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“Piholt was once a man, but is now an evil spirit living in the east, and causing a disease which has its songs.

“The Nyavolt, an evil spirit, may induce a horse to throw his rider and injure him. The patient is cured by singing the Nyavolt song and swinging a pair of crossed sticks over the injured part.

“A certain disease of the throat is called wheita, and the same name is given to a stick made from mesquite root, which is thrust down the patient's throat four times and then passed four times over the heart to cure him.

“TcUnyîm is an evil spirit that causes sickness in children. The most characteristic symptom is fretfulness. The TcUnyìm song is sung and the child's body is pressed with a strand of hair taken in war from an Apache's head. The hair is cleansed and washed by some old person, then the ends are glued together with the gum of the creosote bush before it is ready to use. A'mînâ sticks tied with bluebird and redbird feathers are also used.

“Kâ'mâl tkâk, who was accustomed to assist the doctors, states that this name is applied to a disease of the throat which causes the victim to lose flesh. The treatment consists in placing A'mìnâ in an olla of water to soak while the doctor or his assistant blows through a tube, called the TcUnyỉm cigarette, upon the forehead, chin, breast, and stomach of the patient. The tube has a bunch of feathers attached called a-an kiatuta, and these are next swept in quick passes downward over the body. The A'minâ are then taken and sucked four times by the patient, after which

the end of the bundle is pressed against the patient's body, then laid flat upon his breast and rubbed. Finally, the assistant repeats the speech of SiU-U at the time when that deity restored himself to life, at the same time making passes toward the patient.

“Magic influence exerted by evilly disposed persons, especially medicine-men, may cause a particular ailment, called 'doctor's disease,' in the cure of which the slate tablets found in the ruins are believed to be most efficacious. The information was given that no marking was made on the slates; they were simply placed in a vessel of water and the patient drank the water.

“Sometimes the sickness of a child was believed to be due to the fact that some person desired to take it away from its parents. If they went to the covetous one and accused him of the crime, the child immediately recovered.

“Navitco is an evil spirit adopted from the Papagos. His home is in the mountain called Papak, Frog. This spirit causes the knees to swell and the eyes to become inflamed. It may safely be inferred that this disease has been a common one, as it is the practice to treat several at one time in a somewhat more elaborate ceremonial than is usual in the treatment of other diseases. One medicine-man personates Navitco, another known as Kakspakam accompanies him; both are masked. At a signal

At a signal from Navitco, given by throwing cornmeal on the baskets, fifteen or twenty persons appointed for the purpose sing the Navitco song, accompanied by the notched eagle feathers, until he has presumably drawn out all disease. He then throws away the

feathers. He is followed by Kakspakam, who seats himself before each patient to give him an opportunity to touch the mask and then the swollen knees. When the singers have finished, they rub the notched sticks over their own bodies to prevent contagion. All concerned in the ceremony must not eat salt for four days thereafter.

“The Navitco medicine-men also claim to possess the power to bring rain.

“The treatment of a child afflicted with dysentery mingles the new order with the old in an interesting manner, combining Christian baptism with pagan sun worship and magic medical practice.

“A man and his wife, who are close friends of the parents, come early in the morning and wash the baby. If it is a boy, it is taken up at sunrise by the man, who breathes upon a cross and holds it toward the sun four times. If it is a girl, it is taken by the woman, who breathes upon a medal and holds the object toward the sun four times. Whichever object is used is next passed in the form of the cross over the face and again over the body of the infant by both the man and the woman. Each then holds the child four times in his or her arms before handing it to the parents. A name is given the child by the godfather and godmother. No child except one thus ill, or another in the same family of a naming age at the time is ever christened thus. The godparents must give the child some wheat or corn each year until it grows up, and the parents give a basket each year in return.

“Even horses may become sick through the evil influence of malicious medicine-men, who, it is said, “shoot' live coals into them-coals that have been taken from an Apache fire. The remedy is of a similar character. A reputable medicine-man is called in, who diagnoses the case and decides from what direction the coal was 'shot.' He does not sing, but after smoking a cigarette and blowing puffs of smoke about the premises, and upon the horse, he determines the place to suck out the coal from the distressed animal. When he gets the coal into his mouth he makes a pretense of being burned by it, and immediately fills his mouth with water, after which he casts out the coal.

“The transparent trick of sucking a hair from the body is resorted to in veterinary practice in a manner similar to that pursued when treating human ailments."

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