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Department of Lands and Surveys Senior Inspector of Factories: G. M. Director of Lands and Surveys: G. Ph. Callimachos Avraamides
Senior Industrial Relations Officer: E.
Constantinides Department of Town Planning and Housing
Director of Social Insurance Officer: J. Director: C. Ioannides (acting)
Cyprus Productivity Centre Director: S. Commander of Police: S. Antoniou (Acting)
Department of Welfare
Chief Welfare Officer: C. Vakis
Commander, Cyprus Army: (vacant)
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
Director-General: P. K. Adamides
Director of Education: Cleanthis Famagusta: D. Paralikis
Cultural Development Department Paphos: K. Stefanides
Director: Chr. Papachrysostomou
DEPARTMENT OF TURKISH COMMUNAL Director-General: A. Kephalas (acting)
Acting Director: M. A. Raif
DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATION CYPRUS REPRESENTATIVES IN OTHER Consul); Congo (Kinshasa) (Hon. Consul); COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES
Czechoslovakia (resident in Moscow); DenBritain: Costas Ashiotis, MBE (High Com
mark (Hon. Consul-General); Ethiopia missioner); Canada: Zenon Rossides (resi- (Hon. Consul); Finland (Hon. Consul), dent in New York); Ghana: G. M. Nicolaides
Ambassador (resident in Moscow); France (Hon. Consul); Nigeria: C. P. Leventis (Hon. (Hon. Consul General) Paris, (Hon. Consul) Consul); Uganda: Andreas N. Roussos Marseilles, (Hon. Consul) Lyons; Germany (Hon. Consul).
(Ambassador), (Hon. Consul General)
Hamburg; Ghana (Hon. Consul); Greece COMMONWEALTH High COMMISSIONERS
(Ambassador); Italy (Ambassador) (resident IN CYPRUS
in Athens), (Hon. Consul General); Rome,
(Hon Consul) Genoa; Ivory Coast (Hon. Britain: The Hon. Peter Ramsbotham, CMG;
Consul); Kuwait (Hon. Consul); Mexico Canada: J. C. G. Brown; India: Avatar
(Hon. Consul) resident in New York); Krishna Dar (resident in Beirut); Pakistan:
Norway (Hon. Consul); Panama (Hon. M. Rabb (resident in Beirut).
Consul); Paraguay (resident in New York);
Sweden (Hon. Consul); Switzerland (Hon. CYPRUS REPRESENTATION IN NON
Consul General); Turkey (Ambassador); COMMONWEALIH COUNTRIES
United Arab Republic (Ambassador); Argentina (Hon. Consul), (Ambassador- United Nations (Permanent Represennon-resident); Austria (Hon. Consul); Brazil tative); United States (Ambassador), (Hon. (Ambassador) (resident in New York); Consul) Boston; Uruguay (resident in New Cameroons (Hon. Consul); Chile (resident York); U.S.S.R. (Ambassador); Yugoslavia in New York); Congo (Lumumbashi) (Hon. (Ambassador) (resident in Athens).
Isi has a total area of approximately 7,055 square miles and comprises 844 islands and islets including numerous atolls and reefs. About 100
planting food crops or as temporary residences during the turtle fishing season. The largest islands are Viti Levu, 4,010 square miles, and Vanua Levu 2,137 square miles. The main archipelago lies between latitudes 15o and 22° South and longitudes 175° East and 177° West. The island of Rotuma (17 square miles) and its dependencies were added to the territory in 1881 and are geographically separate. They lie between latitudes 12° and 15° South and longitudes 175° and 180° East.
Suva, the capital and chief port, is 1,317 miles by air from Auckland, 1,960 from Sydney, 3,183 from Honolulu and 5,611 miles from San Francisco.
With the exception of the islands of Kadavu and of the Koro Sea, the islands of Fiji rise from two submerged platforms. The western platform is the broader and from it rise the islands of Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Kadavu, and the Lomaiviti and Yasawa groups. The numerous islands of the Lau group are scattered across more than 44,000 square miles, and are based on the elongated and narrower eastern platform. The two platforms are joined by a narrow ridge which lies athwart the deep Nanuku Passage; north of this passage the ocean floor drops steeply to depths of over 5,000 feet.
Most of the larger islands are 'high' islands with sharp peaks and crags, but they have conspicuous areas of flat land as many of the rivers have built extensive deltas.
Viti Levu is the third largest island in the 'open Pacific' (only New Caledonia and Hawaii are larger). The interior is mountainous. The highest peak is Mount Victoria (4,341 feet) but 28 other peaks exceed 3,000 feet. The main axis trends north-south across the island. On both sides of the mountain axis are tracts of broken highland, rimmed in many places by ranges of hills with precipitous seaward-facing slopes. The main rivers are the Rewa, Sigatoka, Navua, Nadi and Ba. The largest of these, the Rewa, is formed of four main streams—the Wainibuka, Wainimala, Waidina and the Waimanu, and a multitude of minor tributaries. It drains a third of the island of Viti Levu and is navigable for about 70 miles by small boats. The lower reaches of the main rivers provide fertile alluvial flats and fan out into substantial deltas. The island of Vanua Levu is also mountainous. The most intensively cultivated areas are in the lower reaches of the Labasa valley which drains northwards. The island of Taveuni (168 square miles), a wholly volcanic island, has rich deep soils and is noted for its flourishing coconut plantations.
The innumerable small islands vary considerably in structure and form and a great number consist wholly or partly of limestone. They generally rise steeply from the shore and have flat-topped profiles; wherever the limestone is exposed it is eroded into pinnacles or deeply honeycombed. Coral reefs surround many of the islands. In Fiji barrier reefs occur at the seaward edge of the submarine platform and on the outer margins of the large shore flats; the most extensive is the Great Sea Reef which extends with only a few navigable passages for nearly 300 miles along the western fringe of the archipelago.
Temperatures at Suva and at other sea-level stations are high throughout the year but are tempered by the ocean and the territory has all the advantages of a tropical climate without undue extremes of heat. At Suva the mean maximum temperature is 86.6°F (February) and the mean minimum is 68.1°F (July). The prevailing winds are the Trades which blow steadily and with little interruption throughout the greater part of the year and are generally easterly or southeasterly. Wind direction is more variable in the so-called wet season, between November and March or April, when the inter-tropical front reaches farthest south. It is during these months that tropical cyclonic storms or hurricanes are most likely to develop.
The annual rainfall totals vary according to exposure and the windward areas enjoy abundant rainfall, well distributed throughout the year. The leeward (that is north-western) sides have well defined wet and dry seasons.
Conditions at Suva are typical of windward locations not only on Viti Levu but also on Vanua Levu, Kadavu and Taveuni. Its average annual rainfall is 123 inches, most of which falls between November and March. Stations at sea level on the leeward sides have mean annual totals of between 70 and 80 inches, most of which fall during the hurricane season when variable winds blow. In the dry season the leeward sides, particularly on Vanua Levu and Viti Levu, have clear skies, low humidity and a considerable diurnal range of temperatures so that the evenings are quite cool.
The mountains on the larger islands are often shrouded in mist and cloud and receive annual rainfall totals of 300 inches. On the other hand, the small low islands have a moderate rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year and temperatures are more equable. There is a great contrast in vegetation cover between the windward sides of the larger islands with its evergreen rain forest, and the dry leeward sides with its mainly treeless 'talasiga' land. Tropical rain forest extends up the sides of even the highest mountains. Much however has been destroyed and much cultivated and allowed to revert to secondary forest, bamboo and reeds. Mangrove swamps flourish in the deltas and along the shores. The many small coral and limestone islands have little spontaneous vegetation because of their thin sandy soils.
The total population at the last census, which was on 12th September 1966, was 476,727. This was made up as follows: Fijian 202,176(42:41 per cent), Indian 240,960 (50-55 per cent), European 6,590 (1:38 per cent), Part-European 9,687 (2:03 per cent), Chinese 5,149 (1•08 per cent) and other Pacific Islanders 12,165 (2:55 per cent). At the end of 1969, the estimated total population was 526,765, an increase of about 10.5 per cent. This was made up as follows: Fijian 219,893 (41.74 per cent); Indian 262,947 (49.92 per cent); European 14,365 (2.73 per cent); PartEuropean 10,341 (1.96 per cent); Chinese 5,431 (1.03 per cent) and other Pacific Islanders 13,788 (2-62 per cent).
English, Fijian and Hindustani are the main languages. English is the official language and the medium of instruction in all secondary schools.
The main religions are Christianity, Hinduism and Islam.
Registration of births in 1969 totalled 15,038. This was made up as follows: Fijian 5,854; Indian 8,281 and 903 others. These figures emphasised the success of the family planning campaign and represented a birth rate of 28.97 per 1,000. A target birth rate of 25 per 1,000 by 1972 has been set.
Fiji's isolation has kept it free from the major tropical diseases and the general health of the population is good. Tuberculosis, though waning, is still the main public health problem in the territory and the total number of new cases registered in 1969 was 358, a decrease from 541 cases in 1968. The decrease emphasised the success of the mobile Survey Units which have now covered the whole colony.
Government spending on medical services in 1969 was estimated at $3,145,737.
Voluntary bodies are responsible for the maintenance of the great majority of the territory's schools and while education is not yet free it is heavily subsidised by the Government.
Primary schools are staffed in the main by government teachers and grants are
paid towards the salaries of untrained teachers where trained ones are not available. Grants are also payable to controlling authorities to enable them to remit fees in necessitous cases, and supplies of basic textbooks are issued free to all primary schools. At the secondary level assistance takes the form of grant-in-aid including the posting of government teachers to non-government schools, and provision for free or partly free places. All schools are eligible to receive building grants and there is provision for some assistance for school hostels.
While primary education is not universal, an estimated 86 per cent of children of school age were in school in 1969 and it is estimated that a further 3 per cent of these children will be admitted in future while a considerable, though steadily declining proportion of them have attended school but have left before completing the eight-year course.
The secondary academic course lasts for 4 to 5 years, leading through the Fiji Junior Certificate examination in the second year to the New Zealand or Cambridge School Certificate examination in the 3rd or 4th year and the New Zealand University Entrance examination in the 4th or 5th year. Post University Entrance courses are provided at the University of the South Pacific.
In 1969 there were six government, 26 grant-aided and 23 private secondary schools, attended by 13,795 pupils. In addition 951 followed technical or vocational courses at this level and 322 attended the three primary teacher-training colleges.
The labour force is comprised mainly of Fijians and Indians and in 1969 there were approximately 34,500 people in paid employment, excluding domestic servants and casual labourers. The construction and engineering industries employ the largest percentage of the labour force, but large percentages are also employed in manufacturing and crafts, agriculture and fishing.
At the end of 1969 there was a total of 30 registered trade unions and it is estimated that more than half of the persons in wage-earning employment were members of one or the other.
The main crops produced are sugar, copra and bananas. During the year 1969 cane crops harvested were 2,339,376 tons; about 299,242 tons of raw sugar were produced and 316,845 tons valued at approximately F $28,134,288 were exported.
Production of copra in 1969 was 33,089 tons of which 1,595 tons valued at F$249,750 were exported. About 8,084 tons of oil-seed cake and meal valued at F$384,189 and 17,131 tons of coconut oil valued at F$3,909,069 were exported. Banana exports to New Zealand in 1969 totalled 89,896 cases valued at $287,710.
Figures for livestock are: cattle 140,447; pigs 24,448; goats 66,151 and 24,769 horses. Beef production in 1969 totalled 7,878,000 lbs; an increase of 17 per cent from the total output in 1968 (6,740,000 lbs). The total pork output in 1969 was 553,000 lbs, an increase of 15 per cent from the 1968 output of 481,000 lbs.
During 1969 about 3,741,090 cubic feet of round timber was produced.
The principal mineral resources at present being exploited are gold, silver and manganese ore.
Exports in 1969 were as follows:
91,572 fine ounces
37,951 fine ounces Copper metal
0:32 ton Copper concentrates 2,298 tons Manganese ore..
Copper metal is contained in telluride concentrates exported from the Emperor Gold Mine. Copper concentrates were produced from the Udu Copper Mine which was closed down due to the exhaustion of ore reserves.
The ports of entry of the territory are Suva, Lautoka and Levuka. Other places of call are Labasa, Vuda Point, Vatia, Ellington, Savusavu and Naikorokoro. During 1969 Suva handled 374,861 tons of cargo and the remainder of the ports 722,377 tons.
During the year 1969 the main imports were: food, drink and tobacco F$16,965,412; mineral fuels, lubricants etc. F$8,376,461; chemicals F$5,116,522; fibres, yarns, textiles and related products F$15,316,276; machinery and transport equipment F$16,760,933; miscellaneous manufactured articles F$11,548,284. The principal countries of origin of imports during 1969 were: Australia F$19,654,448; United Kingdom F$15,456,791; Japan F$11,058,639; New Zealand F$7,264,726; USA F$3,690,196; Hong Kong F$2,804,066; Iran F$2,656,643; Singapore F$2,546,217; South Korea F$1,895,109; India F$1,375,812; Aden F$1,084,376; Federal Germany F$903,714; Canada F5835,688 and Switzerland F$667,653. In February 1969, decimal currency was introduced into Fiji. The Fiji dollar has parity with the Australian dollar. (F$2.09=£ stg 1).
Nadi International Airport, some four miles from Nadi township on the western coast of Viti Levu, comprises one of the largest airport complexes in the South Pacific. The airport has two runways, one 10,700 feet and the other 7,000 feet by 150 feet in width. Located in the airport control tower is the Fiji Flight Information Centre which is responsible for all flights within the airspace of the Fiji Flight Information Region. The South Pacific main meteorological office is situated on the airport and apart from collecting weather observations over a large area of the South Pacific on a 24-hour basis provides route and terminal forecasts for all trunk route regional aircraft operating in the area. Weather forecasts are provided for shipping as well as weather information for Fiji and other territories in the area. A Rescue Co-ordination Centre forms part of the airport complex and the whole is served by a comprehensive communications centre which provides communication connections on a world-wide basis. The trunk route operators providing services through Nadi Airport are Qantas, Air New Zealand, B.0.A.C., Pan American, U.T.A., Air India and C.P.A. Connections are provided to Sydney, Auckland, Hawaii, Tahiti, New Caledonia on routes East and West to Europe via U.S.A., Canada, Mexico and the Middle and Far East, and services via Sydney-Perth to South Africa, Sydney to the Far East or Middle East and Noumea to Singapore, the Middle East and Europe. Nadi Airport is the traffic centre of the South Pacific.
Suva, which is approximately 132 miles from Nadi by road, is served by Nausori Airport which is 14 miles from Suva. Nausori Airport is an international, regional and domestic airport and the operational and maintenance base of Fiji Airways. It has a runway 6,000 feet in length and equipped for night operations. Fiji Airways operates regional services to Western Samoa, the Kingdom of Tonga and the Western Pacific High Commission territories of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, the New Hebrides, Port Moresby in Papua, New Guinea and the newly independent island of Nauru. Polynesian Airlines of Western Samoa operates services between Apia, Nadi and Tonga using DC.3 aircraft. Fiji Airways operate a fleet comprising three HS. 748s, two DC.3s and three Herons. In the Gilbert Islands, Fiji Airways