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wild flowers flourishing there, amongst which the sweet-scented boronia is especially remarkable. From King George's Sound round to Cape Leeuwin the coast is fringed by rugged granitic masses, and is broken by several small streams flowing into the sea. Cape Leeuwin is situated in the south-western corner of the continent, where the Indian and Southern Oceans meet, and is a prominent landmark for vessels voyaging to Australia. On calm, bright days the view from the lighthouse on the point, 700 feet above the sea, discloses enchanting vistas of Hamelin Bay, the mouth of the Blackwood River, and numerous islets and reefs flashing gaily in the sunlight; but when the wind blows strongly from the west, the Lioness quivers as the thunderous waves dash at her feet, while the swirling spray is borne by the blasts for a long distance inland. Passing the Leeuwin, and sailing northwards, the next important point is Cape Naturaliste, at the entrance to Geographe Bay, on the shores of which stands the town of Busselton, the outlet of a thriving timber and dairying district. Leaving Cape Bouvard, 40 miles to the south of Perth, the low, scrub-covered Garden Island, sheltering Cockburn Sound, comes into view. Near by is Rottnest Island, on which the Governor's marine residence is situated, and the site also of a native prison. Between the two islands, vessels from the south approach the port of Fremantle on the Swan River. Two hundred miles further up the coast is the port of Geraldton, off which lie the dangerous Houtman's Abrolhos, the scene of many a wreck when the Dutch vessels in times gone by were wont to visit this portion of the continent. The Abrolhos have for ages been the resort of countless numbers of sea fowl, and rich deposits of guano are obtained on several of the islands in the group. Shark's Bay is an extensive inlet in latitude 26°, Dirk Hartog Island lying to the westward. Valuable deposits of pearlshell have been obtained from the shallow banks in this bay. Steep Point, on the west, is the most westerly point of the continent. North of this bay is situated Exmouth Gulf, a capacious inlet, with North-west Cape at its outer extremity.

From the Leeuwin up to this point, the shore-line has had a north-westerly sweep,

but from this onward the general trend is to the north-east. Cossack Harbour is the port of the magnificent pastoral district known as the “ Nor' West,” lying between the Ashburton and De Grey Rivers. Higher up is Roebuck Ray, on which the township of Broome is situated. King Sound is an extensive indentation, on the western extremity of which is situated the important headland of Cape Leveque. The inlet is the centre of the shipping trade of the great West Kimberley district, and the harbour otters excellent facilities for vessels. At the entrance to the Sound is the eluster of rocky islets known as the Buccaneer Archipelago. Between King Sound and Cambridge Gulf, the coast is deeply indented, the principal inlets being Collier Bay, Brunswick Sound, York Sound, Montague Sound, and Admiralty Gulf. Cambridge Gulf is a fine inlet, offering excellent anchorage for vessels of every class. The township of Wyndham, at the head of the gulf, is the business centre of the whole of the East Kimberley district, and is the north-eastern terminus of the West Australian system of telegraphs. A large volume of trade is carried on with the southern ports, and also with Port Darwin, in the northern territory of South Australia. Numerous islands lie off the coast between King Sound and the Gulf, the most important being Augustus Island, near Camden Sound, and Bigge Island, north of York Sound. None of these islands has been very carefully examined, but they appear to be of the same rugged sandstone formation as the adjoining coast. Dampier's Archipelago, Barrow Island, and numerous others lie north-east of the North-west Cape. They are chiefly of granite formation, and some of them are well-grassed.

General Parsical CHARACTERISTICS. The whole of the interior of Western Australia, embracing the country between the 19th and 31st parallels of latitude, and 121st and 129th meridians of longitude, consists of a vast tableland between one and two thousand feet above the level of the sea. Of this immense stretch of territory, the greater portion consists of sand dunes and stony ridges, with here and there areas of clayey soil. Except in connection with the development of its mineral resources, it is believed that little of this portion of the state will ever be available for settlement. The lakes found in this district, except in periods of heavy rainfall, are merely salt marshes of greater or less extent, and sometimes become dry clay-pans. North of the 19th parallel the country consists of alternately high and low-lying expanses of tableland, intersected by several ranges of mountains. The Kimberley portion of this district contains several fine rivers. Much of the south-western and southern sea boards is of a flat, sandy character, and is covered in parts with vast forests, containing jarrah, karri, white and red gum, and many other timbers of great commercial value. In the limestone region north of the Great Australian Bight there are some fine stretches of grass country, needing only a permanent water supply to make them rank amongst the productive divisions of the state.

As previously stated, there are no streams of much importance flowing into the Southern Ocean ; indeed, on the shores of the Bight there is a stretch of country, 300 miles in length, unpierced by any watercourse. The Blackwood, Warren, Kalgan, and Phillips enter the sea west of the Bight, towards Cape Leeuwin, some magnificent forest country being found in the basin of these streams. Flowing into the Indian Ocean, on the west coast, are the Preston, Collie, Swan, Greenough, Murchison, and Gascoyne. The Swan, upon which Perth, the capital of the State, is situated, receives the name of Avon above the tidal waters. On the north-west are the Ashburton, Oakover, Fortescue, and Fitzroy. The Kimberley district is watered by the Fitzroy, Ord, Pentecost, Durack, Drysdale, &c. Pastoral occupation is rapidly spreading in the districts traversed by these streams, while the rich auriferous discoveries have also conferred an added importance on the territory.

In the southern portion of the state the Stirling Range, situated about 40 miles to the north-east of Albany, attains its highest elevation in Mount Toolbrunup, which reaches an altitude of about 3,000 feet. The range possesses a certain grandeur from the fact of its being perfectly isolated and rising abruptly from a level plain. In the south-western district the Darling Range runs north and south from Yatheroo to Point D'Entrecasteaux on the south coast. From its proximity to the western seaboard, this range exercises a great influence over the climate of the state in its most populous area. The highest point is Mount William, 1,700 feet in altitude, situated in the Murray district. Between the Fortescue and Ashburton Rivers is the Hamersley Range, in which Mount Bruce rises to a height of 3,800 feet, and is supposed to be the loftiest peak in the state. In the Kimberley district is situated the Princess May Range, running in an easterly direction from York Sound, the highest point in which, called Mount York, is probably 3,000 feet high. Mount Hann, in the same range, reaches an elevation of 2,000 feet. The King Leopold Range stretches southeasterly from Collier Bay, but no point in the chain exceeds an elevation of 2,400 feet. In the south-western district, between Cape Naturaliste and the Leeuwin, an interesting series of limestone caves is found in undulating country at a distance of from 1 to 3 miles from the coast. For beauty and picturesqueness these caves rival those in the Jenolan district of New South Wales, and in some respects are unsurpassed anywhere in the world.


AREA AND BOUNDARIES. THE 'HE island State of Tasmania is the smallest in the Federation, and

contains an area of 26,215 square miles. On the north it is separated from the mainland of Australia by Bass Strait, a broad channel of from 80 to 150 miles in width. The Tasman Sea forms its eastern boundary, and its southern and western shores are washed by the waters of the Great Southern Ocean. From north to south the island is about 200 miles long, and the breadth from east to west in its widest part is about the same distance.

COASTAL FEATURES. The southern portion of the eastern shore of the island is rich in picturesque inlets and bold headlands. Hobart, the capital of the state, is beautifully situated on the river Derwent, which debouches into Storm Bay. Behind the city, the cone of Mount Wellington rises to a height of over 4,000 feet. The bay is protected on its eastern side by Tasman's Peninsula, the extremities of which are guarded by the bluff headlands of Cape Pillar and Cape Raoul. These two headlands are composed of masses of columnar basalt rising to a height of several hundreds of feet. Some of the pillars stand as outliers to the main body, the intervening softer mass having been detached by the combined action of wind and sea. For ages the waves of the Southern Ocean have been relentlessly beating at these lofty promontories, and at times large portions of the mighty mass, undermined by the ceaseless erosive

agency of the salt water, topple over and sink heavily into the

Tasman's Peninsula is connected with Forestier's Peninsula, lying to the northward, by the narrow isthmus of Eagle Hawk Neck. The land-locked harbour, enclosed by these two peninsulas, is called Norfolk Bay. On the north-eastern portion of Forestier's Peninsula lies North Bay. Sailing northwards from this inlet for about 10 miles the beautiful and peculiarly-shaped Maria Island is reached, supposed to have been named by Tasman after the daughter of his patron, Antony Van Diemen. The island, on the northern side of which cliffs of basalt rise to a height of over 2,000 feet, is almost severed in twain by the deep indentations of Oyster Bay and Reidle Bay, situated respectively on the western and eastern sides, and joined by a narrow neck of land. Higher up on the mainland is another large inlet named


Oyster Bay, with Freycinet's Peninsula on its eastern flank. Schouten Island lies off the extremity of this peninsula, being separated from it by the narrow passage called Geographe Strait. Proceeding southward from Tasman's Peninsula, the two large islands called North and South Bruni are found lying to the east of the D'Entrecasteaux Channel These two islands, which are joined by a narrow sand spit, contain an area of 90,000 acres. Opposite South Bruni is the estuary of the Huon River. The channel is here bordered by numbers of beautiful bays with well-wooded slopes. Between the South-East and South-West Capes there are several small islands and reefs requiring very skilful navigation. From the South-West Cape the coast trends northward again, and after passing Hilliard Head the fine harbour of Port Davey opens out. Thence the most conspicuous headlands are Rocky Point, Point Hibbs, and Cape Sorell ; the latter standing at the entrance to the splendid expanse of water known as Macquarie Harbour. North ward of this inlet the most prominent headlands are- -Sandy Cape, Bluff Point, and Cape Grim. Opposite the western apex of the State are situated Hunter's Island, the Three Hummocks Islands, and Robbin's Island Circular Head is one of the most remarkable projections on the northern coast. It consists of a narrow peninsula running out from the mainland for a distance of about six miles, and terminating in a rocky biuff about 400 feet high. This point is a prominent landmark for vessels sailing from Victoria to Tasmania. Amongst the chief indentations on the north coast are Port Frederick, Port Sorell, and Port Dalrymple, the latter receiving the drainage of the Tamar River on which is situated the town of Launceston. There are several islands off the eastern apex of the state, the most important being Clarke Island, Cape Barren Island, and Flinders Island. The last mentioned is the largest island dependency of the State, and contains an area of 513,000 acres.


It is believed that Tasmania originally constituted a southward prolongation of the mainland of Australia, and the continuation of the Great Dividing Range, lying near the eastern seaboard of the continent may be traced through the Furneaux and Kent's group across to the island state. From the central range, traversing the country from north-west to south, various lateral spurs diverge, further ramifications from which branch away in all directions. The centre of the island is occupied by an extensive plateau, with an elevation on the northern side, of between three and four thousand feet above the level of the sea. This table-land district extends from Dry's Bluff in the north-west to the Denison Range in the south-west, and although it recedes here and there at the sources of the chief rivers, presents a precipitous slope to the north, west, and east Several fine fresh water lakes are situated on the comparatively level

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