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PRESIDENT'S Secretariat (PUBLIC) Principal Staff Officer to the President: Lieutenant-General S. G. M. M. Peerzada,


PRESIDENT'S Secretariat (PerSONAL) Military Secretary to the President: MajorGeneral Mohammad Ishaq

CABINET SECRETARIAT (including Establishment Division) Secretary: M. H. Sufi, s Pk, SQA, CSP


Minister: Ahsan-ul-Haque, SQA Secretary: V. A. Jaffery, SQA, CSP


Minister: Dr G. W. Choudhury Secretary: Ali Hasan, SQA, TPK, CSP


Secretary: S. Ghiasuddin Ahmed, HQA, SPk, SQA, CSP

ECONOMIC Affairs DIVISION Secretary: S. S. Iqbal Hussain, SQA, PMAS

EDUCATION AND Scientific Research Minister: M. Shamsul Huq

Secretary: Dr Z. A. Hashmi, SQA


Minister: Nawab Mozaffar Ali Khan Qizilbash

Secretary: Ghulam Ishaq Khan, HQA, SP,


Minister: Mahmoud A. Haroon
Secretary: A. K. M. Ahsan, TQA, CSP

Secretary: S. M. Khan, SQA, PFS
Additional Secretary: Mumtaz A. Alvie,



Minister: Dr Abdul Motaleb Malik
Secretary: Mian Riazuddin Ahmad, CSP


Minister: Sardar Abdul Rashid
Secretary: A. M. S. Ahmed, SPK, SK, TQA,


INDUSTRIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES Minister: A. K. M. Hafizuddin, SPL, SQA Secretary: A. G. N. Kazi, s PK, SK, CSP

INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING Minister: Nawabzada Mohammad Sher Ali Khan, HJ

Secretary Syud Ahmed, TPK, CIS

Minister: A. R. Cornelius, HPK
Secretary: Justice Mohammed Gul, SK
Attorney-General Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada,

Deputy Chairman: M. M. Ahmad, HQA
Secretaries: Qamar-ul-Islam, SPK, SQA, CSP
and A. Rab, SQA, EPCS



Australia: M. Aslam Malik; Britain: Solman
A. Ali, SQA; Canada: M. S. Sheikh; Ceylon:
A. A. Sheikh; Cyprus: M. R. Ahmed (resi-
dent in Beirut); Gambia: Mohd. Shahryar
Khan (resident in Dakar); Ghana: Ali
Arshad; Guyana: (resident in Ottawa);
Hong Kong: Ahmad Ali Khan (Trade Com-
missioner); India: Sajjad Hyder, SQA;
Jamaica: (resident in Washington); Kenya:
Air Vice-Marshal Mohammed Khyber Khan
SQA ; Malaysia : S Irtiza Hussain;
Malta: Hamid Nawaz Khan (resident in
Rome); Mauritius: A. F. Bashirul Alam
(Acting High Commissioner); New Zealand:
(resident in Canberra); Nigeria: Dr S. M.
Koreshi; Sierra Leone: (resident in Accra);
Singapore: H. Imam (resident in Rangoon);
Tanzania: M. R. Ahmad; Trinidad and
Tobago: (resident in Ottawa); Uganda:
(resident in Nairobi).


Australia: F. H. Stuart; Britain: Sir Cyril
Pickard, KCMG; Canada: C. J. Small;
Ceylon: Sir Razik Fareed, OBE; Ghana:

Non-resident representation.

Maj-Gen. C. C. Bruce, CBE; India: B. K. Acharya; Malaysia: Mohammed Sopieebin Shaikh Ibrahim; Nigeria: Alhaji Abdurrahman Mora.

PAKISTAN REPRESENTATION IN NON-COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES Afghanistan; Albania*; Algeria; Argentina; Austria; Belgium; Bolivia*; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burma; Cambodia*; Cameroon*; Chad*; Chile; China; Cuba*; Czechoslovakia; Dahomey*; Denmark*; Ethiopia*; Finland*; France; Gambia*; Germany; Greece; Guinea*; Holy See*; Hungary*; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Irish Republic*; Italy; Ivory Coast*; Japan; Jordan; Kuwait; Laos*; Lebanon; Liberia*; Libya; Luxembourg*; Malagasy Republic; Maldive Islands*; Mali*; Mexico; Mongolia Morocco; Nepal; Netherlands; Niger*; Norway*; Panama*; Paraguay*; Philippines; Poland (Chargé d'Affaires); Portugal; Romania; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia*; Southern Yemen; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Thailand; Togo*; Tunisia; Turkey; U.S.S.R.; U.A.R.; United Nations; U.S.A.; Upper Volta*; Uruguay*; Venezuela; Yemen; Yugoslavia.



The unification of the Province of Sind, the western part of the former Province of the Punjab, the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), the Chief Commissioner's Province of Baluchistan, and the former Princely States of Kalat, Makran, Las Bela, Kharan, Bahawalpur, Khairpur, Chitral, Dir, Swat, and Amb was effected by the Establishment of West Pakistan Act, 1955, which came into force on 14th October 1955. Karachi was merged with West Pakistan in July 1961. However, the West Pakistan Dissolution Order of 1st April 1970 announced that West Pakistan was to be divided into the four provinces of Punjab (including Bahawalpur), Sind (including Karachi), NWFP, Baluchistan and the two centrally-administered areas of Islamabad Capital Territory and the Tribal Areas. There may be changes in the present administrative arrangements outlined below. The new Provincial administration became operative on 1st July 1970.

The area of West Pakistan is 310,403 square miles and the population 42,881,000 (1961 census). The former provincial capital was Lahore.

The Province was divided into twelve Divisions with headquarters at Peshawar, Dera Ismail Khan, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Lahore, Multan, Bahawalpur, Khairpur, Hyderabad, Quetta, Kalat and Karachi.

As a result of the recommendations of the Provincial Administration Commission (1960), the Commissioner, Peshawar Division was responsible for the four Tribal Agencies of Malakand, Mohmand, Khyber and Kurram; the Commissioner, Dera Ismail Khan, was responsible for the Tribal Agencies of North and South Waziristan; and the Political Agent, Quetta was responsible for the Tribal Agency of Zhob.

Under the Martial Law Administration West Pakistan is Zone "A".
Present senior appointments:

Martial Law Administrator: Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, SPK
Chief Secretary: S. Afzal Agha, SQA, CSP

Governor: Lieutenant-General Mohammad Atiqur Rahman, HQA, SPK, MC
Senior appointments in the West Pakistan Provincial Governments:


Governor: Lieutenant-General Atiqur Rahman, HQA, SPK, MC
Chief Secretary: S. Afzal Agha, SQA, CSV


Governor: Lieutenant-General Rakhman Gul, SQA, SK, Mc
Chief Secretary: S. Mancoor Ilahi, SQA, CSP

North-West Frontier Province

Governor: Lieutenant-General Khawaja Mohammed Azhar Khan, SQA
Chief Secretary: Ejaz Ahmed Naik, TPK, CSP


Governor: Lieutenant-General Riaz Hussain, SK
Chief Secretary: Rifat Pasha Sheikh, SQA, CSP


This Province is separated from West Pakistan by Indian territory. It comprises the Eastern part of the former Province of Bengal, together with Sylhet District, formerly part of Assam. The area is 55,126 square miles and the population 50,840,235 (1961 census). The provincial capital is Dacca.

The various districts of the Province are grouped into four Divisions with headquarters at Dacca, Chittagong, Rajshahi and Khulna.

Under the Martial Law Administration East Pakistan is Zone "B".

Martial Law Administrator: Lieutenant-General S. M. Yaqub Khan, SPK
Chief Secretary: S. M. Shafiul Azam, SQA, CSP
Governor: Vice-Admiral S. M. Ahsan, HQA, SPK, DSC


The best known of the titles specifically bestowed on individuals are Quaid-i-Azam, 'The Great Leader' (bestowed on Mr Mohammed Ali Jinnah), and Quaid-i-Millat, 'The Leader of the Nation' (bestowed on Mr Liaqat Ali Khan).

The honorific titles in use in Pakistan are not in all cases capable of accurate rendering into English by way of translation or equivalence, but may be classed in various groups. Thus among prefixes Amir, Jan, Mehtar, Mir, Nawab and Wali are titles of nobility borne by territorial rulers; Chaudhury, Khan, Malik, Mian, Mir and Sardar denote a tribal chieftain or a landowner; Nawabzada and Khanzada indicate sons of rulers; Imam, Kazi, Maulana, Maulvi, Molla (Mullah) and Mufti indicate a religious leader, while Khwaja, and Pir denote descent from a saint, and Sayyid or Syed descent from the Prophet. Al-Haj or Haji indicates one who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca, Shaikh or Sheikh was originally an indication of a leader, perhaps of Arab descent, but has now generally become part of the name and has no special significance. The suffix Khan has also become part of the name, but usually indicates Pathan descent.

Mr and Begum are used for Mr and Mrs respectively but it is incorrect to use Mr where an honorific of any kind prefixes the name.


Pakistan Civil Awards consist of five Orders: The Order of Pakistan (Pk), for services of the highest distinction to the State; The Order of Shujaat (St), for acts of the greatest heroism and most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger; The Order of Imtiaz (I), for conspicuously distinguished services in literature, art, sports or science; The Order of Quaid-i-Azam (QA), for special merit or for eminent service in the civil, military, or any other field of national activity; The Order of Khidmat (K), for meritorious service.

The Orders have four descending Classes, viz: Nishan (N), Hilal (H), Sitara (S) and Tamgha (T). The Order of Pakistan, First Class, is, for example, Nishan-i-Pakistan (NPK) and the Order of Khidmat, Third Class, is Sitara-i-Khidmat (SK), the Class preceding the title of the Order and being followed by -i-. The -i- is, however, omitted in the abbreviated forms.


Awards for the Armed Forces are in order of seniority: Nishan-i-Haider (NH) for acts of the greatest heroism; Hilal-i-Juraat (HJ); Sitara-i-Juraat (SJ); Tamgha-i-Juraat (TJ); Tamgha-i-Basalat (TIB); Tamgha-i-Khidmat (TK); Tamgha-i-Difa'd (TD).


IERRA LEONE lies on the west coast of Africa between 6° 55' and 10° N. latitude and 10° 16′ and 13° 18′ W. longitude. Its 210-mile sea coast extends

enclosing Sierra Leone inland. The total area of Sierra Leone is 27,925 square miles. Sierra Leone is the only West African country with a hilly coastline and the name is a derivation of the Portuguese for 'Lion Mountain'. It was given to this part of the coast by Pedro de Cintra in about 1462, when lions may have been common, though there are none there now. De Cintra's expedition was one of the last great Portuguese voyages of discovery carried out under the direct influence and authority of Don Henry (Henry the Navigator) who died the following year.

The highest mountains are inland and include Bintimani (also known as Loma Mansa) in the Loma mountain range near the Guinea border to the

north-east, 6,390 feet, and Sankan-Biriwa, 6,080 feet. The main estuaries navigable by ocean vessels are the Sierra Leone river and the Sherbro river, while small craft can travel certain distances on the Great and Little Scarcies, Bangru, Jong, Sewa, Waanje and Moa rivers. The source of the Niger which runs into the sea at Port Harcourt, Nigeria, is just within the north-eastern boundary.

There are two distinct seasons: the dry season from October to May and the rainy season for the rest of the year. The heaviest rainfall is on the coast from July to September. The annual rainfall ranges from 75 inches to more than 130 inches, with 250 inches at Guma Valley, 10 miles south of the capital, Freetown. The mean temperature is 80°F with little variation. At the beginning of the dry season the country experiences the harmattan, a dry, sand-laden wind from the Sahara.

The last census, in 1963, showed a population of 2,183,000 of whom 195,000 lived in the Freetown peninsula.

The official language is English while the main languages in the Provinces are Mende, Temne and Krio (or Creole). There are, however, at least thirteen tribes living in Sierra Leone, each of which has its own language.

The University of Sierra Leone was created in 1967. It consists of two constituent Colleges-Fourah Bay College, the oldest institution of higher education in West Africa, and Njala University College. The Milton Margai Teachers College near Freetown caters for secondary school teachers, and there are eight primary teacher training colleges situated throughout the country.

In the Western Province there are 23 secondary schools, while the other areas of Sierra Leone now have a further 46 secondary schools. 976 primary schools are now operating throughout the country. The literacy percentages are given as 38 per cent for the Western Province and 7-7 per cent for the whole country. The main religions are Christianity and Islam.

Outside the Freetown peninsula, which is officially known as the Western Area, the country is divided into the Southern, Eastern and Northern Provinces, and the provinces are further divided into twelve Districts. The Southern Province includes the Districts of Bo, Bonthe, Moyamba and Pujehun, with headquarters of the administration located at Bo. The Eastern Province includes the Districts of Kenema, Kailahun and Kono, with provincial headquarters at Kenema. The Northern Province comprises the Districts of Bombali, Kambia, Koinadugu, Port Loko and Tonkolili and the headquarters of the provincial administration are at Makeni. The Provinces are administered by Provincial Commissioners and the Districts by District Commissioners. There are 145 Chiefdoms in Sierra Leone and in each of these the Chiefdom Councillors elect a Paramount Chief. District Commissioners are Chairmen of the Committees of Management appointed to perform the duties of the former District Councils.

Sierra Leone has three ports-Freetown, Bonthe and Pepel. The most important of these is Freetown, which is one of the largest natural harbours in the world with extensive deep water near the shore. Sierra Leone Ports Authority handled 485,187 tons of cargo and produce and 314,287 tons of oil and fuel during 1969. In the same year a total of 8,072 passengers passed through the port of Freetown which was visited by 1,332 ships. Work started in 1966 on a major extension of the deep water Queen Elizabeth II Quay which could berth only two ships, and the project was completed towards the end of 1969 at a total cost of £7 million.

Berthing facilities for an additional four ships are now available alongside. Freetown is the only port for imports and it also exports agricultural produce. Bonthe exports piassava, coffee, bauxite and rutile whilst Pepel is the iron ore exporting port.

Lungi international airport is on the northern bank of the Sierra Leone River opposite Freetown. Passengers are taken by ferry and bus to the airport (travelling time approximately 1 to 2 hours). The extension of the runway to 10,500 feet was completed in May 1967 and the development to International Standard 'A' was completed early in 1968. The work was financed partly by a loan of £1 million from the British Government. There are small airfields at Hastings, Bo, Kenema, Yengema, Tongo, Bonthe and Gbangbatok. Internal air services are operated by Sierra Leone Airways.

The railway mileage is 368 which includes 57 miles of track privately owned by the Sierra Leone Development Company and used for transporting iron ore from the mines at Marampa to the port of Pepel. Except for this 57 miles the gauge is 2′ 6°. The Government has accepted the recommendations of a firm of consultants commissioned by the World Bank that the Sierra Leone Railway be phased out. It is hoped that, with financial assistance from Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany and the World Bank, a parallel development of the road network will be carried out. Britain has already offered a loan of up to £1·8 million for the Taiama-Bo section and work is expected to start before October 1970. The Federal Republic of Germany has offered a loan of £1.55 million for the LunsarMakeni section. Appraisal teams from the World Bank have visited Sierra Leone recently to consider assistance for the Bo-Kenema section. There are 4,000 miles of road of which 400 miles are surfaced.

Radio Sierra Leone in Freetown serves the whole country although reception conditions vary widely. Sierra Leone Television Services can be received within the Freetown area only. The Government has accepted the report of a Committee of Broadcasting Consultants which made a comprehensive study of radio and television during 1969; a re-equipment and rehabilitation programme is to be implemented immediately.

The Sierra Leone economy depends very largely on the export of minerals, in particular diamonds and iron ore. Diamonds are mined by a British company, Sierra Leone Selection Trust Limited, which has concessions in the Yengema and Kono districts and by individual Sierra Leone diggers under the alluvial diamond mining scheme. In December 1969, the Government announced its intention to acquire a majority share holding in all mining companies operating in Sierra Leone and negotiations for a new agreement with Sierra Leone Selection Trust Limited opened in February 1970. These had not been concluded by the end of July 1970. Purchases of diamonds by the Government Diamond Office during 1969 were valued at £16.9 million as compared with £12.7 million in 1968. The cumulative total of diamonds purchased by the Government Diamond Office for the first three months of 1970 amounted to £4.1 million as compared with £3.8 million in the corresponding period of 1969. Iron ore is mined by the Sierra Leone Development Company (whose shares are held mainly by William Baird & Company of Glasgow) at Marampa; exports of iron ore and concentrates in 1969 amounted to 2-4 million tons valued at £4.9 million. The production of bauxite by Sierra Leone Ore and Metal Company Limited commenced in 1963 and at present runs at about 450,000 tons per annum. A comparatively new development is the mining of rutile by Sherbro Minerals Limited, a USA/British

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