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northwards, the coast range is in close proximity to the sea, and is rugged and picturesque in character, while some of the peaks reach a considerable elevation. In the southern coastal district much of the land between the mountains and the sea is very suitable for farming purposes, most of the rivers and creeks running through alluvial soil of great richness. The highest peak in Queensland is Mount Bartle Frere, 5,438 feet. Mount Roberts in the Central district is 4,350 feet in height, and Mount Barney in the Macpherson Range reaches 4,300 feet. In the Coast Ranges the highest points are Wooroonooran, 5,400 feet, in the Bellenden Ker Range, and Mount Dalrymple, 4,200 feet, in the Mackay Range.
The rivers of Queensland may be classified into four distinct systems :-1. Those flowing eastward into the Pacific. 2. Those which form the head waters of the Darling and its tributaries. 3. Those flowing westward from the Great Dividing Range. 4. Those flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria. As in the case of New South Wales, the coastal rivers of Queensland flowing into the Pacific Ocean have short rapid courses, and in periods of excessive rainfall are liable to floods. The entrances also are sometimes difficult to negotiate, on account of the presence of sandbars and shoals. Much has been accomplished in the way of getting rid of these disabilities by persistent dredging, and the channels have been artificially deepened; nevertheless, it is only in the tidal waters of these rivers that navigation is possible for ocean-going steamers. In Southern Queensland the principal coastal rivers are the Logan, Brisbane, and Pine, which drain into Moreton Bay; the Caboolture, flowing into Deception Bay ; the Mary and Burrum, entering Wide Bay; and the Burnett, Kolan, and Elliott Rivers, which debouch into Hervey Bay. In Central Queensland the Calliope and Boyne Rivers drain into Port Curtis. The Fitzroy River is the second in point of size on the eastern coast, and is navigable by deep-sea vessels as far as Rockhampton. The river enters the sea at Keppel Bay, and during its course receives several tributary streams, the principal of which are the Dee, Dawson, Mackenzie, and Isaac Rivers, the total area of its basin being about 55,600 square miles. In Northern Queensland the chief coastal rivers are the Pioneer, entering the sea at Mackay; the Don at Bowen. The Burdekin, which debouches into Upstart Bay, is the finest of Queensland's coastal rivers. Its drainage area covers 53,500 square miles. Numerous tributaries discharge into the main stream, the most important being the Boyne, Bogie, Belyando, Suttor, Cope, Campaspie, Basalt, Clarke, and Star Rivers. Even in the driest seasons the stream, within a few miles of its outlet, carries a large body of fresh water, and this probably prevents the formation of a defined bar close to its mouth. Farther north, the Ross River falls into Cleveland Bay ; the Herbert enters the sea at Lucinda Point; the Tully flows into Kennedy Bay; the Moresby into Mourilyan Harbour; the Russell and Mulgrave at Bramston Point; the Barron near Cairns; the Endeavour at Cooktown; the Mosman and Daintree near Port Douglas; the Bloomfield into Weary Bay; the Normanby into Princess Charlotte Bay; and various small streams higher up in Cape York Peninsula. The celebrated Barron Falls are situated on the Barron River, at the point where the stream descends from the table-land and leaps down a distance of 830 feet to the valley below. The main fall is 370 feet in height.
The rivers rising in the western slopes of the Dividing Range include the Macintyre or Barwon, which receives the Macintyre Brook, and the Dumares or Severn, and after crossing the New South Wales border, unites with the Moonie River. The Condamine, or Balonne, rises near Warwick, and after being joined by the Maranoa River, separates into branches, which all become united with the western fluvial system of New South Wales. The Warrego rises in the Warrego Range, and, flowing southerly, joins the Darling. The Paroo and the Bulloo, or Corni Paroo, lie between the Grey Range and the Warrego. These are in reality depressions, along which in seasons of exceptional rainfall a large body of water finds its way into New South Wales southwards towards the Darling. Further west the Victoria, or Barcoo, flows under the name of Cooper's Creek into Lake Eyre, while the Diamantina loses itself in the stony desert to the north-east of that lake.
Several fine navigable streams fall into the Gulf of Carpentaria ; but as the northern country round the Gulf is only in the initial stages of development, their capabilities, with the exception of the Norman and Albert Rivers, remain unutilised. Amongst the principal streams debouching into the Gulf are the following :
-Batavia, Archer, Colman, Mitchell, Staaten, and Gilbert on the eastern shore; and the Norman, Flinders, Leichhardt, Albert, and Gregory on the southern shore. Much of the country through which these rivers flow is excellently adapted for pastoral purposes, while the mountains in which they have their sources contain mineral treasures, as yet only partially developed.
The only lakes worthy of mention in Queensland are Lake Galilee, or Jochimo, and Lake Buchanan. These are situated in Central Queensland, and are both salt. Some of the western rivers flow into salt lakes, but their area is indeterminate, as their volume depends on the rainfall.
For general purposes the state has been divided into twelve districts. A brief description of the characteristics of each division may not be without interest.
The Moreton District occupies the south-eastern portion of the state immediately to the north of New South Wales, and extends inland to the Dividing Range. It is a fertile, well-watered district, drained by the Brisbane, Bremer, and Logan Rivers. Sugar cane and maize are grown and thrive luxuriantly, coal occurs in several localities on the Bremer, and gold is found in the Enoggera Ranges, west of Brisbane.
The Darling Downs District lies immediately to the west of the Moreton District, the table-land region, and forms one of the richest
pastoral and agricultural areas of the State. The southern portion is the great wheat-growing district of the State, and at Stanthorpe, near the New South Wales border, large deposits of tin have been found. North of the Moreton District is the Burnett or Wide Bay District. The rich alluvial soil in this division is especially suitable for the growth of sugar, cotton, arrowroot, ginger, and other tropical productions. In the Gympie district rich deposits of gold have been found, while coal is worked on the Burrum River.
Port Curtis District lies to the north of the Burnett division, and is watered by the Dawson, Fitzroy, Calliope, and Boyne Rivers. This area is rich in mineral wealth, gold being found at the Calliope River, the Boyne, Fitzroy, and at Mount Morgan.
The Leichhardt District is a fine pastoral area west of the Port Curtis Division, and is watered by various tributaries of the Fitzroy. Copper, gold, coal, and other minerals are also found.
The Maranoa District consists of table-land and downs, and lies west of the Darling Downs and south of the Leichhardt District. It is watered by the Maranoa, Culgoa, Balonne, and Moonie Rivers. Much excellent pasto al country is found throughout, while in the Roma district the soil is well adapted for wheat.
The Warrego District lies westward of the Maranoa, and is almost exclusively pastoral in character. The rainfall is intermittent, and the water supply in many places is obtained from bores, which have generally yielded very successful results.
The Kennedy District occupies the middle coastal portion of the state, and is well watered by the Burdekin and other streams. The country round Mackay produces a large quantity of sugar. In this division also is situated the Charters Towers Goldfield, one of the richest in the State.
The Burke District lies west of the Kennedy division, and extends to the southern portion of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Much of this area is under occupation for pastoral purposes, but a large extent of country is yet undeveloped. At Croydon are situated the well-known goldfields of that name, while at Cloncurry, in addition to gold, there are rich deposits of copper.
The Mitchell District lies to the westward of the South Kennedy division. It is watered by the Barcoo and Thompson Rivers, and is entirely pastoral.
The Gregory District lies between the Mitchell, Burke, and Warrego Districts and the South Australian boundary. It is watered by the Diamantina, Herbert, Wilson, and Mulligan Rivers, and traversed by Cooper's Creek and other watercourses. The district is almost entirely given over to pastoral pursuits. Opals have been found in various places throughout the area. Its south-eastern boundary is formed by the Grey and Cheviot Ranges; other ranges in the south are the Coleman, Cameron, and Macgregor Mountains.
AREA AND BOUNDARIES.
“HE State of South Australia occupies a position midway between embraces within its limits a total area of 903,690 square miles. As originally constituted by the Imperial Statute 4 and 5 William IV, cap. 95, the 132nd meridian of east longitude formed the western boundary, and the 141st meridian the eastern limit. From north to south the province extended from the 26th parallel of south latitude to the Southern Ocean. The area of territory comprised within these boundaries was about 300,000 square miles. By fixing the western boundary at the 132nd meridian, a strip of country about 90 miles in width was left intervening between that meridian and the eastern frontier of Western Australia, and this region, containing an area of over 80,000 square miles, was added to South Australia in 1861. Two years later, a further accession was made by including within the confines of the State all the country stretching northward from the 26th parallel of south latitude to the Indian Ocean, in addition to the territory lying between the meridians of 129° and 138° east longitude. The area of the state was thus brought up to its present large proportions, next to Western Australia the province being the most extensive of the group. The portion of the state to the north of the 26th parallel, known as the Northern Territory, is so dissimilar, as regards climate and resources, to the southern division, that it may almost be looked upon as a separate possession.
The coast line on the south, with the exception of the rge inlets of Spencer Gulf and St. Vincent's Gulf, is not diversified by any very remarkable indentations. From west to east the shore line has a general downward trend through about six degrees. Commencing from the western extremity, there is a vast crescent-shaped curve terminating at Cape Catastrophe, and forming the eastern portion of the Great Australian Bight. For the first 120 miles from the western boundary the shore is backed by precipitous limestone ridges, varying in height from 400 to 600 feet. Passing the head of the Bight, the first noteworthy headland is Cape Nuyts, a lofty promontory a little to the eastward of longitude 132°. Rounding this point, Fowler's Bay opens out, and thence, after passing through the cluster of islets known as Nuyts Archipelago, Streaky Bay is entered, one of the finest harbors in this portion of the coast. The northern headland is named Point Brown, while Cape Bauer lies at the south. Farther down is Cape Radstock, a well-known landmark for mariners sailing to the east. Then comes Anxious Bay, which affords good anchorage but is unsafe during the prevalence of certain winds. Off Cape Finniss lies Flinders Island and the Investigator Group, the names being reminiscent of the explorer of earlier days. Coffin's Bay, to the eastward of Point Sir Isaac, offers excellent shelter from westerly or southerly gales. Sleaford Bay, between Cape Wiles and Cape Catastrophe, is a fine inlet with deep water in various parts. Spencer's Gulf is the largest inlet on the south coast of Australia ; its entrance lies between Cape Catastrophe at the western extremity, and Cape Spencer at the foot of Yorke's Peninsula on the eastern side, and is 47 miles wide. Port Augusta at the head of the Gulf is distant 180 miles from the entrance. The inlet has a shore line of about 400 miles and offers everywhere excellent facilities for navigation to vessels of the greatest burden. Spencer's Gulf is separated from the next large inlet, called St. Vincent's Gulf, by Yorke's Peninsula. St. Vincent's Gulf has a width at the entrance of thirty-four miles, and a length of about eighty miles. Port Adelaide is situated on its eastern shore, and is the principal harbor of the State. The entrance to St. Vincent's Gulf is protected on the south by Kangaroo Island, one of the largest islands on the Australian Coast. It measures eighty miles east and west, and has an average width of about twenty miles. Cape Borda, a well-defined headland, is situated on its western side, and Cape de Couedie and Cape Gantheaume on the south. The passage between the island and Yorke's Peninsula is called Investigator's Strait, and that between the eastern portion and the mainland, Backstairs Passage. From Encounter Bay to the eastern boundary of the state the coast is generally low and flat. Between Cape Jaffa, at the southern extremity of Lacepede Bay, and Rivoli Bay, the presence of numerous reefs and shoals, in some cases extending out for many miles from the shore, necessitates extreme caution on the part of navigators. After leaving Rivoli Bay the next important headland is Cape Banks, conspicuous by a white sand hummock near its extremity. Cape Northumberland is the last projection on the eastward portion of the coast, and is a prominent elevation capped by the McDonnell Lighthouse. Generally speaking, the south coast, which has a tota length of upwards of 1,600 miles, is well-marked and lighted.
The northern coast, which embraces the shore line of Arnhem Land with the western portion of the Gulf of Carpentaria, is more broken and irregular than the south coast. Here, too, are the estuaries of several fine rivers, while, with the exception of the Murray, there is hardly a river worthy of mention that reaches the Southern Ocean. Commencing on the western boundary, the chief inlets are Queen's