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1960, following a conference in London during January and February of that year.

Full internal self-government followed a conference in London in early 1962. A National Coalition Government supported by the two main political parties, the Kenya African National Union and the Kenya African Democratic Union, was set up. The chief instrument of government was the Council of Ministers, consisting of sixteen Ministers of whom two were civil servants. Of the fourteen unofficial Ministers, eleven were African, two European and one Asian. Parliamentary Secretaries were appointed by the Governor. Upper and Lower Houses of Parliament were established, the former consisting of one member from each existing District and certain non-voting members representing special interests, and the latter consisting of members elected by universal adult suffrage.

Ministerial talks were held in London in June 1963 to consider the question of Kenya's independence. During the discussions the Kenya Ministers outlined the progress made in working out the constitution for a proposed East African Federation, which it was hoped might comprise Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda, and possibly also Zanzibar if it so wished. It was agreed that it was desirable that Kenya should become independent before a Federation could be inaugurated. A conference was held in London in September and October 1963 to settle the final form of Kenya's constitution and Kenya became an independent Member of the Commonwealth on 12th December 1963.


The Independence Constitution provided for a Governor-General to be appointed by Her Majesty The Queen and a Parliament consisting of Her Majesty and a bi-cameral legislature, the National Assembly, comprising a Senate and a House of Representatives. The constitution also provided for Regional Assemblies for each of the seven regions, each with a President and a Vice-President elected from within their own membership. The Regional Assemblies were given exclusive legislative competence in some matters and concurrent legislative competence with Parliament in others.

The Constitution (Amendments) Act 1964 and 1965 provided for Kenya to become a Republic with a President as Head of State, Head of the Cabinet and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, choosing his Vice-President and Cabinet from among the members of the National Assembly to whom they are collectively responsible. The President would also appoint the Chief Justice, Chief Commissioner of Police and most senior civil servants. The first President was to be the Prime Minister in office immediately before 12th December 1964 (i.e. Mr Kenyatta) and was thereafter to be chosen by a majority of members of the House of Representatives. These acts also drastically reduced the powers and financial resources given to the Regional Assemblies by the Independence Constitution. These became Provincial Councils and were eventually abolished altogether by a further amendment in July 1967. During the passage of the 1964 Amendment Act the KADU opposition party, which had favoured the regional constitution, dissolved itself and joined the governing party KANU.

A further amendment in May 1965 reduced the majorities needed in the House of Representatives and the Senate to amend any clauses of the Constitution to a 65 per cent majority of all members of each House and provided that thenceforth no clauses should be specially entrenched as certain clauses had been in the Independence Constitution.

Following the resignation in April 1966 of the Vice-President, Mr Odinga, and his formation of a new Opposition Party, the K.P.U. (Kenya People's Union), a Constitutional Amendment Act was passed requiring those members who changed their party allegiance to seek re-election. In the “Little General Election" held in June 1966, KANU gained a majority of the contested seats but Mr Odinga was returned to lead the KPU, later recognised as the official Parliamentary Opposition.

Another Constitutional Amendment Act was passed in December 1966 to enable the Senate to be amalgamated with the House of Representatives as a unicameral National Assembly with 158 elected Members and 12 specially elected members chosen by the elected members. The constituency boundaries were redrawn to give each Senator a constituency including at least a part of his former district. The Act also provided for the postponement of the General Election due in 1968 until June 1970.

Yet another Constitutional Amendment Act was passed in June 1968. This provided that the President would in future be elected by popular vote and that, should the President die or become incapacitated in office, a general election to choose a new President must be held within 90 days. It is also laid down that in future both Presidential and Parliamentary candidates must be nominated by a registered political party. It further provided that the 12 specially elected members of the National Assembly should in future be nominated by the President.

The remaining clauses of the Independence Constitution and the subsequent amendments were consolidated into the Constitution of Kenya Bill 1968 which was passed by the National Assembly in December 1968.

A bill which introduced the primary system for the selection of party parliamentary candidates was passed in 1969. It is also intended that this system will be extended to local Government elections.

In October 1969 following the disturbances during President Kenyatta's visit to Kisumu, the KPU was banned and its leaders detained making Kenya a de facto one party state.

The first post-independence General Election held in December 1969 resulted in the unopposed return of President Kenyatta and of those parliamentary candidates who had suceeded in the KANU party primary elections. The new administration was formed on 22nd December 1969.


Starting in 1961 and 1962 when Kenya was approaching Independence, several schemes for the transfer of mixed farming land from European to African ownership were put into operation with a view to increasing African participation in all sectors of Kenya's economic life and satisfying the aspiration to land ownership among the landless and unemployed.

The British and Kenya Governments agreed on a programme almost entirely financed by British loans and grants for the purchase of approximately one million acres of European-owned mixed farming land and its division into smallholdings for settlement by African farmers. Parallel with the Million Acre Settlement Scheme, the Agricultural Finance Corporation and Land Bank operated schemes to assist African farmers to purchase former Europeanowned farms.

A further programme of land transfer and settlement, also financed by the British Government, began in 1966 and to date a further 158,000 acres of mixed farming land has been taken over by the Agricultural Development Corporation. Some of this land is held as national farms and some leased or sold to African large-scale farmers. The A.F.C., also with British aid, continues to provide loans to assist African farmers to purchase farms privately, and further settlement schemes are in preparation.

It is generally recognised that Kenya's land reform programme is one of the most successful ever.


PRIME MINISTER The Hon. Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, MP, 12th December 1963 to 11th December 1964

(re-elected 20th December 1969)

The Hon. Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, MP, from 12th December 1964

(re-elected 20th December 1969)


The Government Party, the Kenya African National Union, holds all 170 seats in the National Assembly.

President: His Excellency The Hon. Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, MP
Vice-President and Minister of Home Affairs: The Hon. D. T. arap Moi, MP

Minister of Finance: The Hon. Mwai Kibaki, EGH, MP
Minister of Economic Planning and Development: Dr Zakaria Onyonka, MP

Minister of Foreign Affairs: Dr Njoroge Mungai, EGH, MP

Minister of Defence: The Hon. James Samuel Gichuru, EGH, MP
Minister of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry: The Hon. B. R. McKenzie, DSO, DPC, MP

Minister of Health: The Hon. Isaac Omolo-Okero, MP
Minister of Local Government: The Hon. Julius Gikonyo Kiano, EG H, MP

Minister of Works: The Hon. James Nyamweya, EG H, MP
Minister of Power and Communications: The Hon. Ronald Gideon Ngala, EGH, EBS, MP

Minister of Labour: The Hon. E. N. Mwemdwa, MP
Minister of Tourism and Wildlife: The Hon. Juxon Shako, MP
Minister of Lands and Settlement: The Hon. J. H. Angaine, MP

Minister of Housing: The Hon. P. J. Ngei, MP
The Attorney-General: The Hon. C. Njonjo, MP

Minister of Information and Broadcasting:

The Hon. Jeremiah Joseph Mwaniki Nyagah, EGH, MP
Minister of Natural Resources: The Hon. William Odongo Omamo, MP
Minister of Co-operatives: The Hon. Henry Masinde Muliro, EBS, MP

Minister of Commerce and Industry:
The Hon. James Charles Nakhwanga Osogo, EG H, MP

Minister of Education: The Hon. Taita arap Towett, MP
Minister of East African Affairs (Finance): The Hon. R. J. Ouko

President's Office: The Hon. Mbiyu Koinange, MP


Vice-President's Office:
The Hon. R. S. Matano, MP; The Hon. Joseph Martin Shikuku, MP

Ministry of Finance: The Hon. S. M. Balala, MP
Ministry of Economic Planning and Development: The Hon. Abdi Sirad Khalif, MP

Ministry of Defence: The Hon. J. Njeru, MP

Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry:
The Hon. Maina Wanjigi, MP; The Hon. Joseph Wafula Khaoya, MP
Ministry of Health: The Hon. Stanley Chapachina, Oloitipitip, MP;

The Hon. Mohamed Mwinyintwana Jahazi, MP
Ministry of Local Government: The Hon. Mathews Joseph Ugutu, MP;

The Hon. N. W. Munoko, MP
Ministry of Works: The Hon. John Keen, MP;

The Hon. Ngibuini Davidson Kuguru, MP

Ministry of Power and Communications: The Hon. D. C. N. Moss, MP;

The Hon. Harry James Onamu, MP
Ministry of Labour: The Hon. F. P. K. Kubai, MP;

The Hon. P. F. Kibisu, MP
Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife: The Hon. Jan Mohamed, MP;

The Hon. J. M. Kariuki, MP
Ministry of Lands and Settlement: The Hon. J. M. Gachago, MP;

The Hon. S. Mohamed, MP
Ministry of Housing: The Hon. E. E. Khasakhala, MP; The Hon. E. K. K. Bomet, MP
Ministry of Information and Broadcasting: The Hon. J. Z. Kase, MP;

The Hon. O. Makone, MP
Ministry of Natural Resources: The Hon. A. Ochwada, MP;

The Hon. S. M. Kioko, MP
Ministry of Co-operatives: The Hon. L. K. Ngureti, MP; The Hon. K. Cherono, MP
Ministry of Commerce and Industry: The Hon. B. Wood, MP;

The Hon. M. Anyieni, MP
Ministry of Education: The Hon. P. N. Mbai, MP; The Hon. C. W. Rubia, MP

Ministry of East African Affairs: The Hon. G. N. Kalya, MP
Assistant Minister for Foreign Affairs: The Hon. B. Nabwera, MP;

The Hon. L. Oguda, MP

Speaker: The Hon. F. M. G. Mati, MP
Deputy Speaker: The Hon. Dr Wajaki, MP
Clerk to the National Assembly: L. J. Ngugi

First Clerk Assistant: G. C. Opundo
Second Clerk Assistant: J. 0. Kimoro
Third Clerk Assistant: R. V. Mugo
Sergeant-at-Arms: J. Barasa

Chief Justice: Mr Justice M. Kitili Mwendwa

Puisne Judges:
Mr Justice A. D. Farrell

Mr Justice C. H. E. Miller
Mr Justice J. Wicks

Mr Justice L. G. E. Harris
Mr Justice C. B. Madan

Mr Justice A. H. Simpson
Mr Justice E. Trevelyan

Mr Justice K. G. Bennett
Mr Justice Chanan Singh

Mr Justice A. R. W. Hancox
Registrar: A. A. Kneller


Permanent Secretary and Secretary to the Permanent Secretary: J. M. Kyalo

Cabinet: G. K. Kariithi
Permanent Secretary and Director of


Permanent Secretary: J. A. Omanga
Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs:
D. C. Mlamba


Permanent Secretary: J. W. Mureithi
Permanent Secretary: G. S. K. Boit


Permanent Secretary: P. Shiyukah
Permanent Secretary: J. Michuki



Permanent Secretary: S. Ogembo
Permanent Secretary: J. G. Kibe


Permanent Secretary: T. Mbathi
Permanent Secretary: J. K. Njoroge


Permanent Secretary: P. Ndegwa

Permanent Secretary: T. J. Ramtu

MINISTRY OF LANDS AND SETTLEMENT Permanent Secretary: P. J. Gachathi

Permanent Secretary:J. K. arap Koitie

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KENYAN REPRESENTATIVES IN OTHER Konoso; Lesotho: P. M. Mabathoama;

Botswana: (vacant).
High Commissioner in the United Kingdom: KENYAN REPRESENTATION IN NON-
Ng'ethe Njoroge

High Commissioner in India: P. L. Odero

China (Ambassador); Congo (Kinshasa)
High Commissioner in Zambia: (vacant)

(Ambassador); France (Ambassador) (resi-
dent in Bonn); Germany (Ambassador);

Holy See (Ambassador) (resident in London);
COMMONWEALTH HIGH COMMISSIONERS Iraq (Ambassador) (resident in Cairo);

Israel (Ambassador) (resident in Addis

Ababa); Somali Republic (Ambassador); Britain: Sir Eric Norris, KCMG; Canada: Sweden (Ambassador); United Arab RepubJ. M. Cook; Australia: (vacant); India: lic (Ambassador); United Nations (RepreAvtar Singh; Pakistan: M. K. Khan; sentative); United States (Ambassador) Ghana: (vacant); Nigeria: I. C. Olisemeka; (resident in New York); U.S.S.R. (AmbassaMalawi: J. Kachingwe; Zambia: Dr D. K. dor).



ESOTHo lies between latitudes 28° 35' an 30° 40' S. and longitudes 27° and 29° 30' E. It is a mountainous country wholly surrounded by South

Africa, with Natal to the east, Cape Province to the south and the Orange Free State to the north and west. Out of the total area of 11,716 square miles, about one-third lying along the western and southern boundaries, is classed as 'lowland and is between 5,000 feet and 6,000 feet above sea level. The remainder of the country, the 'highlands', is mostly between 7,000 feet and 9,000 feet above sea level. The two main mountain ranges are the Maluti Mountains and the Drakensberg range, which run from north to south. The Maluti, in the central part of the country, are spurs of the main Drakensberg range, which they join in the north forming a high plateau. The highest mountains are in the Drakensberg range, which forms the border with Natal, where Cathkin Peak, Giant's Castle and Mont-aux-Sources are all over 10,000 feet high. The highest mountain is Thabana Ntlenyana, 11,425 feet high.

Two of the largest rivers in the Republic of South Africa, the Orange and the Tugela, and the tributaries of the Caledon, have their sources in the mountains of Lesotho. The climate is generally healthy and pleasant. Rainfall is variable and averages about 29 inches a year over the greater part of the country. Most of the rain falls during the summer months between October and April but there is normally no month which has less than half an inch of rain. The winters are normally dry with heavy frosts in the lowlands. Temperatures in the lowlands vary from about 32.2°C (90°F) in summer to a minimum of -6.7°C (20°F) in winter. In the highlands the range is much wider and temperatures below freezing point are common. Snow falls frequently in the highlands in winter but only rarely in the lowlands.

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