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flection chuses this season for her visit; the higher classes, where we might What is he to do to morrow? Where naturally expect finer sense and tafte, can he raise another sum of money; and more cultivation than among Unhappy Nave ! 'tis the base imprison- others, when we conlider the opporment of the mind thou suffereit, and tunities they have from education, and Reason alone can set thee free ; and the means of obtaining knowledge : then, if thou hast only half an acre left, but the truth is, they have never had ?twill be a territory to what thou hast time for improvement ; the manners now to boast of." These observations and the mind are at variance. I have naturally engaged the attention of the a proper respect for the Great, if they stranger, who readily entered into con are good, or distinguished by merit ; versation with Moredius. " There are but as I consider the business of a fool but few men in the world," cried he, to be incompatible with the proper « whose minds are not in a complete employments and character of a man of state of slavery, either to pleasure, am. rank, 'I always estimate him accordbition, self-interest, custom, or preju- ingly; and a Lord who is a blockhead dice ; these throw their chains about appears to me to be a much more pitius, and drag us on, leaving us scarcely able object than the blockhead who is a moment to wonder at our infatua. not a Lord. This poverty of mind tions, and to call Reason to our allilt among the Great occasions me to re
Constrained and fertered, the collect the bon mot of a witty Barrifter, mind becomes diseased and impove. who, being queltioned one day on the rithed ; we live active only to common nature and propriety of hereditary every day pursuits, and passive to all titles, very trongly supported their that is good and superior. This may validity, « particularly laid he) as
( in some measure account for the kind every one must admit that it is a kind of fatality that appears to attend the of fee fimple.". I happened the other Great; who owe all their anxieties to a day (continued the stranger) to dine miltaken lystem of enjoyments, in which with a party of fashionables, wlio were the mind has no Mare, and which alone all so poor in the article of underis neglected, though alone capable of standing, that they were utterly unbeltowing happinels. Nothing is sown able to pass the time with any other by education or manners but luxuriant than the most infipid and commonweeds of pride and dissipation, that place topics of conversation. There did choak up truth and impoverilh the not appear any one of the whole group understanding."
who had saved a pittance from educa'. “ The poverty of the mind," cried tion, or experience enough to have lived Moredius, " is the most insupportable in the world had they been thrown of any; and the man who has the upon it. I had promised myself that riches of the understanding can never day the highest gratifications from rebe truly said to be poor.
Fortune fined taste and manners; though I may strip him of the advantages of confess I was a little confounded at a wealth and power, but the cannot de- circumstance which happened before prive him of that which the never gave. dinner. The Lady of the house, Through all the tricks and chances of wlien it was announced, whispered më, life, by which merit may become mis. as we were going down stairs, not to placed or displaced in the world, a fay a word against cock-fighting. This certain character remains, a itamp that caution puzzled me very much, as I thews the value of the coin, and gives could not, for the foul of me, recollect it currency with every man of lente. that I had offended in any such way, Through every vicissitude he is the particularly as I knew nothing of the fame, and he forsakes only the splen. Science. But my donbts and fears were did manfion and gay allembly to take removed as soon as we had said Grace ; in retirement purer pleatures in a for a noble Lord at the upper end of purer air, where, from his cottage win- the table, to our infinite amusement, dow, he may view the unbounded pros- commenced a treatise on the art of pects of nature unconstrained, and en. cock-fighting that lasted till the clothe joy, with two or three raticnal friends, was removed : but my astonishment the luxuries of sense and taste, the was increased when I was told, that it superiority of such as have minds above was the only subject on which his those who want them.
Lordfhip could talk at all." “ The poverty of the mind is most
(To be continued.) commun," replied the stranger,"amorg
OLD HOUSES, &c.
vantage, that fo the end is gained, we
are not disposed to criticise the means : BUTCHER-ROW.
yet it occurred to me, that if our ances
tors had done what I am now doing, in revolving the progress of improve. i.e. preserved vestiges of the numerous
ment, one very prominent object buildings (I mean, more minute veftiges forcibly strikes the inquisitive mind, than are to be found in Stow and our and that is, the dilapidation which must other civic historians), that have either literally pave the way to convenience been crushed by time, confumed by fire, and elegance. This is a reflection
or have, like those on the spot alluded which very naturally introduces an
to, been facrificed to public conveni. other, namely, the change that must be ence, with some traits of the occupaeffected, both with respect to property tion and mode of life of their inhabitand relidence, before any work of puha ants, the changes they had undergone, Jic utility can be carried into efect &c. it would, though perhaps not a in a crowded city or its immediate en pre-eminently useful, have been cervirons. Heavens! What an immense tainly a very curious speculation, mais of buildings, some indeed old, but
Butcher Row, which has flowly remany of a very recent date, are crum- ceded before the still in this respect) bling into duit, are vanishing at the flower progress of refinement, was word, or receding from the touch, of the once, indeed till a period much within Surveyor, whose five foot rod, like the living memory, a place of considerable wand of Magician, or the sword of Har. traffic. The stack of houses, which lequin, caules edifices to rise and fall, lately occupied the spot which now deluges the land with water, floats na.
forms a wide opening on the west side vies upon the sites of Atreets, houles, of Temple Bar, was, with respect to and churches, conveys vessels through the ground plan, in the form of au woods and forefts, over mountains and obtulangular triangle, the eastern line under rocks; sets one ship failing above, of which was formed by a fhoemaker's, another below a bridge at the same
a fithmonger's, and another shop, with time ; and, in short, performs those wide-extended fronts, and its western wonders with respect to docks, aques point blunted by the intersection of ducts, tunnels, and canals, which I the veftry-room and alms-houses of St. have a presentiment will make this Clement's parish ; both the sides also ingenious age and country as much contained thops of various descriptions; the admiration of pofterity for their the South (Strand), a number of reinternal as they certainly are at present fpectable tradesmen, such as bakers, for their external navigation.
dyers, dry-falters, smiths, tin-plate These obfervations occurred to me workers, &c.; the North (Butcher the other day, as I was, as I have hinted, Row) was, as its name implied, really considering devaltation as the precursor a felh market, it was at first wholly, of improvement, and contemplating occupied by butchers, who had, from a the fite on which the Butcher Row very early period, brought their meat had till Jately, for several centuries, in carts from the country, and sold it impeded the way. Why it was not just without the civic liberties, for the deemed a nuisance till within these supply of the western parts of the city. twenty years it would be a waste of Thele foreign hutcher's, as they were time to endeavour to conjecture : termied, were considered so extremely * Berter late than never," faith the useful in represling the exorbicant de proverb. We are inclined to view mands of the native butchers, and every step toward the amendment of our lowering the prices in the London ways as an object of such general 3d- markets of those days, that the comVOL. XLII. JULY '18:2.
petition was encouraged, and their Row, which had, for the purpose ! dealings attended with such success, have specified (the convenience of that I fear the desire of immoderate foreign butchers), been, in the twentyprofit operated upon them as it has first of Edward the First, granted to upon their descendants in the present Walter le Barbur, took the form of an age, and induced them to become fta. established market; in process of time,
; tionary ; perhaps to go hand in hand other shops, besides butchers, fifhmonwith the people they had formerly gers, and green-grocers, were opened. opposed. 'Be this as it may, in the Many, I presume, can remember a reign of Queen Elizabeth, Butcher scalemaker's, tinman's fir.z-drawer's,
Betty's The house, or rather houses, exhibited in the Frontispiece of this Magazine (for they as well as several others in Butcher Row had been divided), are a very accurate specimen of the itile of building which pervaded the whole pile. They seem of about the age of Edward the Sixth, as we may judge from many of the same date Milf extant, and probably were ornamented with the fleur de lis and coronets, in compliment to the Count Beaumont t, who when they were one mansion was its inhabitant, at the time the Márquis of Rosny arrived in England. It appears from Sully's Memoirs (pages 91 and infra), that the Marquis was appointed Ambassador from the King of France (Henry IV.), 1603, to congratulate the King (James I.) upon his accession to the English crown. His account of this embassy is curious. He states, among other particulars, that the begiming of June he set out for Calais, with a retinue of upwards of two hundred Gentlemen ; that he had express ordets from the King his master that he should appear in mourning with all his train at his firft audience ; but was afterwards told, that this affectation of forrow, for the death of Queen Elizabeth, would disoblige that Monarch, who would, doubtless, look upon it as a reproach to him for not having put on mourning on the same melancholy occasion. For the more folemn reception of this and other Ambassadors, it also appears, that at this period a new office was inftituted, with a falary of two hundred a year, namely, that of Master of the Ceremonies t; the first of whom was Sir Lewis Lewkenor, whose debut in this situation was, accompanied by Count Beaumont, the meeting M. Rolny at Dover.
It is further hinted, in the work to which I have alluded, that Sir Lewis had either exhausted his stock of politeness at his reception of the Ambassador, or was alarmed at the numerous train of his attendants, for he gives him occasion to complain of his rudeness and parsimony with respect to horses and carriages, even before he set out for London, and there is no question but that there were cogent reasons for his dirgust, as we find that he was obliged to procure a conveyance in the carriage of Count Beaumont, while his retinue were almoft suffered to take the chance of the road; that is, to make the best bargain they could with the Kentish innkeepers, from whom the Dover landlord, and those others who, in the year 1762, furnithed accommodations for the Duke de Nivernois and his suite, seem to have been the legitimate descendants.
Of the negle&t of the Master of the Ceremonies, or rather the Court, with respect to the Marquis of Rosny, there is a friking intance, in suffering him to rehde, even for a night, in the house which we are now considering, and which, as I have observed, forms the Frontispiece to this volume : at the same time his mode of treating it would have done honour to the school of Chesterfield. He states, without seeming offended, “ As to myself, I fup'd and lay at Beaumont's, and din'd there the next day. for so short a time had not been sufficient to procure and prepare me lodgings until the Palace of Arundel, which was deftin'd for me, could be got ready : but this greatly embarras’d my retinue, which could not all be lodged at Beauncnt's Houle, and, therefore, appartments were fought in the neighbourhood." To any one who remembers the structure of these old houses, or who refers to the
+ There were two families of the Beaumont's ; the first descended from Roger de Bellamont of the Norman race, Earl of Warwick ; the other Viscounts Beaumont, Bill older.
Stow, 'page 824. Rymer's Fadera, tom. 16. page 637. Sully's Memoirs,
Betty's chop-house, cheesemonger's, Hood, in which a debating society, grocer's, &c.; the houses of the whole about the middle of the last century, Itack were originally of wood, one story was a source of considerable amusement, hanging over the other; and indeed and has by some of its members or the ityle of building, ornaments, &c. visitors been rescued from the stream krongly indicated the date of its erec. of oblivion which has swept every trace tion.
of the building away, I have been informed, that the large I was informed by a Gentleman old house which was formerly at the about twenty years since, who was then back of the Swan public house, and near ninety, that within his memory upon the site of which, and its garden, all those back-houses that have a
a long Crown Place is built, was once occu- narrow pallage, for entrance , in the pied by the Bishop of Bath and Wells, Strand, Fleet-street, and all our other perhaps after Admiral Lord Thomas public itreets, were once taverns t. Seymour had obtained from Edward This I firmly believe, because I can the Sixth Hampton Place, wherein the still remember, and indeed have liad Bithops of that See formerly relideel, pointed out to me, the vestiges of : and on the site of which Arundel- clufier of them on this spot, the Star, ftreet, &c. was erected. This palace the Swan, the White Hart, the noted was within these thirty years in exilt- Bear and Harrow. How fond were ence ; it was let out in tenements; our ancestors of bacchanalian convi. a leather-dresser occupied a considerable viality 1 of this propenfiry numberless portion of it; in one suit of rooms re. instances may be difcerned in the old fided the parih-clerk of St. Clement's comedies, and the periodical writings Danes ; another part of it was devoted of former ages. By these it ihould seem to the purposes of a billiard.table,which that all the businels of life was transwas much frequented. In this apart. acted, and great part of its pleasures ment the Mitre still remained over the were to be found, in taverns, which chinney. Close to this palace, and on on many occasions were frequented by the fire of Crown Court, was the Crown ladies as well as gentlemen.' It seems Tavern ; perhaps the present Crown strange to us that such a loose kind of and Anchor arose upon its dilapida. morality thould ever have existed ; tion. More eastward, the Ship Tavern, that such an indiscriminate mixture of of which some vestiges are itill to be the sexes, of the modest and immodeft, feen ; and more weitward the Robin the grave and the gay, the sober and
print, it will appear difficult to conceive how the Ambassador himself, the reprelentative of Henry the Great, could, in those days of date and splendor, be, even tor a fhert period, accommodated in this place. The reader, glancing his eye upon its external appearance, will immediately judge that its internal (as was actually the case, for I observed the demolition of the whole pile) must have consisted of small incommodious rooms, jour, nay fix, or eight, upon a Hvor, a well fair.cafe running up the middle in the rudelt itile, lighted by a sky.light which only diffuted a “ dark ness visible over the upper stories, while the lower were, as Dr. Johnson fays, “ totally obumbrated."" The ceilings of these apartments were low, transvered by large unwrought beams in different directions, and lighted, if that phrale could with propriety be applied, by Imall calement windows : yet here we find that Gallic complaisance induced the Marquis to reside without murinuring ; though I believe before his fettlement in Arundel Palace, as he terms it, he, as will be thewn in the third number of thele Vestiges, removed to Crusby Houle, in Bishop!gate-Street ; though how long he continued there is uncertain.
* Many, I think most, of these passage entrances are now converted into thops, &c. of which the Globe Coffee-house and the late Mr. Macklin's print warehoule, Fiecta Itreet, are fathcient inttances, thele being formerly tbe Glube and Mitre Taverns.
+ The ichnography of these taverns, as may be seen in the few specimens that lill remain in the metropolis, was long passage like entrance, great part of it laticed over. The bar, for good reasons, fronting the great fair.cale; the kitchen
open the reception of cultomers, who uled to be termed Dumplin-Dampers, Sippers, anu Wbetters, and the whole terminated by a garden, or lumeumes a court Juruurded hy mait apartments, which might have been anciently called Orbicolas, or, in more refined language, Cafinas.
the disipated, fhould ever have been ST. CLEMENT'S CHURCH, CLEMENT'S allowed in the private way in which it
WELL, &c. was conducted.
Tracing the ruins and dilapidation It may seem triling to be su particu- which so Itrongly mark the progress of lar with respect to a place never very improvement in this parish, we cannot important, and which, like most of its help observing, that the church, having inhabitants, has vanished. But should from its erection been, as is the case an objection of this kind be made, it with many much more elegant fabricks, may easily be answered, by stating, that, encuinbered and obscured by old buildin fact, the furveys to which I have ings, seems, since its surrounding space alluded were composed of such kind of has been in some degree cleared, a new materials. No enquiry that has for its fabrick in several points of view we object either local or moral information, have never seen it before. The name can, in my opinion, be deemed trifling of this church (St. Clement's Danes) or unimportant, as things apparently has been frequently, as to the latter frivolous have, by the belt writers, part of the appellation, an object of been frequently made the vehicles of conjecture. Every one has heard the ingenious and useful reflections. In story of the filver anchor faid to be endeavouring to imitate those, it there found in this place; but it could lcem, fore strikes me, that this spot of earth, that before the arrival of the Danes, which seems small when the number of with whom filver was not so plenty buildings once upon it, and its conse- as to make anchors of it, there was a quent number of inhabitants are cuna. church upon this spot ; for William of dered, might, from the vast variety of Malmesbury faith, that they burnt it, tranfactions that, through a long period together with the Monks and Abhot, of ages, have taken place, be deemed a and that they continued “their lavage, microcosm, a kind of miniature repre. their facrilegious, fury throughout the sentation of the circumjacent cities of land." « Desirous at length to return London and Westminster. What for.. to Denmark (he continues), they were tunes have here been gained, and per- about to embark, when they were, by haps disipated ! What joy and sorrow the just judgment of God, all flain at have at times prevailed! How have its London, in a place which has tince inbabitants been at different times been called the Church of the Danes." affected by public events ? What at. There is also another reason given for tention have they paid to their private the denomination of this church, name. concerns ? How have they acted col. ly, that when most of the Danes were lectively as members of the State ? How driven out of this kingdom, those few individually as members of the district? that remained, being married to EngThese points open a wide field for spe. lish women, were obliged to live beculation, as we traverse the contracted twixt the Ile of Thorney (Weilmin. space that gave rise to them, and may fter) and Carr Lud (Ludgate), where frequently, in idea, lead us to restore they built a fynagogue, which was the houses, to repeople the spot, from afterwards confecrated and called “Ecwhich buildings and inhabitants have clefia Clementis Danorum." This is pafled away. To posterity, they may the account which Fleetwood, the serve as an intimation that such things antiquary, Recorder of London, gave once were, and by the change that a to the Lord Treasurer Burghley, who few years has here produced, introduce refided in this parish *. If I might reflections upon the great changes (it hazard a conjecture upon this subject, is devoutly to be hoped for the better), I should suppose that the church was which the face of the metropolis, the originally built by the Danes, who, from face of the country, morals, manners, the contention arising from local cirevery thing, has undergone in the cumitances betwixt them and the NorLapie of ages, and those to which pro. mans, were banished the city, and were perty and exiitence are liable.
obliged to inhabit this fuburb. The
* Ancther account is, that Hardicanute, to be revenged of his deceased brother, Harold, caused his corpfe to be dug up, and thrown into the Thames, where ir remained until a fisherman found it, and buried it in the church-yard of S. Clement wiilout Temple Bar, then called the Church of the Danes. Baker's Chron. p. 17.