an olla with a bowl turned over it, rendering it watertight. The whole had been hidden under a heap of stones at the summit of a spur of the hill about four miles from the villages.”
MEDICINE-MEN. “There are three classes of medicine-men among the Pimas. Those who treat disease by pretended magic are known as Si'atcokam, Examining Physicians. As many women as men belong to this order, to which entrance is gained chiefly through heredity. This is the most powerful class in the community, though its members pay for their privileges at imminent risk. How great this risk is may be seen from the calendar records. The Si'atcokam were more numerous than the other classes. Those who have power over the crops, the weather, and the wars are called Makai, Magicians. Only one or two women were ever admitted to this order among the Pimas. There were usually about