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UNDER THE RED CROSS BANNER
A Filipino Red Cross company, the first that ever marched in the Philippine Islands
THE SCHOOL-TEACHERS OF MANILA
No more enthusiastic workers can be found in the Filipino Red Cross than the school-teachers
The Red Cross Spirit Awakes in the Philippines
A letter from the Field Officer of the Fourteenth Division
E ARRIVED at Manila on Monday, January 28th, after a good trip of four days from Nagasaki, the southern end of Japan. We had a heavy sea the whole way but, praises be, behind us. The north wind came straight from China and made my Bell trench coat feel like tissue paper. It did not get warm until after we had come abreast of the north end of Luzon and farther south than the latitude of Hong Kong, which we passed by with a wide berth. Our log shows that we have traveled in all nearly 12,000 miles; and it seems queer to own up to an island flying the American flag, with whitesuited American army officers very much in evidence, and many other things American.
One does not have to study life in the Philippines long before one is roused by a feeling of pride of country. Uncle Sam reached over the seas with his long arm and did some notable things in these islands. As in contrast to the Hun in his conquered territory, you find, instead of destruction, upbuilding; instead of a ruthless tearing down of old monuments and buildings, the ancient walls and churches untouched and as the Spaniards left them. Where were ancient prisons filled with instruments of torture, you find the best prison system of the world. In an old fort of the real Spanish type, you find the dungeons turned into tanks filled with the most marvelously colored fish, composing the Manila Aquarium.
THE ISLANDS REMADE
Instead of jungle paths, you find splendid American roads, and hospitals, libraries and thousands of schoolhouses. As you go back into the wilder portions of the land, you meet tribes which for centuries hunted each other's heads. The names Moro and Igorot and many others will long be remembered as repre
senting a people so wild that all hope of civilizing them seemed vain. These Igorots are a fine looking people, with a forest of hair and, I judge, a vast local population. They were great head-hunters, and even a few months ago took a head, which is no longer considered quite the thing by the Government and is punished by long imprisonment if caught which is not inevitable. They carry on their backs head baskets, which are beautiful and useful ́ ́if head hunting is dull (which it now is). Two Igorots, at least, are quite famous; they have tails about five or six inches in length at the base of the spine, like any common monkey. Yet now you see them an orderly and contented folk governed by laws introduced from our own land, and administered mostly by Filipinos.
All this with no great expense to anybody but the islands themselves. Three million dollars was given to stamp out plague and pestilence when the Americans came, the soldiers and sailors have been paid by our Government; but these vast improvements—roads and hospitals, a national bank, schoolhouses and all the rest-have come from the land and the people and not from the world outside.
The Manila Hotel is, for example, I suppose, the best in the Far East-nothing so good in Japan or China-a thoroughly tropical abiding place built of cement, with polished waxed floors, big verandas and everything wide open, as it needs to be, for this is the real tropics and it's dreadfully hot most of the time. The delivery of the mails is typical of Manila. No one knows when a steamer is coming into the harbor until the ice factory whistle blows announcing that fact, but as it blows four times a day upon its own business, it is hard to keep track. As a part of this lack of information and to save the lives of the post office clerks, there is a large sign over the mailing window which reads:
We are sorry that we cannot tell you when the next foreign mail leaves. If you have just missed the mail, letters deposited now will catch the next.
Simple, truthful, unanswerable, and so satisfying. The same is true of mail arrivals. No information can be given, so you learn to restrain yourself.
COME TO THE CARNIVAL
As a ship approaches the city of Manila one sees almost first of all, near the Lunetta, the. new Red Cross Tower, striking in daylight and very beautiful at night with its outline of electric lights. It dominates the Carnival grounds which opened on February 2d, welcomed daily from 30,000 to 40,000 visitors and spread the name of the American Red Cross far and wide over these islands.
Let us take our places on the grandstand to view the Red Cross procession, which begins at four in the afternoon and ends long after dark. Everybody in holiday mood. The Governor-General, Francis Burton Harrison, and all the officials are present; the Army and Navy in full white uniform are in the front row, for Manila even in February is very warm, and white costumes are almost universal. Near us sits a Chinaman in a gorgeous robe, his family attending; we are introduced to the Sultan of Sulu, a visitor from his island six hundred miles south; near him is a company of Moros, and other tribesmen dressed in native costumes of many colors, to make up, perhaps, for the lack of dress one notes when visiting them at home.
On such an occasion as this the Government brings the prominent heads of tribes from many of the islands, so that they may themselves see and take part in a civilized holiday. To-day we do not see their women folk, but they are often brought at the expense of the Government, and the plan has had a wide-reaching effect. English are here as visitors; Spaniards, Japanese and many official Filipinos you find. on the grandstand, all paying their respects to the American Red Cross Carnival.
But let us study the procession. Remember, this is a hot country and people are not given to walking in the sun, and the idea of women parading the streets was considered preposterous at first. "But Red Cross people did it in America," it was urged; and “the ball began to roll" and continued until there was hardly room to list the organizations which wished to join.
Every trolley pole along the street which leads to the heart of the city a couple of miles away is decorated with a Red Cross flagthere must be hundreds or thousands of these made by the industrious and patriotic ladies. of Manila; and as you hear the faint rumblings of the first band (there were dozens), you see in the bright sunshiny distance the beginning of the procession, a long white line with little red dashes of color too far away to distinguish. In a little while you make out the insignia of Red Cross nurses-with the flags a dazzling sight good for sea-wearied eyes.
Of course, you expect the Americans to be there in full force and they are, and in all their proper uniforms, even to the young American girls driving army trucks and ambulances. There is a company of British women, the Junior Red Cross, forming a living Red Cross flag, Boy Scouts leading dogs, representing the Blue Cross Corps of the Dumb Animals' League. Here comes a company of Filipino ladies, walking in a large group to show their respect for an American institution in a way they never dreamed of before; then school organizations, hundreds of them, and thousands of students; a group of Japanese clad in the old feudal costume of the Samurai-an effective section; a Chinese float filled with Chinese in wonderful costumes-and so this colorful procession goes on for hours, keeping step to innumerable bands, and Manila is famous for all kinds of bands.
RED CROSS BOOTHS
All net profits of the Carnival were offered to the Red Cross and thankfully accepted, but hoping still further to increase our revenues the following activities were planned under entire Red Cross control. The Carnival very generously donated large concessions in a most desirable situation only charging for absolute construction expenses and the use of lights. The best paying concession was the Tea Cup Inn under Mrs. Shearer's direction. She was assisted by the Daughters of the American Revolution. The "Stunt Station" presented several bills every afternoon and evening of local talent and minstrels of colored troops kindly furnished by the U.S. Army. Then there was a palmistry booth and a sale commissary of food made at home. A miniature golf links also caused much amusement and a good source of revenue. In addition to this, there was an organization booth where memberships were taken. This
MRS. CHARLOTTE R. SLEEPER
In the centre, Mrs. Sleeper, the Chairman of the Red Cross Participation in the Carnival
booth was built in the form of a large Red Cross decorated with red lights, where lanterns showed views of Red Cross activities. The rest room was equipped as a first aid station and has been found a great help. Here service flags, Red Cross buttons and bags were on sale. The headquarters had an exhibit of all articles made in the Red Cross work rooms with figures stating how many have been shipped up to date. Women workers were here every afternoon to show how the work is done, the main reason being to interest the Filipinos who came from the provinces.
It was a great occasion, which made you glad that you had been privileged to attend so unique a festival, and proud of the energy that could resist so tropical a climate and carry a great undertaking to success against a world of difficulties.
people who were so kind to us. We saw many wonderful and interesting things. We are convinced that Uncle Sam has done a great job-a very great one-and we are mighty glad we came. Such a strenuous life in such a hot climate nearly did us up, but a night and day of rest on the Empress of Russia has set us up, and we are ready for Hongkong.
Sunday we spent seeing the sights of Manila, the old Spanish town, the Aquarium (and a fine one), the wonderful old Cathedral, the Library, the hospitals and all the useful and really magnificent things built and accomplished in this far-away land. It makes you proud that you are an American.
We left Manila full of gratitude to all the finish all New Year celebrations here.
P.S. We arrived at Hongkong early Friday morning at dawn, and after getting through the Hongkong police, were ashore at I P. M. Already we know what the "countless millions" of China mean. This town is full of every race of people on the earth. Through a kind friend, we have a room in the Hongkong Hotel. We will here celebrate our fourth New Year period--on January first, second and third with the Japanese at Honolulu; on the seventh to ninth with the Russians on the S.S. Shinyo; on February second with the Filipinos at Manila in their New Year Carnival; and we find that we have arrived here just in time for the Chinese New Year, which begins February tenth and lasts three days-everything holiday. We hope to
Letters to the Mother of a
I am in a strange household. It is a big country place outside of Toronto-an estate, in fact, and save for the host and his wife I am the only man in mufti here. All the others, fifty of them, are officers. Mr. turned over his place as a recuperation camp to the Government. He and Mrs. are living in the lodge. I have a cot in what used to be a hostler's room. The big house is fitted out with all modern facilities for the care of the wounded, and both these good people spend all
By Richardson Wright
Illustrations by JOHN FROST
their time helping the doctors and nurses look after the men. They are all fine chaps. Some of them will return to the service, but several of them will never be able to do much except sit about in the sun until the Night comes down.
One of these chaps has quite won my heart. He is a university man, was specializing in law when the war broke out. He was gassed and lost an arm at Mons. But he's plucky, and plans to go on with law when he's better.
Yesterday I sat by his chair and he showed me a collection of addresses to soldiers that he