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since 1948, there has been a significant growth in industry. In 1969 there were 561,563 employees in 14,754 registered and recorded factories and industrial undertakings.

The general employment pattern in the 1966 by-census showed that about 47 per cent of the working population was engaged in construction, manufacturing, mining, quarrying and the utilities, about 24 per cent in various services, 17 per cent in commerce, seven per cent in communications and five per cent in agriculture, forestry and fishing. Based on this pattern, the estimated employment figures at the end of 1969 were: manufacture, 599,780; services, 366,970; commerce, 253,830; construction, 93,840; farming and fishing, 79,470; communications, 104,190; public utilities, 14,870, mining and quarrying 4,570.

On 31st December 1969, there were 254 registered workers' unions with a declared membership of 170,018; 53 employers' associations with a declared membership of 5,413 and 13 mixed unions with a declared membership of 6,929.

Since the end of the last war, the pattern of agricultural production has largely changed from a subsistence economy based on rice to the intensive cultivation of vegetables, poultry and pigs. Sold through wholesale markets during 1969 were 73,410 metric tons of locally produced vegetables, valued at HK $45,920,730, and 76,799 metric tons of fish valued at HK $111,295,765. Local pig and poultry production is valued at HK $30 million and HK $81 million per annum respectively.

Urban households spending less than HK$2,000 per month

September 1963-August 1964=100

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Small tonnages of iron ore, wolframite, graphite, kaolin, feldspar and quartz are mined. Of these, the feldspar and quartz and about 26 per cent of the kaolin are consumed by local light industries, the remainder being exported. The total value of minerals exported is about 7 million dollars annually.

Hong Kong, which lies on the main sea and air routes of the Far East, is now established as an industrial territory with an economy based on exports rather than on entrepôt trade. Although entrepôt trade is still significant, accounting for 20 per cent of total exports, it has declined from its traditional supremacy as a result of political changes in China, of the Korean war and of the restrictions on trade with China. The following table shows the overseas trade of Hong Kong for the last three years:



million million million
Imports ..

10,449 12,472 14,893 Exports ..

6,700 8,428 10,518 Re-exports

2,081 2,142 2,679

Domestic Exports
1969 total value HK $10,518 million

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.
Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles
Electrical machinery
Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

per cent

of all exports in 1969

36 24 11 10 3 3

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Jackets, jumpers, sweaters, cardigans and

pullovers, knitted
Slacks, shorts, jeans, trousers, overalls and

pinafores, other than knitted ..
Shirts, other than knitted
Outer garments, knitted ..
Suits, jackets, uniforms and overcoats, other

than knitted ..
Gloves and mittens of all materials
Shirts, knitted
Underwear and nightwear, other than knitted
Skirts, dresses, frocks, gowns and house-coats,

other than knitted
Outer garments, other than knitted
Blouses and jumpers, other than knitted, not

Underwear and nightwear, knitted
Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Plastic toys and dolls
Wigs, false beards, hair pads, etc.
Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit (plastic)
Toys and dolls (not plastic)
Plastic coated rattan articles (not furniture)
Metal watch bands

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Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Cotton grey sheeting
Cotton towels, not dish towels, not embroidered
Cotton yarn
Cotton canvas and ducks, grey.

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114 104 88 62

116 107 72 64

+ 22

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Imports in 1969 were valued at HK$14,893 million, of which about 19 per cent was accounted for by foodstuffs. The largest supplier was Japan ($3,484 million), followed by China ($2,700 million), U.S.A. ($2,002 million), U.K. ($1,201 million) and the Federal Republic of Germany ($544 million). The principal import items were live animals, rice, fish and fruit, cotton, crude vegetable materials, plastic materials, textile yarns and fabrics, base metals, machinery and electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances.

The value of domestic exports was HK $10,518 million, of which 47 per cent was accounted for by garment and textile products. The leading overseas customers were U.S.A. ($4,428 million), U.K. ($1,465 million), the Federal Republic of Germany ($765 million), Japan ($355 million), Canada ($352 million), and Australia ($286 million). The most important items of domestic manufacture entering the exports trade were clothing, cotton piece goods, toys and games, artificial flowers, footwear, transistor radios, cotton yarn, rattan articles, wigs and false beards, electric torches and enamel ware.

The value of re-exports totalled $2,679 million and the main re-export markets were Japan ($503 million), Singapore ($318 million), Indonesia ($288 million), U.S.A.($209 million) and Taiwan ($125 million). The principal commodities in the re-export trade were diamonds and jewellery, textiles, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, fruits and vegetables, crude vegetable materials, watches and clocks.

The value of imports, exports and re-exports by main groups for 1959 and 1969 are shown below. 1959

Imports Exports

Reexports Imports Exports exports Commodity HK$ HK$ HK$ HK$ HK$ HK$

'000 '000 '000 '000 '000 '000 Food,

beverages and tobacco 1,346,035 133,536 203,682 3,074,343 247,830 325,615

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goods classi-
fied by ma-
terial . 1,604,393 602,877

602,877 314,642 4,912,405 1,624,204 1,122,327

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Direction of Merchandise Trade by percentage
Imports from


15.5 China

20.9 U.S.A.

United Kingdom

Federal Republic of Germany 2.8
Exports to

United Kingdom

19.3 Federal Republic of Germany 3.2 Canada

9.3 Singapore


Re-exports to


2.8 Singapore

16:9 U.S.A.

2:7 Taiwan



19.0 11.0 12:0 8.0 5.0

Hong Kong is now also established as one of the main tourist centres in the Far East, and numbers of visitors during 1967, 1968, and 1969 were 488,617 618,410 and 765,213 respectively.

Hong Kong Banking Statistics

ASSETS (£m.)

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There are 31 vegetable marketing co-operative societies with a membership of 9,134. These societies have formed a Federation of Vegetable Marketing Cooperative Societies. In addition, an irrigation society, three salaried workers' thrift and loan societies, nine consumers' societies, one fish pond society, 228 housing societies, 12 agricultural credit societies, six thrift and loan societies, 22 better living societies, two apartment owners' societies and 36 pig raising societies

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