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people at the edge of the water'; others made huts of mud, and were known as mud people; others camped below a ledge of rock, and so on, each being designated by a peculiarity of this kind. And when it developed that one of their number was missing, a search was made for him. He was finally located in the place of emergence, but refused to leave, saying that the future people of the earth would return there. Therefore, the people of this earth return to the place of emergence after death. The person remaining there sallies forth at times to collect food and pieces of broken pottery which have been left at the habitat of the deceased, for he promised his companion to do this.


WORLD. The events after the emergence, as embodied in the legends, are supposed to have happened in the holy way, or to be holy events. The Holy People then decided to make the earth a suitable dwelling for its future inhabitants. ACcordingly, after First Man had built the hogan, he created the sky, earth, sun and moon. As a material he used various precious stones, giving to each the shape of man, and breathed the spirit of life into them. He also created summer and winter, which he assigned to the earth and sky respectively.

CREATION OF THE STARS. “The Firegod placed the various constellations in their respective positions. He is also accredited with blowing the stars of the milky way across the sky. Such other stars as he wished to keep in reserve were scattered by the Coyote over the heavens. The Navaho, therefore, have no names for many constellations. The Coyote planted but one star permanently in the heavens, which is, therefore, called a ‘coyote's star.

VEGETABLE LIFE. “The sacred mountains had been given their positions by First Man when he invited the various Peoples to contribute to the completion and beauty of the earth. Accordingly, the various animals planted the seeds of trees, shrubs, plants and grasses, which they had brought with them from the lower worlds. Thereupon, First Man breathed upon them so that they, too, might see and live. The clouds, winds and thunder were placed in the sky so that moisture might be supplied and vegetation secured.


“When First Man had made all things for the earth and sky, and given them stability, he selected the Gourd children, of whom mention was made above, to carry the sun and the moon. These he placed on their left shoulders, leaving their right hand free to enable them to eat when travelling. Thirty-two trails were assigned to the sun for his daily travels. To compensate themselves, both the sun and the moon carriers stipulated one human life for every journey as

their pay

“First Man also placed pillars in the east, south, west, north and center of the earth, resting the sky upon them, and they are known as the pillars of the earth and sky.

“He then blew the sun and the moon beyond the horizon; and breathing over the earth and sky, he caused them to expand; and breathing the dawn toward the east, the sun rose there; wherefore, the dawn is always seen in the east. Since the earth was small, however, the heat of the sun at its zenith became unbearable. After four unsuccessful trials the present dimensions of the earth and the distance of the sun were retained.

THE SEX OF THE PEOPLES. “The various Peoples of the lower worlds are considered male and female. The sun and moon are both male, as also the sky, (the Sky Man). The earth is feminine, (the Earth Woman). The earth may also be considered as mother of all, insomuch as all peoples proceeded from it, and planted the various seeds there. The Earth Woman, however, as wife of the Sky Man, is located in the blue world.

“Sex is also assigned to the dawn, the Dawn Man and Woman, (east) also to the Southern Blue, the Azure Man and Woman, (south); and to the twilight, Twilight Man and Woman, (west); and to darkness, Darkness Man and Woman (north).

THE CHANGING WOMAN. “The Changing Woman, a goddess, is held in universal esteem by the Navaho. She is not tainted with crime, though by mistake this is done in some legends.

The Dawn Man, and the Darkness Woman, gave birth to a daughter, which was found and carried home by First Man. When the girl was of fair growth she was found to be very beautiful and of good sense, and when her foster parents called to her in jest, calling her by the equivalent for changed into a woman,' she readily answered the call, and she was, thereafter, called the Changing Woman.

“At the age of nubility a ceremony was performed for her, and her nuptials with the sun were then celebrated. (This ceremony of nubility is, today, celebrated with such alterations as were decided upon on that occasion.) Benediction songs alone were used, and the songs of other chants barred. (The vigil which must accompany every ceremony in use by the Navaho, consists of prayers and songs of bene dictions.)

“The society of the First Man was ever a burden to her, so that soon after this ceremony she left him and traveled to the west. Here, the holy people of the cardinal points, (Dawn Man and Woman, etc.), had prepared a house for her, which in every respect was like to that of the sun in the east. And when she visited the various compartments in the east, south, west and north, she reappeared dressed in the colors of these directions. And returning again from the eastern compartment she reappeared dressed in white-shell, wherefore she is also called the white-shell woman. As the wife of the sun, then, the white-shell woman is also called Sun Woman, and the sun, her husband, the Sun Man, by whom she has two children, a boy and a girl.

THE CREATION OF MAN. “The creation of the various people on the earth is attributed to the Sun Woman, and took place at her dwelling in the west. The Navaho clans were created from parts of her body. With the skin which she removed from her breast she formed one clan; from the skin of her back she formed another clan, and removing a particle of skin from below her right arm, she made still another clan, and from a particle of skin below her left arm, still another clan. To each of these particles of skin she added some of the skin taken from her hands, making of each the image of a man, and quickening it by chanting, and when they spoke, they spoke the language of the Sun. The animals, such as horses, burros, sheep and cows, which she made for them, were given to the Navaho.

“She also created the Pueblos, the Mexicans and the Americans, as also their domestic animals, but dispatched them all across the oceans —for when they spoke they had a different language.

“She was extremely kind to her children, promised them variegated corn, seeds and plants of all kinds, medicines in case of sickness, precious stones, and her protection in general. Therefore, all good things, the mild rains, the growth of the corn, etc., all are due to her beneficient influence, and come from the west. Finally she presented each with a pet, a bear,

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