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The economy of the island is based on sugar and the tourist industry is also an important source of revenue. Total exports in 1969 were valued at $EC68,824,293, of which $EC27,797,770 worth were to the United Kingdom.

The imports in 1969 were valued at $EC194,589,761, of which $EC56,158,529 came from Britain.

In 1969/70 Government revenue was estimated to be $EC76,818,283 and expenditure $EC88,959,379.

Barbados National Day is Independence Day, which commemorates the achievement of Independence on 30th November 1966.


The first inhabitants of Barbados were Arawak Indians but the island was uninhabited when the first British landings took place some time between 1620 and 1625.

The first British settlements in the island were established between 1625 and 1628. The first group of settlers was led by Captain Henry Powell, representing the interests of Sir William Courteen. Other groups were sponsored by the Earl of Carlisle who in 1628 was granted a patent by King Charles I in respect of the whole of the Barbados settlements. This was subsequently leased by Carlisle's son to Lord Willoughby of Parham who during the Civil War became Governor of the island and continued to hold it in the Royalist interest until 1652, when he capitulated to a Cromwellian fleet. The terms of this capitulation, however, guaranteed the rights of the settlers and became known as the Charter of Barbados.

At the Restoration, the Carlisle/Willoughby interests were renewed, but the patent was surrendered to the Crown in exchange for a provision entitling Lord Willoughby and his heirs to a duty of 44 per cent on Barbados exports. Although this agreement marked the end of proprietary rule, the export duty was sorely resented by the islanders and remained a source of grievance until it was abolished

а by Act of Parliament in 1838.


The island has one of the oldest constitutions in the Commonwealth. The office of Governor and a Legislative Council were established in 1627. The House of Assembly was formally constituted in 1639.

A distinctive feature of the constitutional development of Barbados has been that it has progressed and been regulated largely by convention, rather than by formal legislation. It is nevertheless convenient to trace, by reference to the latter, the steps by which the island progressed through widening forms of representation and suffrage and through modifications of policy-making and legislative powers, successively to a ministerial form of government, to a cabinet system and finally, through full internal self-government, to independence.

The first of these steps was the creation in 1876 of an Executive Council which in 1881 became the nucleus of an Executive Committee, some of whose functions and powers developed into forms analogous to those of Ministerial government.

A widening of the franchise in 1944 was to prove the start of a quickening process towards full internal self-government: a party political system and a modified form of ministerial government in 1946; universal adult suffrage in 1951; a full ministerial system in 1954; cabinet government in 1958.

By the end of 1957, Barbados had in practice progressed to virtual selfgovernment. This status was formally achieved in 1961, when the post of Chief Secretary was abolished, nominated members ceased to sit in the Executive Committee and provisions were made under which the Governor, subject to one reference back, was bound to accept the advice of the Ministers in the Executive Committee. At the same time, the powers and responsibilities of Ministers were widened and the island assumed control over its own public service. Arrangements were made for appeals on matters of discipline, which formerly went to the Secretary of State, to be dealt with by the Executive Council, which was re-named the Privy Council.

The final stage of constitutional advance before Independence was reached in 1964, when the Executive Committee was abolished and its powers and functions transferred entirely to the Cabinet. Among other changes, the Legislative Assembly was also abolished and replaced by a Senate.

Barbados had been a member of the Federation of the West Indies, which was set up in 1958 but which was dissolved in 1962. In August 1965 the Barbados Government announced its intention to seek separate Independence. At a conference held in London in June-July 1966, arrangements were agreed under which Barbados became an independent Sovereign State within the Commonwealth on 30th November 1966.


The Constitution of Barbados, contained in the Barbados Independence Order 1966 provides for a Governor-General appointed by Her Majesty the Queen and for a bi-cameral Legislature. The Senate consists of 21 Senators appointed by the Governor-General, 12 on the advice of the Prime Minister, two on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition and seven by the GovernorGeneral acting in his own discretion. The House of Assembly consists of 24 elected members but provision is made for a greater number of members as may be prescribed by Parliament. The President and Deputy President of the Senate and speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of Assembly are elected, respectively by the Senate and the House of Assembly from within their own membership.

The normal life of Parliament is five years. The Cabinet consists of the Prime Minister who must be a Member of Parliament and such other ministers as the Governor-General, acting on the advice of the Prime Minister, appoints from among the Senators and Members of Parliament. The Member of Parliament, who in the judgement of the Governor-General is the Leader in the House of the party commanding the support of the largest number of Members of Parliament in opposition to the Government, is appointed by him Leader of the Opposition.

Apart from the entrenched provisions, the Constitution may be amended by an Act of Parliament passed by both Houses. The entrenched provisions which relate to citizenship, rights and freedom, the establishment of the office of the Governor-General, his functions, the composition of the two Houses of Parliament, Sessions of Parliament, the Prorogation and Dissolution of Parliament, General Elections, the appointment of Senators, the executive Authority of Barbados, the Judicature, the Civil Service and Finance, can only be amended by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of both Houses.

There is a Supreme Court of Judicature consisting of a High Court and a Court of Appeal, and in certain cases a further appeal lies to the Judicial Com


mittee of Her Majesty's Privy Council. The Chief Justice is appointed by the Governor-General acting on the recommendation of the Prime Minister after consultation with the Leader of the Opposition. Puisne Judges are appointed by the Governor-General, acting in accordance with the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission.

The Constitution also contains provisions relating to citizenship and the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual.


Sir John Montague Stow, GCMG, Kcvo, from 30th November 1966 to 15th May 1967
Sir Winston Scott, GCMG, from 15th May 1967


The last general election took place on 3rd November 1966 and as a result the composition of the political parties in the House of Representatives was: Democratic Labour Party 14; Barbados Labour Party 8; Barbados National Party 2.

His Excellency Sir Winston Scott, GCMG

Prime Minister, Minister of Finance and Minister of External Affairs:

The Rt. Hon. E. W. Barrow
Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of State for Caribbean and Latin American Affairs

also Leader of the House of Assembly: The Hon. J. Cameron Tudor

Minister of Education: Senator The Hon. Erskine Sandiford Minister of Home Affairs and Leader of the Senate: Senator the Hon. P. M. Greaves

Minister of Health and Community Development: The Hon. C. E. Talma Minister of Trade, Tourism, Co-operatives and Fisheries: The Hon. G. G. Ferguson Minister of Agriculture, Science and Technology: The Hon. K. N. R. Husbands

Minister of Communications and Works: The Hon. N. W. Boxill
Minister of Labour, National Insurance and Housing: The Hon. A. Da Costa Edwards
Minister of State designated Attorney-General: The Hon. F. G. Smith, QC

Ministry of Education: Senator Odessa Gittens
Ministry of Communications and Works: W. R. Lowe, MP
Ministry of Agriculture, Science and Technology: J. W. Corbin, MP

Ministry of Health and Community Development: R. St C. Weekes, MP Ministry of Labour, National Insurance and Housing: Senator Le Roy Brathwaite

Sir Grantley Adams, CMG, QC, Barbados Labour Party

President of the Senate: Senator Sir Stanley Robinson, KT, CBB

Clerk of the Senate: L. H. Clarke

Speaker: The Hon. Sir Theodore Brancker, KT, QC

Clerk: H. O. St C. Cumberbatch

Chief Justice: The Hon. Sir William Douglas, KT


Puisne Judges:
Mr Justice A. J. H. Hanschell

Mr Justice D. H. L. Ward

Mr Justice D. A. Williams
Registrar of the Supreme Court: C. A. Rocheford


Permanent Secretary (Cabinet Affairs):


Permanent Secretary: C. A. Burton, OBE Permanent Secretary (General): A. N. Forde



Permenanet Secretary: R. McConney, MBE Financial Secretary: N. D. Osborne, OBE


AND TECHNOLOGY Permanenet Secretary: F. L. Cozier

Permanent Secretary: C. R. E. Edwards


Permanent Secretary: Major H. R. Daniel Permanent Secretary: A. S. Howell


Permanent Secretary: A. W. Symmonds Permanent Secretary: C. M. Thompson

BARBADIAN HIGH COMMISSIONERS IN Jamaica: Ivo de Souza (resident in Port of

Britain: W. E. W. Ramsey
Canada: C. B. Williams



Permanent Mission to the United Nations: COMMONWEALTH High COMMISSIONERS 0. H. Jackman (Permanent Representative); IN BARBADOS

A. A. Brathwaite (Acting Deputy Permanent Britain: J. S. Bennett, cvo, cle; Canada: Representative); United States: O. H. J. R. McKinney (resident in Port of Spain); Jackman (Ambassador in Washington); India: L. N. Ray (resident in Port of Spain); B. M. Tait (Consul-General, New York)


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the Republic of Botswana lies between latitudes 18° and 27° S. and longitudes 20° and 28° W. The area of the country, which has not yet been

wholly surveyed, is estimated to be 220,000 square miles, about the size of France, and has a mean altitude of 3,300 feet. Entirely landlocked, its neighbours are the Republic of South Africa to the south and east, Rhodesia to the northeast, Zambia and the Caprivi Strip (part of South West Africa) to the north, and South West Africa to the west.

A plateau at a height of about 4,000 feet, which forms the watershed between the Molopo and Notwani Rivers in the south and swings northward from a point about 20 miles west of Kanye all the way to the border of Rhodesia, divides the country into two dominant topographical regions, characterised by two drainage systems. To the east of the plateau, streams flow into the Marico, Notwani and Limpopo Rivers; to the west is an inactive internal system, which at one time drained this tableland into the great Makarikari Flats. Within this flat region there are three sub-regions: the Kalahari Desert, the Okavango Swamps and the Northern State Lands area.

Eastern Botswana is broken by a series of rocky hills and is covered, particularly along its eastern margin and over its northern half, by relatively dense bush, but its rainfall is sufficient to produce good pasturage. The existence of grasses of high food value in many parts, the easily tapped underground watertable and the presence of water at shallow depths in the sand beds of the rivers and streams for most of the year, combine to make this an excellent cattle-rearing region. Most of the arable land is also situated in this area, where a mean annual rainfall of 20 inches is normally sufficient for the production of grain sorghum. In the south-east, climate and soils are suitable for the production of maize under dryland cultivation. Eighty per cent of the population lives in this region.

West of the plateau which marks the boundary of Eastern Botswana the ground falls to the great expanse of the Kalahari Desert, a level tract closely covered with thorn bush and grass, extending 300 miles to the west and bounded by the Makarikari salt pans and the Botletle River in the north. Rainfall in the Kalahari Desert varies from 20 inches in the east to a scant 9 inches in the south-west. Precipitation, however, tends to be erratic and is frequently of a local nature. Surface water is absent except for limited accumulations in flat, sandy clay-floored depressions in the sandveld, known as pans, and in dams built as a result of tribal initiative or the provision of post-war development funds. Along the eastern margin of this region, where the sand mantle thins out, and in the north-west on the Ghanzi plateau which extends into the desert from South West Africa, potable underground water supplies have been developed. Elsewhere underground water tends to be saline and sweet water supplies are rare. Where potable water is found in the desert small Bakgalagadi communities gather with their cattle, but there is virtually no arable land. For the most part, this region is inhabited only by shy bands of Bushmen.

The 6,500 square miles of the Okavango swamps lie in the remote northwestern corner of Botswana known as Ngamiland. Apart from the Limpopo and Chobe Rivers, this area is the only source of permanent surface water in the country. The Okavango River, which flows into the swamps, is estimated to have an average flow of 9,000 cubic feet per second at Shakawe, but most of this flow is either trapped in the sudd-like swamps where it evaporates, or disappears in the sand beds of the Botletle and Thamalakane Rivers. The swamps are infested with tsetse fly which is harboured by the shade trees and dense undergrowth, and is spread beyond the margins of the swamp by wild game. However, the advance of the insect has been successfully arrested by insecticide spraying at selected breeding sites. The perimeter of this area is inhabited by the Batawana and allied tribes, numbering 42,000. They are chiefly pastoralists and the cattle population of the district is 120,000, but crops can be produced utilising the residual moisture of the soil in areas which are subject to seasonal flooding, or in other areas under normal rainfall conditions.

The Kalahari Desert extends north of the Botletle River and the Makarikari depression into the Northern State Lands where it gives way to belts of indigenous forest and dense bush sustained by the higher rainfall of the region. Valuable stands of mukwa (Rhodesian teak) and mukusi cover extensive areas, whilst in other parts, where poorer soils are found, mopane forest predominates. The availability of ground water resources, particularly in the southern and eastern sections, and the existence of suitable soils and reliable rainfall in the north-eastern corner of this sub-region indicates a favourable development potential. The remaining areas are populated only by vast herds of game, in whose migratory path the Northern State Lands lie. Elephant numbers alone are estimated at over 10,000. As in the case of the Kalahari Desert, the human population is sparsely scattered around the perimeter.

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