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region, so easy of access to the commerce and enterprise of the Pacific coast, but so remote from the seat of

power of the Czar at St. Petersburg, has long been a favorite prison for political offenders; consequently the present population is made up in great part of men of education, skill, and ambition, and in their new homes have lost none of their hatred of monarchy, and catch with eager hope every ray of liberty cast upon their remote shores by the flag that gives freedom to all in America,

The development of Alaska will not begin until the Northern Pacific railroad connects Puget sound with the East, and a thrifty and numerous population find their homes in the great cities yet to be built on the shores of the magnificent inland sea of Washington Territory. Then the whaling fleets of the North Pacific and the Arctic will winter in Puget sound, and vast fleets of American vessels will draw from the shores of Alaska the hidden treasures of the deep—whale, walrus, seal, cod, halibut, and salmon. Mines of gold and silver, once exhausted, never recuperate: the treasures of the seas are never diminished, but annually multiplied as the leaves of the forests.

In the rich treasure-vaults of the deep, where, on the now lonely shores of Alaska, the illusive mirage paints its wondrous panorama, and the aurora borealis lights northern skies, will the future populous cities of the Pacific draw untold wealth, and fleets of American ships find employment; and on the placid waters of the Northern Pacific will the American seaman find a welcome refuge from the gales and winter frosts of the Atlantic seaboard.

CHAPTER XL.

APPENDIX.

Population of the United States : native, foreign, colored, and Chinese-Poptls

tion of the Pacific coast : native, foreign, and Chinese-- Population by counties of California, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Idaho, Washington Territory: also, aggregate of Alaska and British Columbia-Chinese in the United States and on the Pacific coast-Distances from San Francisco to various poidis inland and to various ports and countries and cities of the United States.

POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES-1870, Including all the States and Territories. Aggregate, 38,555,983. Native, 32,989,434; foreign, 5,566,546; colored, 4,880,009; Chinese, 63,149; Japanese, 55.

POPULATION OF THE PACIFIC COAST, Embracing California, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Idaho, Washington Territory, British Columbia, and Alaska. Aggregate, 841,059. Native, exclusive of British Columbia and Alaska, 539,467; foreign, exclusive of British Columbia and Alaska, 289,652; Chinese on the Pacific coast, exclusive of British Columbia and Alaska, and embracing Montana, 60,765; in the remainder of the whole Union, 2,389.

POPULATION OF CALIFORNIA-1870. Total, 560,247. Native, 350,416; foreign, 209,831. Representing the States and countries as follows:

NativeAlabama, 1,257; Arkansas, 2,396; California, 163,653; Connecticut, 2,977; Delaware, 408; Florida, 134; Georgia, 1,024; Illinois, 10,689; Indiana, 5,190; Iowa, 5,367; Kansas, 279; Kentucky, 6,605; Louisiana, 1,979; Maine, 11,261 ; Maryland, 2,596; Massachusetts, 15,334; Michigan, 3,032 ; Minnesota, 461; Mississippi, 994; Missouri, 16,050; Nebraska, 237; Nevada, 1,089; New Hampshire, 2,720; New Jersey, 2,598; New York, 33,766; North Carolina, 1,640; Ohio, 12,735 ; Oregon, 2,471 ; Pennsylvania, 11,208; Rhode Island, 1,419; South Carolina, 851; Tennessee, 4,686; Texas, 1,886; Vermont, 3,500; Virginia and West Virginia, 5,293 ; Wisconsin, 3,088; Alaska, 28; Arizona, 93; Colorado, 60; Dakota, 7; District of Columbia, 458; Idaho, 84; Indian Territory, 19; Montana, 65; New Mexico, 175; Utah, 850; Washington, 206; Wyoming, 21. Colored, 4,272

The foreign population represents the nations of the earth as
follows: Africa, 48; Asia, 56; Atlantic islands, 943; Australia,
1,593 ; Austria, 1,078; Belgium, 291; Bohemia, 90; Canada,
6,977; China, 48,823; New Brunswick, 1,170; Newfoundland,
72; Nova Scotia, 1,438 ; Prince Edward island, 54; British Amer-
ica, (not specified,) 949 ; Central America, 124; Cuba, 45; Den-
mark, 1,837 ; France, 8,068; Germany, 28,700-as follows: Baden,
2,143; Bavaria, 2,547; Brunswick, 61; Hamburg, 934; Hanover,
2,555; Hessen, 1,500; Lubec, 12; Mecklenburg, 95; Nassau, 49;
Oldenburg, 110; Prussia, (not specified,) 14,782 ; Saxony, 622;
Weimer, 9; Wurtemburg, 1,461 ; Germany, (not specified,) 2,820;
England, 17,699; Ireland, 54,421; Scotland, 4,949; Wales, 1,517;
Greece, 97: Greenland, 1 ; Holland, 452; Hungary, 102; India,
63 ; Italy, 4,660; Japan, 33 ; Luxemburg, 11; Malta, 5; Mexico,
9,309; Norway, 1,000; Pacific islands, 93 ; Poland, 804; Por-
tugal, 2,507; Russia, 540 ; Sandwich islands, 279 ; South America,
1,940; Spain, 405; Sweden, 1,944; Switzerland, 2,927; Turkey,
17; West Indies, 340.

POPULATION OF CALIFORNIA BY COUNTIES—1870.

COUNTIES.

COUNTY-SEAT.

1

7,428

9,185

39

Alameda..
Alpine.....
Amador.......
Butte...
Calaveras......
Colusa.....
Contra Costa...
Del Norte....
El Dorado.........
Fresno............
Humboldt.......
Inyo....
Kern..
Klamath......
Lake.....
Lassen....
Los Angeles...
Marin...
Mariposa......
Mendocino..
Merced.....
Mono ..........
Monterey..
Napa...........
Nevada
Placer...........
Plumas..
Sacramento...
San Bernardino,
San Diego......
San Francisco.
San Joaouin..
San Luis Obispo...
San Mateo.
Santa Barbara......

24,237 14,382 9,855 22,106 86 III

San Leandro.
685 485 200 676

1,933 Silver Mountain.
9,582
5,449
4,133 7,870 81

1,641 Jackson.
11,403
3,975

84 40

2,094 Oroville.
8,895
4,677 4,218

7,400
45 18

1,432 San Andreas,
6,165
5,088
1,077
5,389 81

424

271 Colusat.
8,461

5,791 2,670 8,271 21 9 160 Martinez.
2,022
1,580 442

1,009

774 217 Crescent City.
10,309 6,287 4,022 8,589 133

1,581 Placerville.
6,336 4,972 1,364 3,259 15 2,635

427

Millerton.
6,140
4,646 1,494
6,025

76

Eureka.
1,956 1,164 792 1,608 87 232 29 Independence,
2,925 2,157 768 2,193

585

143 Havilah.
1,674 783

891 1,069 2 61 542 Orleans Bar,
2,969 2,483 486

2,825 8

17 119 Lakeport.
1,327
1,178
149 1,309

11 Susanville.
15,309

10,984 4,325 14,720 134 219 236 Los Angeles,
6,903 3,761

3,142
6,394

22 126 361 San Rafael,
4,572
2,192 2,380 3,344

116 8 1,104 Mariposa.
7,545 6,146 1,399 6,865 9 542
2,807 2,196 611 2,548 37

186 Snelling.
430 305 125

42 Bridgeport
9,876
7,670
2,206 9,428

15 203 230 Monterey.
7,163 5,394 1 769 6,725 112 66 260 Napa City.
19,134 10,479 8,655 16,334 162

2,629 Nevada City.
11,357 6,167 5,190 8,850 99

2,407 Auburn,
4,489 2,414 2,075 3,571

5

901 Quincy.
26,830 16,228 10,602 22,725 479

129 Ukiah.

36

386

2

couro

2

3,598 Sacramento.
3,988
3,328 660
3.964 8

16 San Bernardino.
4 951 3,743 1,208

15 28 70 Sa!: Dicgo.
1 49,473 75,753 73,720 136,059 1,341 55 12,018 San Francisco.
21,050 14,824 6,226 19,192 230

1,628 Stockton.
4,772 3,833 939 4,567 9 137 59 San Luis Obispo,
6,635 3,497 3,138

6,099 10

519 Redwood City.
7,784 6,538

7,483 109 163 29 Santa Barbara.

4,838

1,246

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