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by the King of Spain to enter the missionary field at the missions already established; sooner, however, than make a division of the labor with a rival organization, the Franciscans abandoned the entire field of the peninsula of Lower California, and started westward to found new missions and introduce civilization into Upper California.

The expedition, under the new order of things, made ample preparations for a permanent settlement. Companies of soldiers, with muleteers, herds, and flocks, were to proceed overland from Lower California, whilst two vessels, equipped and provisioned, were to proceed by sea as far north at least as San Diego.

About this time a new order was received in Mexico by the Vicar-general, from the King of Spain, to make a settlement at San Diego, and possess and hold the country. On this new enterprise, headed by Father Junipero Serra, the San Carlos, the first of the two ves sels, commanded by Don Vicente Vilal, with sixty-two persons on board, sailed from Cape St. Lucas, Lower California, on the 9th of January, 1769, for San Diego. She was followed, on the 15th of the same month, by the San Antonio, commanded by Don Juan Perez; and on the 16th of June, the San José sailed from Loreto. After nearly a four months voyage, the San Carlos, on the ist day of May, arrived at San Diego; on the 11th day of April following, the San Antonio arrived at the same port, after a most perilous voyage and the loss of several of the crew by scurvy; but the ill-fated San Fosé, after leaving Loreto, was never heard of.

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MISSION OF SAN CARLOS, MONTEREY COUNTY, CALIFORNIA; FOUNDED JUNE 3, 1770.

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UNITED STATES MAIL SERVICE IN THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS.

CHAPTER III.

Don Portala's expedition-First settlement established-Father

Serra at San Diego-First chapel built-Discovery of the Bay of San Francisco-Founding of missions-San Carlos the first vessel that entered the Golden Gate-Native civilization-Spain and the Franciscan fathers-Wealth of the missions-Independence of Mexico_Government of California—Manumission of the Indians -Property of the missions confiscated-Departure of the fathers

Don GASPAR PORTALA, Governor of Lower California in 1769, took command of one division of the overland expedition. This was intended to proceed from Lower California, advance northward as far as practicable, plant the cross, and establish the dominion of his majesty, the King of Spain. A second division was headed by Don Fernando Riveray Moncada. Father Crespi was in this division, which was composed of soldiers, muleteers, and Indians. . These had with them two hundred head of cattle, and a number of horses and mules. On the 24th of March, 1769, they started from Villacata, Lower California; and, on the 14th day of May following, arrived at San Diego, where they, on the ist day of July, 1769, established the first white settlement and mission in what is now the State of California.

In May, 1769, Governor Portala, with Father Junipero Serra and the second division of the overland expedition, left Lower California, and, after a journey of forty-six days, at the head of his expedition, arrived at San Diego on the ist day of July, 1769. Great rejoicings and demonstrations ensued; the vessels discharged their guns, the soldiers their muskets, to celebrate the final meeting of the four divisions of this first

expedition to permanently plant white settlements and establish civilization in Upper California. In a few days a mission was founded, a cross planted, a chapel built, a priest selected to preside, a patron saint named, the ground blessed and sprinkled with holy water, and every thing was made ready for the conversion of the heathen.

On the 14th day of July, 1769, Governor Portala started with a new expedition from San Diego to discover the Bay of Monterey and establish a mission, Priests, soldiers, muleteers, and Indians—in all, sixtyfive—with provisions and pack-trains, set out on their northward journey. At Monterey they halted and planted a cross, but, not satisfied that it was the place of which they were in search, they proceeded still northward; and, on the 25th of October, 1769, came in sight of the sand-hills of the peninsula of San Francisco, with its beautiful bay stretching north and south a hundred miles, landlocked upon all sides save at the narrow entrance of the Golden Gate on the west. This is one of the finest harbors in the world, being surpassed only by that most beautiful sheet of water ard harbor in Washington Territory, Puget sound.

To Governor Gaspar De Portala, then, must be awarded the honor of the discovery of the Bay of San Francisco and not to Sir Francis Drake: he, as we know from the best authority, never saw it; neither can it be assigned to Father Junipero Serra, who, with other missionaries, remained at San Diego during Portala's journey to San Francisco. Six years elapsed, after Portala's discovery, before Serra first beheld the Bay of San Francisco. This fact is well established by the writings of Father Palou, who kept the records of the

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