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“160. ALL THAT DEPENDS ON ANO- “240. Single is each man botn shingle THER, GIVES PAIN; AND ALL THAT he dies ; fugle he receives the reward of DEPENDS ON HIMSELF, GIVES PLEA- his good, and single the punishment of his SURE ; let him know this to be, in evil deeds ; few words, the definition of pleasure and “ 241. When he leaves his borfelike pain."

log or a lump of clay on the ground, hiss The depth and solidity of reflection, kindred retire with averted taces ji bus contained in tbe concluding passage of his virtue accompanies bis those above cited, has never been surpaff- “242. Continually, therefore, - by de ed by any human law-giver, 'ancient grees, let him collect virtue, for the or modern.

take of securing an infeparable compaAdmire the pathetic humanity and nion; fince with virtue for bis guida, wildera of the fentences that follow : he will traverle a gloom, how hard to bet “238. Giving no pain to any creature, traverted !

1 ' , let him culleet virtue by degree's, for the " 243. A man, habitualis virtuous, fake of acquiring a companion to the whole offentes have been expiated by next world, as the white ant by degrees' devotion, is instantly conveyed after builds his nett;

death to the highet world, with a ra"239. For, in his palliage to the diant form and a body of coheredil fubd Dext world, neither his father, nor his dance."

AD mother,,nor his wife, nor his son, nor

(To be continúed.) um: 1 his kinhmen, will remain in his company: his virtue alone will adhere to

Wat him.

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A Mathematical and Philosophical Diâionary: containing an Explanation

of the Terms, and an Account of the leveral Subirêts, comprised in.der the Heada' Mathematics, Attronomy, anci Philosophy both Natural and Experimental with an Historical Account of the Rise, Progreis, and Present State of these 3tietices" alfo Menoirs of the Lives and Writings of the most eninent Authóts, both Ancient and Modern, who by their Discoveries or limprovements havecontributed to the Advancement of thuni. in Two Volumes. With m:iny Cùis mudo Copper plates. By Charles Hution; LL. D. FR. SS. of London and Eduburgh, and of the Philofophical Societies of Haarlem and America; and Profeffor of Mathematics in the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. 4to. Johnion and RcSintons.

: 08? 11.!! A MONG the Dictionaries of Åres and of the sciences, and of the lettera inten

Sciences which have been published tions in the arta, which will be found, of late year's, in various parts of Europe, particularly curious and gratifying to this as the learned Author justly obferves, it inquisitive mind. . Where the explication, is matter of surprise, that ghilelophy and of the subject would be retritarily difumathematics should have been lo far live, a reference is given to the best Au. overlooker as not to be worthy of a sepa- thors who have treated upon it profelratę treatie. With a view to accomplih fedly, thereby preventing the work from this objca, Dr. Hutton has now presented being too prolix, or swollen to an inconve. the Public with such a Lexicon, of a mo- nient bulk. Belides, such references canderate size and price, in which the conftis not but be exceedingly accepta6le, and, fuent parts and technical terms of philo. indeed, a stimulus to those who are ambifophy and mathematics, with the modern tious to furnish themselves with the discoveries and improvements in them, choiceft fcientitic books, under the fans are explained in a lucid and ample min. tion of fo celebrated a philosopher and der. The work is alphabetically inter.. mathemnatician as Dr. Hutton. In all perfed with interesting , memoirs of the cutes, where it could be conveniently Kives and characters of the most eminent done, the necellary diagrams are placed Ben, both ancient and modern, who have in the same page with the subjecis eluciUltinguished themselves in the cultivation dated, and whiere, they are of such a macam and improvement of the arts and 1ciences, türe as not capable to be otherwise repre; and their ieveral writings caumerated at fented, they are engraved on copperplates the end of each memoire Allo regular in an elegant and masterly Mile, A york historical details of the origin, progress, of this fort cannot easily be analyzed and prefent State, of the several branches bút, as a specimen of the manner in whịch


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á is executed, we shall promiscuously de ledge, and endued with various privileges tach a few articles, where the cuts or and antithorities. plates are not concerned. Indeed the “Their manner of electing members is subjects are multifarious and important; by ballotting ; and two-thirds of the to select would virtually be to present members prelent are necesary to carry the dll.

election in favour of the candidate. The “ROYAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND.-is council contists of 21 members, including in academy or body of persons, fuppofed to the president, vice-president, treasurer, be eminent for their learning, instituted and two fi cretaries ; ten of which go out by King Charles the Ild, for promoting annually, and ten new members are elected natural knowledge.

instead of thein, all choten on St. An." "This once iilustrious body originated drew's day. They had formerly allo from an affembly of ingenious men, rend two curators, whose business it was to ing in London, who, being inquisitive in. perform experiments before the Society, to natural knowledge, and the new and “ Each member, at his admission, fub, experimental philofophy, agreed, about scribes an engagement, that he will enthe year 7645, to meet weekly on a cer- deavour to promote the gocd of the Socitain day, to discourse upon such subjects. ety; from which he may be freed at any Thele meetings, it is said, were suggested tiine, by signifying to the president that by Mr. Theadore Haak, a native of the he defires to withdraw: Palatinate in Germany, and they were

“The charges are five guineas paid to held sometimes at Dr. Goddard's lodg- the treasurer at admission ; and one thil, ings in Wood-treet, sometimes at a con- ling per week, or $2$. per year, as long venient place in Cheapside, and sometimes as the perion continues a member ; or, in or near Gresham College. This ar- in lieu of the annual subscription, a com. fembly seems to be that mentioned under position of 25 guineas in one payment. the title of the Invisible, or Philosophical “The ordinary meetings of the Society College, by. Mr. Boyle, in some letters are once a week, from November till the written in 1646 and 1647. About the end of Trinity-terin the next fummer, years 1648 and 1649, the company which At first, the meeting was from three formed these meetings began to be divid- o'clock till fix afternoon. Afterwards, their ed, some of the gentlemen removing to meeting was from six to leven in the even. Oxford, as Dr. Wallis and Dr. Goddard, ing, to allow more time for dinner, which where, in conjunction with other gentle continued for a long ferics of years, till men, they held meetings allo, and brought the hour of meeting was removed, by the the study of natural and experimental prefent president, to between eight and philosophy into fashion there; meeting fine at night, that gentlemen of falhion, firft in Dr. Petty's lodgings, afterwards as was alledged, might have the oppor. at Dr. Wilkins's apartments in Wad. tunity of coming to attend the meetings ham College, and, upon his

removal, in after dinner. the lodgings of Mr. Robert Boyle; while “Their design is to make faithful re. those Gentlemen who remained in London cords of all the works of nature or art, continued their meetings as before. The which come within their reach; fo greater part of the Oxford Society com- that the present, as well as after ages ing to London about the year 1659, they may be enabled to put a mark on errors met once or twice a week in Term-time which have been Itrengthened by long at Gresham College, till they were dil- prescription ; to rettore truths that have perfed by the public distractions of that been long neglected ; to push those alreayear, and the place of their meeting was dy known to more various uses ; to make made a quarter for foldiers. Upon the the way more palable to what remains Restoration, in 1660, their incetings were ynrevealed, &c." revived, and attended by many gentle. “To this purpose they have made a men, eminent for their character and great number of experiments and obserlearning.

Yations on most of the works of nature; « They were at length noticed by the as eclipses, comets, planets, meteors, government, and the king granted them mines, plants, earthquakes, inundations, á tharter, first the 15th of July 1662, Springs, damps, fires, tides, currents, the then a more ample one the 22d of April magnet, &c.; their motto being Nullius 1663,

and thirdly the 8th of April 1669; in Verba. They have registered experi- : by which they were erected into a corpo, ments,

Si histories, relations, oblervations, ruion, confiling of a president, councit

, &c. and reduced th, m into one common and fellchus for

promoting natural know. ftock. They have, from tipie, to time Voz: XXX. OCT. 1796.)



püb. published some of the most useful of these, ments of Time-keepers: As Amold, under the title of Philosophical Transac Mudge, &c. tions, &c. usually one volume each year, “ This appellation is now become com. which were, till lately; very respectable, mon among artists, to diftinguich fuch both for the extent or magnitude of them, watches as are made with extraordinary and for the excellent quality of their con- care and accuracy for nautical or aftrönd. fents. The reft, that are not printed, mical observations. they lay up in their registers.

The principles of Mr. Harrison's They have a good library of books, Time-keeper, as they were communicated which has been formed, and continually by himself, to the commissioners appoint: augmenting, by numerous donations. ed to receive and publifh the fame in the They had also a museum of curiofities in year 1765, are as below : nature, kept in one of the rooms of their “ In this Time-keeper there is the own house in Crane Court Fleet-street, greatett care taken to avoid friction, as where they held their meetings, with the much as can be, by the wheel moving greatest reputation, for many years, keep- on small pivots, and in ruby-holes, and ing registers of the weather, and making high numbers in the wheels and piother experiments; for all which purposes nions. those apartments were well adapted. But, “ The part which measures time goes disposing of these apartments, in order to but the’eiglith part of a minute without remoye into those allotted them in Somerset winding up; so that part is very simple, Place, where, having neither room nór as this winding-up is performed at the convenience for such purposes, the mu- wheel next to the balance-wheel ; by leum was obliged to be disposed of, and which means there is always an equal their useful meteorological registers dif- force acting at that wheel, and all the continued for many years.

rest of the work has no inore to do in the f“Sir Godfrey Copley, Bart. left five measuring of time than the person that guineas to be given annually to the person winds up once a day: who should write the best paper in the "There is a spring in the infide' of the year, under the head of Experimental Phi. fufce, which I will call a fecondary main lo.cphy : this reward, which is now fpring. This spring is always kept change to a gold medal, is the highest Rretched to a certain tenfion by the main honour the Society can bestow'; and it spring; and during the time of winding. is conferred on St. Andrew's day: but up the Time-keeper, at which time the the communications of late' years have main-spring is not suffered to act, this been thought of fa little importance, that secondary-Ipring supplies its place. the prize medal remains iometimes for “ In common watches in general-the years undisposed of.

wheels have about one-third the dominion ::"Indeed this once very re!pe&table Soçi- over the balance, that the balance-fpring ety, now consisting of a great proportion has; that is if the power which the balance.

of honorary mnenbers, who do not usually spring has over the balance be called communicate papers ; and many fcienti three, that from the wheel is one = but in fic members being discouraged from mak- this my Tinie-keeper, the wheels

' have ing their usual communications, by what only about one-eightieth part of the pow: is deemed the present arbitrary

, govern- er over the balance that the balance-tpring ment of the Scciety; the annual volumes has; and it must be allowed, the less have in consequence become of much less the wheels have to do with the ba! importance, both

in respect of their bulk lance, the better. - The wheels in a conand the quality of their contents." mon watch having this great dominion

'Over the balance, they can, when the TIME-KEEPERS-in a general sense, watch is wound up, and the balance at denete instruments adapted for measuring reft, fet the watch 2-going ; but when tine.

my Time-keeper's balance is at rest, and “ In a more peculiar and definite fense, the spring is wound up, the force of the Time-keeper is a term firft applied by wheels can no more set it a-going, thin Mr John Harrison to his watches, con the wheels of a common ' regulator cən, fructed and used for determining the lon. When the weight is wound up, let the pena gitude at fea; and for which he received, dalúm a vibrating ; nor will the force at different times, the parliamentary re- from the wheels move the balance when wird d twenty thousand sounds. And at reft, to a greater angle in proportion Leveral other arists' have fince received to the vibration that it is to fetch, than plio conlidérable fums for their improve the force of the wheels of a common rega.

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látor can move the pendulum from the per- first spring eight times in every ininute, pendicular, when it is at rekt.

and which is itself wound


but once ** My Time-keeper's balance is more a day. To remedy the second defect, he than thres times the weight of a large. uses a much stronger balance-spring than sized common watch balance, and three in a common watch. For if the force of times its diaineter ; and a common watch this spring upon the balance remains thắ balance goes through about fix inches of fame, whilst the force of the other varies, Space in a second, but mine goes through the errors arising froin that variation will about twenty-four inches in that time : be the less, as the fixed force is the greater. so shat had my Time-keeper only these But a Itronger spring will require either a advantages over a common watch, a good heavier or a larger, balance. A heavier bana performance might be expected from it. lance would have a greater friion. Mr. But my Time-keeper is not affe&ted by Harrison, therefore, increases the diametet the different degrees of heat and cold, not of it. In a common watch it is under an agitation of the ship, and the force from inch, but in Mr. Harrison's two inches the wheels is applied to the balance in and two-tenths. However, the methods such a manner, together with the shape of already described only lessening the errors, the balance-Spring, and (if

I may be al- and not removing them, Mr. Harrison lowed the term) an artificial cycloid, uses two ways to make the times of the which acts at this spring; fo that from vibrations equal, though the arches may these.contrivances, let the balance vibrate be unequal: one is to place a pin, so that more or leis, all its vibrations are per: the balance-spring pressing against it,'has forned in the same time; and therefore its force inereased, but increased less when if it go at all, it muit go true. So that the variations are larger: the other to it is plain from this, that such a Time. give the pallets such a shape, that the keeper goes entirely from principle, and wheels press them with less advancage, not from chance."

when the vibrations are larger. To rex “We mut refer those who may desire medy the last defect, Mr. Harrison uses a to see a ininute account of the construction bar compounded of two thini plates of of Ms. Harrison's Time-keeper, to the brass and steel, about two inches in length, publication by order of the Commissioners riveted in several places together, faftened of Longitude..

at one end and having tôc pins at the “ We thall here subjoin a short view of other, between which the balance-spring the improvements in Mr. Harrison's passes. If this bar be straight in tempe watch, from the account presented to the rate weather (brass changing its length Board of Longitude by Mr. Ludlam, by heat more than steel) the brals lide one of the gentlemen to whom, by order becomes convex when it is heated, and of the Conmissioners, Mr. Harrison dif- the steel side when it is cold ; and thus covered and explained the principle upon the pins lay hold of a different part of the which his Time-keeper is conitructed. spring in different degrees of heat, and

The defects in common watches which lengthen or forten it as the regulator does Mr. Harrison proposes to remedy, are in a common watchi chiefly these : 1. That the main (pring “ The principles on which Mr. aas not constantly with the same force Arnold's Tine-keeper is constructed, upon the wheels, and through them upon are these :

The balance is uncon the balance : 2. That the balance, either nected with the wheel work, except urged with an unequal force, or, meeting at the time it receives the impulse to with a different refiitance from the air, or make it continue its motion, which is the oil, or the fri&tion, vibrates through only, whilst it vibrates . 10° out of 3800 a greater or leis arch: 3. That these unes which is the whole vibration ;-and during qual vibrations are not performed in this small interval it has little or no frie equal times : and, 4. That the force of tion, but what is on the pivots, which the balance-spring is altered by a change work in ruby holes on diainonds. It has of heat.

but one pallet, which is a plain surface “ To remedy the first defe&t, Mr. Har: formed out of a ruby, and has no oil os rifon has contrived that his watch shall it. Watches of this construction, lay's be moved by a very tender spring, which Mr. Lyons, go while they are wound ups never unrolis itself more than one-eighth they keep the same rate of going in every part of a gush, and afis upon the balance position, and are not affected by the through one wheel only. But such a different forces of the spring, and the {pring cannot keep the watch in motion compensation for best and cold in abfas long time. He has, therefore, joined lucely adjustable, another, whole office is to wind up the



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"AUTOMATON, a seeminglý féif-mov. of the Mathematical and Philosophical means of weights, levers, pullies, Springs, Automaton, the following * But all &c. ** *5 move for a confiderable in

time, thefe seem to be inferior to M. Kempell's as if it were endued with animal life: chels-player, which may truly be conce And

according to this defcription, clocks, dered as the greatest master-piece in me. n watches, and all machines of that kind, chanies that ever appeared in the world;" art autoinata.

(upon which Mr. Collinfos obferves) zo ant is said, that Archytas ofTarentum, "So it certainly would have been; had 400 years before Chrift, made a wooden its scientific movements depended merely pigeon that could fy ; that Archimedes on mechanism.

sa sed alio made fuch-like automatons ; that “ Being flightly acquainted with Me

Regiomontanus made a wooden eagle that Kempell when he exhibited his chefs. 7 few forth from the city, met the Empe- playing figure in London, I called on

ror, faluted him, and returned ; also that him about five years fince at his house he made an iron fly, which flew out of at Vienna 3 another gentleman and me.

his hand at a feast, and returned again self being then on a tour on the centi1-after-fying about the room, that Dr. nent. The Baron (for I think he is • Hook made the model of a flying chariot, fuch) Thewed me fome working models ! capable of supporting itfelt in the air. which he had lately made among them, Many other surprising automatens we have an improvement on Arkwright's cotton

. boen eye witnesses of, in the present age : mill, and also one which he thought an

thus, we have feen figures that could improvement Ion Boulton and Watt's 3. write, and perform many other actions in latt ftesm-engine. I alked him after a

imitation of animals. M. Vaucanfon piece of speaking mechanifm, which he made a figure that played on the fute : had Mewn me when in London. It spoke the fame gentleman also made a duck, zs before, and I gave the fame word as which was capable of earing, drinking, I gave when I first faw it, Exploitation, and imitating exactly the voice of a na. which it distinctly pronounced with the tural one ; and, what is till more fur. French accent. But I particularly noposifing, the food it fwallowed was evacu- ticed, that not a word påffed about the atod in a digested ftate, or considerably chefs-player; and of courf did not altered on the principles of solution; allo alk to see it. In the progress of the tour the wings, vilcera, and bones were formed I came to Dresden, where becoming ac. fo as strongly to resemble those of a living quainted with Mr. Eden; our envoy triere; duck ; and the actions of eating and by means of a letter given me fiy his brodrinking thewed the strongest resemblance, therLord Auckland, who was Ambithidor even to the muddling the water with its when I was at Madrid, heobligingly accom. bill. M. Le Droz of la Chaux de Fonds, panied mein feeing feveral things worthy of in the province of Neufchatel, has alto attention. And he introduced myeomps. executed fome very curious pieces of me- nion and myself to a gentleman of rank aná chanilin; one was a clock, prelented to talents, nained Joseph Freidrick Freykere, the King of Spain; which had, among who seems completely to have discovered other curiosities, a sheep that imitated the the Vitality and foul of the ehefs-slaying bleating of a nutural one, and a dog figure. This gentleman courteously pre. watching a basket of fruit, that barked fented me with the treatise he had puband it away ; belides a variety of human fi explaining its principles, accompanied * wway. When any one offered to take lilhed, dated at Dresden, Sept. -30, 1789, gures, exhibiting motionis truly furpri- with curious plates neatly coloured. This img, But all these seem to be inferior treatile is in the German language; and

to it. Kempell's chess-player, which I hope soon to get a tranAation of it. ***inay truly be conádered as the greatest A well-taught boy, very thin and small

matter-piece in mechanics that ever ap- of his age (qufficiently so that he could peared in the world.

be concealed in a drawer almost immedi. EcTo the foregoing obfervations may ately under the chess-board), agitated be added the following curious particu. the whole. Even after this abatonnect of Bu bars, extracted from a letter of an inge- its being strictly an autoinaton, much in

nious gentleman Thomas Collinton, Flq. genuity remains to the contriver. This wpkiew of the late ingenious Peter Cola dilcoytry at Dresden accounts for the fi

linfon, Efq.F.R.S. « Turning over the lence about it at Vietina; for Lundertand, 51: Jeayer of your late valuable publication by Vr. Eden, that Mr. Freyhere had lene

(langs my worthy correspondents part 1 2 COPY to, Bacon Kempelhenstogh he

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