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proposals for further constitutional reform were submitted to the British Government and a new Constitution was introduced in 1954 with an all-African Cabinet and a Legislature of 104 members elected by direct suffrage. This was the Constitution in force up to the date of Independence. The Governor retained only certain reserved powers, including responsibility in his discretion for external affairs (including Togoland under United Kingdom trusteeship), defence and the police. In 1955 Sir Frederick Bourne, a former Governor of East Bengal, was, at the request of the Gold Coast Government, appointed Constitutional Adviser and in December of that year he published his recommendations which were mainly concerned with safeguarding the interests of the Regions. On 11th May 1956 the Colonial Secretary announced that if a general election were held in the Gold Coast the British Government would be prepared to accept a motion calling for independence within the Commonwealth passed by a reasonable majority in a newly elected Legislature, and then to declare a firm date for the attainment of independence within the Commonwealth. A general election was accordingly held in July 1956, and Dr Nkrumah's Party (the Convention People's Party) was returned with a majority of over twothirds of the Legislative Assembly. The new Assembly approved a motion requesting the British Government to initiate legislation to provide for the independence of the Gold Coast as a sovereign and independent State within the Commonwealth under the name of Ghana'; on 18th September the Colonial Secretary announced the British Government's intention to do so and that, subject to Parliamentary approval, independence should come about on 6th March 1957. In May 1956 a plebiscite was held under United Nations' auspices in the Trust territory of Togoland as a result of which the United Nations agreed that the Trusteeship Agreement should end on the attainment of Independence by the Gold Coast. On the 6th March 1957 Ghana attained complete independence as a fully self-governing Member of the Commonwealth with the Queen as Sovereign.
Following a plebiscite held in April 1960 a Republican Constitution was adopted by the National Assembly on 29th June 1960. On 21st February 1964, Ghana formally became a one-party state, the national party being the Convention People's Party. A general election was held in June 1965 and all 198 candidates nominated by the C.P.P. were returned unopposed.
On 24th February 1966 a coup d'état by the army and the police overthrew President Nkrumah while he was visiting Peking. The National Liberation Council consisting of four representatives each from the army and police was set up under the chairmanship of Major-General J. A. Ankrah, subsequently appointed Lieutenant-General. (Lieutenant-General E. K. Kotoka, one of the members of the N.L.C. was killed on 17th April 1967 in an abortive coup. He was not replaced on the N.L.C.). The N.L.C. dissolved the National Assembly and the C.P.P. and repealed the Constitution. On 18th November 1966, the N.L.C. appointed a Constitutional Commission, headed by the Chief Justice, to draft a new Constitution. This finished its work in January 1968, and the draft Constitution was published the next month. In December of that year the N.L.C. set up a Constituent Assembly to amend and approve the draft.
In April 1969 General Ankrah, after admitting involvement in the financing of politicians, resigned from the N.L.C. and was replaced as Chairman by Brigadier A. A. Afrifa.
The ban on political activity was lifted on 1st May 1969. On 22nd August 1969, the Constituent Assembly promulgated the new Constitution and approved the
setting up of a 3-man Presidential Commission, which was inaugurated on 3rd September. The Commission was unexpectedly dissolved on 30th July 1970, and, in accordance with the Constitution, the functions of President will be performed in the interim by the Speaker of the National Assembly, Mr Justice N. A. Ollennu. The new President is to be elected by a Presidential Electoral College.
General elections were held on 29th August 1969 in which Dr K. A. Busia's Progress Party won 105 seats and Mr K. A. Gbedemah's National Alliance of Liberals 29, the remaining 6 seats being won by minority parties. Dr Busia was subsequently appointed Prime Minister. The N.L.C. formally handed over the Civilian Government on 1st October 1969.
GOVERNORS GENERAL Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke, GCMG, 6th March to 5th May 1957 William Francis Hare, 5th Earl of Listowel, PC, GCMG, Sth May 1957 to 30th June 1960
CHAIRMAN OF NATIONAL LIBERATION COUNCIL
Brigadier A. A. Afrifa, Dso, 2nd April 1969 to 30th September 1969
COUNCIL OF STATE
Mrs E. N. Hesse
Nana Kwamina Anaisie IV
Dr I. B. Asafu-Adjaye
Minister of Interior: Hon. S. D. Dombo
Minister of Local Administration: Hon. K. K. Anti
Minister of Works: Hon. S. W. Awuku-Darko
Minister of Health: Hon. G. D. Ampaw
Minister of Agriculture: Hon. Dr K. Safo-Adu
Minister of Housing: Hon. Dr W. Bruce-Konuah
Minister of State: Hon. K. G. Osei-Bonsu
SUPREME COURT JUDGES
(to be appointed)
APPEAL COURT JUDGES
Justice Annie Jiagge
Justice P. E. N. K. Archer
Justice S. Azu-Crabbe
Justice A. N. E. Amissah
HIGH COURT JUDGES
Justice J. S. A. Anterkyi
Justice S. Baidoo
Justice E. Edusei
Justice C. A. Owusu
Justice V. C. R. A. C. Crabbe
Justice Mensa Boison
Commander Ghana Navy: Commodore P. F. Quaye
BANK OF GHANA
DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATION GHANAIAN HIGH COMMISSIONERS IN (Acting); Nigeria: Victor Adeyeye
OTHER COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES Adegoroye; Pakistan: Ali Arshad; Sierra Australia: H. V. H. Sekyi; Canada: Major Leone: J. C. W. Porter (Acting); Uganda: Seth K. Anthony; India: P. K. Owusu
L. S. E. Avua.
GHANAIAN REPRESENTATION IN NON(vacant); United Kingdom: A. B. Attafua;
COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES Uganda: J. C. Bonney (Deputy High Algeria; Belgium; Brazil; Congo (Kinshasa); Commissioner).
Czechoslovakia; Dahomey; Denmark;
Ethiopia; France; Geneva; Federal Republic COMMONWEALTH High COMMISSIONERS
of Germany; Israel; Italy; Ivory Coast; IN GHANA
Japan; Lebanon; Liberia; Mali; Mexico; Australia: Richard A. Woolcott; Britain: Morocco; New York (United Nations); H. K. Matthews, CMG, MBE; Canada: D. B. Netherlands; Senegal; Sudan; Switzerland; Hicks; Ceylon: C. Mahendran (Acting); Togo; Tunisia; U.S.S.R.; U.A.R.; U.S.A.; India: A. Š. Mehta; Malaysia: Yusof Ariff Upper Volta; Yugoslavia.
GUYANA UYANA lies on the north-east shoulder of the South American continent between latitudes 1° and 9° N. and longitudes 56° and 62° W. It is 83,000
square miles in area. The Atlantic sea-coast stretches for 270 miles; from it the land extends southwards into the interior for about 450 miles. Its borders are with Venezuela to the west, Brazil to the south and Surinam to the east. The country has three distinct geographical areas—the coastal belt, the forest area
and the savannah zone. The narrow coastal belt, which is generally about 10 miles in width (though it runs inland for up to 40 miles along the banks of the main rivers), and which accounts for only 4 per cent of the total area, is intensively cultivated and contains 90 per cent of the population. It lies 4 to 5 feet below sea level at high tide and is dependent upon an elaborate system of dams, walls and groynes to protect it from the sea. The flatness of the coast necessitates an equally elaborate system of drainage canals.
Behind the coastal zone the land rises, gently at first, to an area of dense rain forest and mountains. Minerals are found in this area, the most valuable being bauxite, diamonds, gold and manganese. In the south-west the forest gives way to some open savannah country, usually known as the Rupununi, although the Rupununi District is much more extensive than the savannah area. The highest point is Mount Roraima (9,094 feet) in the Pakaraima range. The sparse population of this area is predominantly Amerindian.
Guyana is notable for its mighty rivers, the four best known being the Demerara, Berbice, Essequibo and Corentyne. They are ot limited navigational value because of the many rapids, bars and falls. By far the largest river is the Essequibo. Georgetown, the capital, lies at the mouth of the Demerara. The left bank of the Corentyne forms the boundary with Surinam. The most spectacular of the numerous waterfalls and rapids is Kaieteur Falls on the Poraro River which has a drop of 741 feet, nearly five times the height of Niagara Falls. In the north-west several rivers flow north-west towards the mouth of the Orinoco.
The climate is tropical, and there is very little temperature variation at the coast, where temperatures above 32°C (90° F) or below 24°C (75°F) at any time of the day or night are rare. There are greater temperature variations inland. Annual rainfall at the coast averages 90 inches. It is generally less in the interior but varies with altitude.
The last full census of the country took place in 1960 when the total population was 560,330. The estimated population at the end of 1969 was 720,000. Guyanese of East Indian descent account for over half the population, those of African descent for about a third; the remainder are composed of Amerindians (the aboriginal inhabitants of the country), Portuguese, Chinese and people of mixed race. Guyanese of African descent provide most of the urban and industrial community while those of East Indian descent provide most of the labour force in the sugar and rice industries. The Amerindian people live mainly in the west and south and there are a number of reserved areas for their protection.
Communications throughout the country are difficult. As mentioned above, the rivers are obstructed by rapids and falls not far from the coast. They are therefore of very limited value for communication though they do provide some sort of link with the timber and mining areas of the interior. There are roads along the coast from Charity in the Essequibo District to Springlands on the Corentyne and from Georgetown to Mackenzie and there are plans for further extensions. Air transport is the easiest means of communication between the coast and the interior and there are some 70 landing strips and landing pools in the country.
Georgetown is the main seaport, followed by New Amsterdam. Bauxite ships sail up the Demerara river as far as Mackenzie. There are 26 miles of railway track between Georgetown and Mahaica and 18 miles between Vreed-en-Hoop (across the Demerara River from Georgetown) and Parika on the Essequibo river. It was the first railway to be constructed in South America.
Education is free and universal, while free secondary education is available by competitive examination at the age of 11 years. The literacy rate is about 80 per cent. The University of Guyana, which recently moved into new buildings, has a total enrolment of about 1,800. Guyana has two broadcasting stations, the Government-operated Guyana Broadcasting Service and Radio Demerara, which is operated by a local associate of Rediffusion Ltd.
Guyana's economy is based on sugar, bauxite and rice together with gold, diamonds, timber, cattle ranching and some small scale industry.
Total exports in 1969 were G$233.7 million which included (in millions of Guyana dollars): Bauxite
94.5 Sugar ..
63.6 Rice ..
26.1 Fish (mostly shrimp)
8.1 Precious and semi-precious stones
4:7 Rum ..
2:8 In 1969 the value of Guyana's imports was G $235.8 million, of which the largest items were machinery and transport equipment. Britain, the U.S.A., Trindidad and Tobago and Canada are the major suppliers.
In 1969 Government revenue and receipts were G$147.5 million and expenditure G$154.8 million.
Guyana is an Amerindian word meaning Land of Waters. This name was originally given to the territory on the north east of the South American continent which is drained by several large rivers, the most important being the Amazon, Orinoco, Demerara, Berbice, Essequibo and Corentyne. From this territory, five Guianas emerged: Spanish Guiana (now Venezuela), Portuguese Guiana (now Brazil), French Guiana, Dutch Guiana (now Surinam) and British Guiana (now Guyana).
The coastline was first traced by Spanish sailors in 1499 and 1500 and the first European settlements were almost certainly Spanish or Portuguese. The Dutch established a settlement on the Pomeroon in 1581 but were evicted by Spanish and Amerindians about 1596, after which they retired to a settlement up the Essequibo River. In 1627 Dutch merchants settled on the Berbice River. The Dutch West India Company, formed in 1621, controlled these settlements.
British attempts at settlement were made in 1604, 1609 and 1629, but no permanent settlements were established. A British settlement was founded in Surinam in 1651 but this was captured by the Dutch in 1667. In October of the same year it was recaptured by a British expedition. The Dutch finally obtained possession of Surinam in mid-1668 in accordance with the Treaty of Breda.
Meanwhile, the Dutch were in possession of that part of the area which is now Guyana. Although yielding intermittently to Britain, France and Portugal, they retained their hold on the territory until 1796 when it was captured by the British. It was restored to the Dutch in 1802, but in the following year was retaken by Great Britain. At that time the territory comprised the separate colonies of Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice. These were finally ceded to Great Britain in 1814.
The Courts of Policy and the Combined Courts, the legislature and executive