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the whole State in 1909, and all subsequent general elections have been held under it.
The power of the Upper House to amend Money Bills sent up from the Assembly has always been a matter of some doubt, and at the end of 1924 was successfully challenged by the House of Assembly in respect both of the Appropriation Bill and of an Income Tax Bill. The controversy on the subject was in 1926 settled by a compromise, by which the Upper House gave up any claim to amend the Appropriation Bill or bills imposing a rate of income tax, but maintained full powers of amendment of other Money Bills.
Voting is compulsory at elections for both Houses of the State Parliament. GOVERNMENT
At the election in May 1969 the Liberal and Labour Parties each secured 17 seats, and the Centre Party one seat. The Government is a Liberal/Centre Party coalition.
The Legislative Council comprises 2 Labour Party and 17 Independent members.
The Hon. W. A. Bethune, MHA
The Hon. K. O. Lyons, MHA
Minister for Education: The Hon. R. Mather, MHA
The Hon. W. G. Barker, MHA
The Hon. L. H. Bessell, MHA
LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION
HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY
Clerk of the House: B. G. Murphy
THE AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY The Australian Capital Territory has an area of 939 square miles and is situated in an area formerly part of southern New South Wales. The population of the A.C.T. at the 1966 census was 96,013 and the estimated population as at 31st December 1969 was 125,000. The Federal Capital of the Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, is situated in the Territory.
HISTORY AND ADMINISTRATION
Section 125 of the Commonwealth Constitution Act, 1900, provided that the seat of Government of the Commonwealth should be determined by the Parliament and should be within Commonwealth Territory. The site for the Territory was chosen in 1908, and the agreement between the Commonwealth and New South Wales concerning the site was ratified by the Commonwealth Seat of Government Acceptance Act, 1909, and the State Seat of Government Surrender Act, 1909. The Territory became vested in the Commonwealth on 1st January 1911. There is no local or municipal government in the Territory; there is an Australian Capital Territory Advisory Council constituted to advise the Minister for the Interior, who administers the Territory, on matters affecting the Territory. The Advisory Council does not have executive or administrative powers.
The people of Canberra are represented in the Commonwealth Parliament by a Member of the House of Representatives who was granted full voting rights by an amendment of Section VI of the A.C.T. Representation Act 1948–1966, to take effect from the day of the first meeting of the Parliament after the 1966 elections.
The National Capital Development Commission was set up in 1958 to undertake and carry out the planning, development and construction of the city of Canberra as the national capital of the Commonwealth.
Canberra, as the Federal Capital, is the location of Parliament, most of the offices of executive Government and most of the diplomatic missions of other countries.
THE NORTHERN TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA The Territory consists of that part of the Australian mainland lying to the north of latitude 26° S. (the northern border of South Australia) and bounded on the west by longitude 129° E. (Western Australia border) and on the east by longitude 138° E. (Queensland border). The Territory also comprises the adjacent islands lying between those longitudes.
The total area of the Territory is 520,280 square miles, the coastline being 1,040 miles in length. Darwin is the principal town and the centre of the Administration of the Territory, as well as the main port. The estimated nonAboriginal population at 30th June 1966 was 21,119. Alice Springs, about 950 miles south of Darwin, had a non-Aboriginal population of 6,000 at 30th June 1966.
At 30th December 1968 the population of the Territory as a whole was estimated at 64,000 including Aborigines.
Mining surpasses the pastoral industry as the Territory's chief producer of wealth, the latter having been the mainstay of the Territory's economy for the past half-century. Copper is the chief mineral being mined; others are manganese ore, iron ore, gold, uranium, and tin. Important mining development projects are now under investigation in bauxite, manganese, and lead-zinc. Tourism is an important and growing industry.
HISTORY AND ADMINISTRATION
The first attempt at settlement in northern Australia was made in 1824. In 1827 a portion of north Australia extending to the border of Western Australia was included within New South Wales. In 1862 the western boundary of Queensland was altered by Letters Patent from 141° E. longitude to its present position at 138° E. longitude. In 1863 the portion subsequently known as Northern Territory was annexed by Letters Patent to the Colony of South Australia. However, as from the 1st January 1911, the Territory, with its adjacent islands, was transferred to the Commonwealth by the Northern Territory Acceptance Act, 1910. One of the conditions of the transfer was that such of the laws of South Australia as were applicable to the Territory at the time of transfer were to continue in force until such time as they were altered or repealed by or under any law of the Commonwealth.
The Northern Territory (Administration) Act, 1910–1967, provides that there shall be an Administrator appointed by the Governor-General to administer the Territory on behalf of the Commonwealth, subject to any instructions given him by the Minister for Territories from time to time.
The Northern Australia Act, 1926, provided for the division of the Territory for administrative purposes into North Australia and Central Australia, separated by the 20th parallel of S. latitude; however, in 1931 this Act was repealed and as from that year the Territory was reunited and administered as before.
There is a Legislative Council for the Northern Territory with power to make ordinances for the peace, order and good government of the Territory, subject to assent by either the Administrator or the Governor-General as provided in the Act. The Council consists of six official members and three non-official members appointed by the Governor-General on the nomination of the Administrator, and eight elected members representing the electorates of Alice Springs, Arnhem, Barkly, Elsey, Fannie Bay, Nightcliff, Port Darwin and Stuart. The official members hold office during the Governor-General's pleasure and the non-official elected members hold office for a term of office not exceeding three years. The President of the Legislative Council is elected from among the elected and non-official members of the council. The Government has announced its agreement to changes in the composition of the Legislative Council. For the general election to be held later this year it is proposed that eleven members will be elected; at the same time the seats for non-official members will be abolished.
Persons who, under Part V of the Northern Territory Electoral Regulations made under the Northern Territory Representation Act 1922–1959 and the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918–1966, are qualified to vote at an election for a member to represent the Northern Territory in the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth Parliament are qualified to vote at an election of a member to the Legislative Council.
Aborigines may enrol, and having enrolled are entitled to vote at Federal and Northern Territory Legislative Council elections.
Under the procedures for assent to ordinances, the Administrator or the Governor-General (as appropriate) may return ordinances with suggested amendments for reconsideration by the Council. Every ordinance, whether assented to or disallowed, must be laid before each House of Parliament within fifteen sitting days of that House. When assent is withheld from an ordinance, the Minister is obliged to lay the reasons before each House as soon as possible, but in any case within fifteen sitting days of that House. A statement of reasons for withholding assent is also presented to the Legislative Council.
The Northern Territory (Administration) Act also provides for an Administrator's Council consisting of the Administrator, two official members of the Legislative Council and three other members, none of whom is an official member and at least two of whom are elected members. Each member of the Administrator's Council (other than the Administrator) is appointed by the Minister on the nomination of the Administrator and, subject to the Act, holds office during the pleasure of the Minister. The Council's function is to advise the Administrator on any matters referred to it by the Administrator and on other matters as provided in the Ordinances of the Territory. Following the change in the composition of the Legislative Council it is proposed that the Administrator's Council will include provision for three elected members.
The Supreme Court of the Northern Territory is the highest judicial tribunal in the Territory and is the only court possessing jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters, and appeals from its judgement may be taken to the Full Court of the High Court of Australia. Federal jurisdiction in bankruptcy is exercised by the Supreme Court through the Bankruptcy Act 1924-1960. There are of course courts of summary jurisdiction and local courts with limited jurisdiction in civil matters. There are also wardens' courts constituted by the mining laws, and licensing courts having jurisdiction in liquor licensing matters, etc.
The Social Welfare Ordinance provides for care and assistance to all persons socially and economically in need, including Aborigines. There is no legislative discrimination against Aborigines.
Most land held from the Crown is held on leasehold, as provided for by the Crown Lands, Darwin Town Area Leases, Special Purposes Leases, Church Lands Leases and Agricultural Development Leases Ordinances. Provision is made for the control of mining, fisheries and pearling. The Director of Agriculture and Animal Industry has wide powers in regard to the movements of stock, control of stock routes, disease prevention, etc.
Local government was reconstituted in Darwin on the 1st July 1957. Darwin is now a city with a Council consisting of the Mayor and eight aldermen elected by electors of the municipality.
The Northern Territory Representation Act 1922–1959 provides for the election of a member for the Territory to the House of Representatives. For some years prior to an amendment of the Act in 1959 the member had no vote in the House, although he could take part in debates in the House. Amendments passed in 1959 gave the member limited voting rights in respect of matters which relate solely to the Northern Territory. The Act was further amended in 1968 and the member representing the Northern Territory now has the same voting rights as other members of the House of Representatives.
THE TERRITORY OF ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS By Imperial Order in Council dated the 23rd July 1931 the Ashmore Islands (area approximately 60 sq. miles) known as the Middle, East and West Islands, and also Cartier Island (area approximately 17 sq. miles), situated in the Indian Ocean some 200 miles off the north-western coast of Australia (north of Broome), were placed under the authority of the Commonwealth.
Under the Ashmore and Cartier Islands Acceptance Act 1933, the islands were accepted by the Commonwealth under the name of the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands as from the 10th May 1934. They were annexed to the Northern Territory of Australia in 1938 and all the laws of the Northern Territory, as far as they are applicable, apply to the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands. The islands are uninhabited. An unmanned weather station is maintained by the Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau in the Ashmore group.
Administrator: M. F. Cheney
ARBADOS is the most easterly of the Caribbean islands and lies between latitudes 13° and 14° N. and longitudes 599 and 60° W. Its total area is
166 square miles. It is comparatively flat, rising in a series of tablelands marked by well-defined terraces to the highest point (1,104 feet) at Mount Hillaby. The north-east corner of the island, the Scotland area, is broken country, much eroded and rather barren. The formation of the rest of the island is coral limestone. There are no rivers, but deep gullies which fill with water during heavy rain have cut their way through the coral terraces in many places. Indigenous forest covers about 46 acres.
The climate is more equable than the tropical latitude would suggest. Northeasterly trade winds blow steadily from December to June but during the remainder of the year, the wet season, the wind moves to the south-east and is less strong, resulting in humid, hotter conditions. The average temperature is 26-5°C (79-8°F). The rainfall is very varied: in the high central district the yearly average is 75 inches while in some of the low-lying coastal areas the average is 50 inches.
The population of Barbados at the census of 1960 was 232,820. The population of the parishes were: Bridgetown, the capital, and St Michael 94,209; Christ Church 33,425; St George 17,075; St Philip 17,255; St John 10,967; St James 13,611; St Thomas 10,026; St Joseph 8,582; St Andrew 7,813; St Peter 10,860; St Lucy 8,997. The main population divisions were Negro 207,156; White 10,083; Mixed 13,993; Others 1,588. The estimated population at 31st December 1969 was 253,633. The birth rate, based on 1969 figures, is 20.9 per 1,000 and the death rate 8.0 per 1,000. The main religious denominations are Anglican 133,772; Methodist 18,403; Roman Catholic 6,429; Others 74,216.
Education (primary and secondary) is free in Government aided schools.
Bridgetown is the only port of entry, but oil is pumped ashore at Spring Gardens and at an Esso installation on the West Coast.
The main shipping companies visiting Barbados are Harrison Line, Geest Line, Royal Netherlands Steamship Company, Compagnie Générale Transatlantique, Saguenay Shipping Ltd, Booth Line, Lamport and Holt Line, Moore McCormack Line, Hamburg-Amerika Line, Caribbean-Hamburg Line (formerly Three Bays Line) and Federal Shipping Service. Companies calling less frequently include Linea 'C', Delta Line, Blue Ribbon Line, Atlantic Line, and Blue Star Line.
An international airport is situated at Seawell, 12 miles from Bridgetown, Air France, British Overseas Airways Corporation, British West Indian Airways. Leeward Island Air Transport, Pan American World Airways, Air Canada, Caribair and the Netherlands Antilles air line A.L.M. operate frequent scheduled services connecting Barbados with the major world air routes.
There are 800 miles of roads, of which approximately 720 miles are asphalted.
Barbados has a television service, a wireless broadcasting service and a wired broadcasting service. The first two are operated by the Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation, a corporate body set up by Order-in-Council of the Barbados Government in 1963. The wired system, which covers the whole island, is operated by Barbados Rediffusion Service Limited, a local subsidiary of Rediffusion Limited.